Biomass is plant or animal material used for energy production, or in various industrial processes as raw substance for a range of products. It can be purposely grown energy crops, wood or forest residues, waste from food crops, food processing, animal farming, or human waste from sewage plants. Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO2 back into new crops. In some cases, this recycling of CO2 from plants to atmosphere and back into plants can be CO2 negative, as a large portion of the CO2 is moved to the soil during each cycle. Cofiring with biomass has increased in coal power plants, because it makes it possible to release less CO2 without the cost associated with building new infrastructure. Co-firing is not without issues however an upgrade of the biomass is most beneficial. Upgrading to higher grade fuels can be achieved by different methods, broadly classified as thermal, chemical, or biochemical.
Humans have harnessed biomass-derived energy since the time when people began burning wood fuel. In 2019, biomass is the only source of fuel for domestic use in many developing countries. All biomass is biologically-produced matter based in carbon and oxygen; the estimated biomass production in the world is 100 billion metric tons of carbon per year, about half in the ocean and half on land. Wood and residues from wood, for instance spruce, eucalyptus, oil palm, remains the largest biomass energy source today, it is processed into pellet fuel or other forms of fuels. Biomass includes plant or animal matter that can be converted into fuel, fibers or industrial chemicals. There are numerous types of plants, including corn, miscanthus, sorghum and bamboo; the main waste energy feedstocks are wood waste, agricultural waste, municipal solid waste, manufacturing waste, landfill gas. Sewage sludge is another source of biomass. There is ongoing research involving algae-derived biomass. Other biomass feedstocks are enzymes or bacteria from various sources, grown in cell cultures or hydroponics.
Based on the source of biomass, biofuels are classified broadly into two major categories: First-generation biofuels are derived from food sources, such as sugarcane and corn starch. Sugars present in this biomass are fermented to produce bioethanol, an alcohol fuel which serve as an additive to gasoline, or in a fuel cell to produce electricity. Second-generation biofuels utilize non-food-based biomass sources such as perennial energy crops, agricultural/municipal waste. There is huge potential for second generation biofuels but the resources are under-utilized. Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to upgrade biomass into a better and more practical fuel; the basic alternatives are torrefaction and gasification, these are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed. There are other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits, such as hydrothermal upgrading; some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, allow them to be converted into more convenient forms.
A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel, more practical to store and use, or to exploit some property of the process itself. Many of these processes are based in large part on similar coal-based processes, such as the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Biomass can be converted into multiple commodity chemicals; as biomass is a natural material, many efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed. In most cases, microorganisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion and composting. Glycoside hydrolases are the enzymes involved in the degradation of the major fraction of biomass, such as polysaccharides present in starch and lignocellulose. Thermostable variants are gaining increasing roles as catalysts in biorefining applications, since recalcitrant biomass needs thermal treatment for more efficient degradation.
Biomass can be directly converted to electrical energy via electrochemical oxidation of the material. This can be performed directly in a direct carbon fuel cell, direct liquid fuel cells such as direct ethanol fuel cell, a direct methanol fuel cell, a direct formic acid fuel cell, a L-ascorbic Acid Fuel Cell, a microbial fuel cell; the fuel can be consumed indirectly via a fuel cell system containing a reformer which converts the biomass into a mixture of CO and H2 before it is consumed in the fuel cell. On combustion, the carbon from biomass is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide. After a period of time ranging from a few months to decades, the CO2 produced from combustion is absorbed from the atmosphere by plants or trees. However, the carbon storage capacity of forests may be reduced overall if destructive forestry techniques are employed. All biomass crops sequester carbon. For example, soil organic carbon has been observed to be greater below switchgrass crops than under cultivated cropland at depths below 30 cm.
For Miscanthus x giganteus, McCalmont et al
Dillon Guy is a Canadian football offensive lineman, a free agent. He played college football at the University at Buffalo and attended Waterdown District High School in Waterdown, Ontario. Guy was drafted with the 30th overall pick in the 2016 CFL Draft by the BC Lions. After being cut by the Lions prior to the start of the 2016 CFL season, Guy spent the 2016, 2017, part of the 2018 seasons on the practice squads of the Saskatchewan Roughriders, Calgary Stampeders, Ottawa Redblacks. On October 18, 2018, Guy was signed by the Montreal Alouettes, on October 20, 2018, Guy made his CFL debut against the Toronto Argonauts. CFL profile Buffalo Bulls bio
The Lara House is a historic house located in Las Piñas, Metro Manila, Philippines. Built in the 1880s, the house was the first municipal hall of Las Piñas where its first mayor, Juan Tiongkiao, held office from 1905 to 1913. Along with its growth, the seat of power of Las Piñas continued to adapt with several changes as well. Don Calixto Lara, who used to own salt beds and lands, his wife Andeng Velasquez were the original owners of the house. Don Calixto Lara was one of the 95 men that gathered and assembled for the Act of Philippine Declaration of Independence, signed by the War Counsellor and Special Delegate-Designate, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista. Don Calixto together with his brothers Pedro and Bernardo Lara have worked on the famous Las Pinas Bamboo Organ for repairsFrancesca Lara, daughter of Calixto Lara, was only 16 years old when the house was built, her brothers, Cirpriano Lara, has lineage to Charlene Gonzales while Elioterio Lara worked as clerk in Cuartel Master located in Intramuros, Manila.
Her husband was Graciano Santos. They were the grandparents of the current owner. Trinidad Santos, daughter of Graciano Santos, was born on June 1, 1903, her husband was Agrifino Trajano from Pasay. They were the parents of the current owner. Laura Trajano, born on June 30, 1931, was the current occupant of the ancestral house. After serving its function at the Lara House, the administration was transferred into the former municipal library of the poblacion located at Daniel Fajardo, it was converted into Las Piñas Emergency Hospital. The Las Piñas Emergency Hospital was established in 1977, it formally began as an Out-Patient Clinic. In 1984, former Mayor Filemon Aguilar upgraded the facility into the Las Piñas District Hospital by moving at another site, presently located in Bernabe Compound, Pulanglupa in 1988. From 25-bed capacity, the Las Piñas District Hospital could accommodate 50-bed capacity. In response to the needs of the rising population growth rate, Republic Act No. 9240, whose principal sponsor was Representative Cynthia Villar was approved on February 10, 2004.
The Act provided for the increase in bed capacity of the Las Piñas District Hospital from fifty to two hundred beds. The 400% increase in bed capacity would be implemented over a three year period. At present, the seat of administration of Las Piñas is located at the Las Piñas City Hall located along Alabang–Zapote Road, it was constructed during the second term of Mayor Nene Aguilar. The Lara House is a Lintel Type of construction. Wood posts were located at the ground floor - reaching up to the second floor, it reflects Second Transition Post-1860s Bahay na Bato Quadrant Style. With its predecessor, the First Transition Pre-1860s, the said style integrated galvanized roofing with thick gauge, second floor made of wood, ground floor made of adobe stone, it is a single detached structure with an L-configuration plan. One of its unique architectural features was its three-paneled wooden door located at the second floor; the ground floor served as silong – laid with concrete flooring. Glass jalousies, steel bars, grill doors were located.
The termination of full-height adobe walls was adorned with round-edge cornice. The second floor, which catered residential uses before, was laid with wide wood planks. Wooden door panels, sliding capiz shell windows and persianas were located; some decorative elements at the second floor includes wood beveling, capsule-shaped design in the center panels, diagonal lattice espejo, pilasters with moldings. At present, the ground floor of the Lara House was utilized into a mixed use - residential occupancy and a barber shop. A grilled gate replaced the front door; the other parts of the house were disintegrated. Additional works were conducted such as overlaying of concrete hollow blocks and cement finishes. Several tarpaulins were posted within the front facade of the house. Electrical wiring, accumulation of black deposits, nearby vegetation present problems as well