Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, or it can be embedded in machines to allow for operation without detailed knowledge of their workings. Systems applying technology by taking an input, changing it according to the system's use, producing an outcome are referred to as technology systems or technological systems; the simplest form of technology is the use of basic tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food, the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact on a global scale. Technology has many effects, it has allowed the rise of a leisure class.
Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earth's environment. Innovations have always influenced the values of a society and raised new questions in the ethics of technology. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, similar reactionary movements criticize the pervasiveness of technology, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; the use of the term "technology" has changed over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, it was used either to refer to the description or study of the useful arts or to allude to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution.
The term's meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie, absent in English, which translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not only to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves. In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, utensils, instruments, clothing and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's definition remains common among scholars today social scientists. Scientists and engineers prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use. More scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.
Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, etc. to invent useful things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, etc., created by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole. Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life," and as "organized inorganic matter."Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems, it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.
Tools and machines need not be material. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as "a means to fulfill a human purpose."The word "technology" can be used to refer to a collection of techniques. In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; when combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology," it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that changes culture. Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, an
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either or artificially. In nature, many organisms produce clones through asexual reproduction. Cloning in biotechnology refers to the process of creating clones of organisms or copies of cells or DNA fragments. Beyond biology, the term refers to the production of multiple copies of digital media or software; the term clone, invented by J. B. S. Haldane, is derived from the Ancient Greek word κλών klōn, "twig", referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig. In botany, the term lusus was traditionally used. In horticulture, the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century. Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively. Cloning is a natural form of reproduction that has allowed life forms to spread for hundreds of millions of years, it is the reproduction method used by plants and bacteria, is the way that clonal colonies reproduce themselves.
Examples of these organisms include blueberry plants, hazel trees, the Pando trees, the Kentucky coffeetree and the American sweetgum. Molecular cloning refers to the process of making multiple molecules. Cloning is used to amplify DNA fragments containing whole genes, but it can be used to amplify any DNA sequence such as promoters, non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA, it is used in a wide array of biological experiments and practical applications ranging from genetic fingerprinting to large scale protein production. The term cloning is misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the chromosomal location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest, such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to a chromosome or genomic region does not enable one to isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence. To amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism, that sequence must be linked to an origin of replication, a sequence of DNA capable of directing the propagation of itself and any linked sequence.
However, a number of other features are needed, a variety of specialised cloning vectors exist that allow protein production, affinity tagging, single stranded RNA or DNA production and a host of other molecular biology tools. Cloning of any DNA fragment involves four steps fragmentation - breaking apart a strand of DNA ligation - gluing together pieces of DNA in a desired sequence transfection – inserting the newly formed pieces of DNA into cells screening/selection – selecting out the cells that were transfected with the new DNAAlthough these steps are invariable among cloning procedures a number of alternative routes can be selected; the DNA of interest needs to be isolated to provide a DNA segment of suitable size. Subsequently, a ligation procedure is used; the vector is linearised using restriction enzymes, incubated with the fragment of interest under appropriate conditions with an enzyme called DNA ligase. Following ligation the vector with the insert of interest is transfected into cells.
A number of alternative techniques are available, such as chemical sensitivation of cells, optical injection and biolistics. The transfected cells are cultured; as the aforementioned procedures are of low efficiency, there is a need to identify the cells that have been transfected with the vector construct containing the desired insertion sequence in the required orientation. Modern cloning vectors include selectable antibiotic resistance markers, which allow only cells in which the vector has been transfected, to grow. Additionally, the cloning vectors may contain colour selection markers, which provide blue/white screening on X-gal medium; these selection steps do not guarantee that the DNA insert is present in the cells obtained. Further investigation of the resulting colonies must be required to confirm that cloning was successful; this may be accomplished by means of PCR, restriction fragment analysis and/or DNA sequencing. Cloning a cell means to derive a population of cells from a single cell.
In the case of unicellular organisms such as bacteria and yeast, this process is remarkably simple and only requires the inoculation of the appropriate medium. However, in the case of cell cultures from multi-cellular organisms, cell cloning is an arduous task as these cells will not grow in standard media. A useful tissue culture technique used to clone distinct lineages of cell lines involves the use of cloning rings. In this technique a single-cell suspension of cells that have been exposed to a mutagenic agent or drug used to drive selection is plated at high dilution to create isolated colonies, each arising from a single and clonal distinct cell. At an early growth stage when colonies consist of only a few cells, sterile polystyrene rings, which have been dipped in grease, are placed over an individual colony and a small amount of trypsin is added. Cloned cells are transferred to a new vessel for further growth. Somatic-cell nuclear transfer, known as SCNT, can be used to create embryos for research or therapeutic purposes.
The most purpose for this is to produce embryos for use in stem cell research. This process is called "research cloning" or "therapeutic clonin
Biomedical research encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research", – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a preclinical understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials. Within this spectrum is applied research, or translational research, conducted to expand knowledge in the field of medicine. Both clinical and preclinical research phases exist in the pharmaceutical industry's drug development pipelines, where the clinical phase is denoted by the term clinical trial. However, only part of the clinical or preclinical research is oriented towards a specific pharmaceutical purpose; the need for fundamental and mechanism-based understanding, medical devices, non-pharmaceutical therapies means that pharmaceutical research is only a small part of medical research. The increased longevity of humans over the past century can be attributed to advances resulting from medical research. Among the major benefits of medical research have been vaccines for measles and polio, insulin treatment for diabetes, classes of antibiotics for treating a host of maladies, medication for high blood pressure, improved treatments for AIDS, statins and other treatments for atherosclerosis, new surgical techniques such as microsurgery, successful treatments for cancer.
New, beneficial tests and treatments are expected as a result of the Human Genome Project. Many challenges remain, including the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the obesity epidemic. Most of the research in the field is pursued by biomedical scientists, but significant contributions are made by other type of biologists. Medical research on humans, has to follow the medical ethics sanctioned in the Declaration of Helsinki and hospital review board where the research is conducted. In all cases, research ethics are expected. Example areas in basic medical research include cellular and molecular biology, medical genetics, immunology and psychology. Researchers in universities or government-funded research institutes, aim to establish an understanding of the cellular and physiological mechanisms of human health and disease. Preclinical research covers understanding of mechanisms that may lead to clinical research with people; the work requires no ethical approval, is supervised by scientists rather than physicians, is carried out in a university or company, rather than a hospital.
Clinical research is carried out with people as the experimental subjects. It is supervised by physicians and conducted by nurses in a medical setting, such as a hospital or research clinic, requires ethical approval. Research funding in many countries derives from research bodies and private organizations which distribute money for equipment and research expenses. In the United Kingdom, funding bodies such as the Medical Research Council derive their assets from UK tax payers, distribute revenues to institutions by competitive research grants; the Wellcome Trust is the UK's largest non-governmental source of funds for biomedical research and provides over £600 million per year in grants to scientists and funds for research centres. In the United States, data from ongoing surveys by the National Science Foundation show that federal agencies provided only 44% of the $86 billion spent on basic research in 2015; the National Institutes of Health and pharmaceutical companies collectively contribute $26.4 billion and $27 billion, which constitute 28% and 29% of the total, respectively.
Other significant contributors include biotechnology companies, medical device companies, other federal sources, state and local governments. Foundations and charities, led by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, contributed about 3% of the funding; these funders are attempting to maximize their return on investment in public health. One method proposed to maximize the return on investment in medicine is to fund the development of open source hardware for medical research and treatment; the enactment of orphan drug legislation in some countries has increased funding available to develop drugs meant to treat rare conditions, resulting in breakthroughs that were uneconomical to pursue. Since the establishment of the National Institutes of Health in the mid-1940s, the main source of U. S. federal support of biomedical research, investment priorities and levels of funding have fluctuated. From 1995 to 2010, NIH support of biomedical research increased from 11 billion to 27 billion Despite the jump in federal spending, advancements measured by citations to publications and the number of drugs passed by the FDA remained stagnant over the same time span.
Financial projections indicate. The National Institutes of Health is the agency, responsible for management of the lion's share of federal funding of biomedical research, it funds over 280 areas directly related to health. Over the past century there were two notable periods of NIH support. From 1995 to 1996 funding increased from $8.877 billion to $9.366 billion, years which represented the start of what is considered the "doubling period" of rapid NIH support. The second notable period started in 1997 and ended in 2010, a period where the NIH moved to organize research spending for engagement with the scientific community. Since 1980 the share of biomedical research funding from industry sources has grown from 32% to 62%, which has resulted in the development of numerous life-saving medical advances; the relationship between industry and government-funded research in the US has
Somatic cell nuclear transfer
In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. The technique consists of taking an enucleated oocyte and implanting a donor nucleus from a somatic cell, it is used in both reproductive cloning. Dolly the Sheep became famous for being the first successful case of the reproductive cloning of a mammal. In January 2018, a team of scientists in Shanghai announced the successful cloning of two female crab-eating macaques from fetal nuclei. "Therapeutic cloning" refers to the potential use of SCNT in regenerative medicine. Somatic cell nuclear transfer is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg; when this is done, the cytoplasmic factors affect the nucleus to become a zygote. The blastocyst stage is developed by the egg which helps to create embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst; the first animal, developed by this technique was Dolly, the sheep, in 1996.
The process of somatic cell nuclear transplant involves two different cells. The first being a female gamete, known as the ovum. In human SCNT experiments, these eggs are obtained through consenting donors, utilizing ovarian stimulation; the second being a somatic cell, referring to the cells of the human body. Skin cells, fat cells, liver cells are only a few examples; the nucleus of the donor egg cell is removed and discarded, leaving it'deprogrammed.' What is left is a somatic cell and an denucleated egg cell. These are fused by inserting the somatic cell into the'empty' ovum. After being inserted into the egg, the somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by its host egg cell; the ovum, now containing the somatic cell's nucleus, is stimulated with a shock and will begin to divide. The egg is now viable and capable of producing an adult organism containing all the necessary genetic information from just one parent. Development will ensue and after many mitotic divisions, this single cell forms a blastocyst with an identical genome to the original organism.
Stem cells can be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. Somatic cell nuclear transplantation has become a focus of study in stem cell research; the aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. These cells genetically matched the donor organism from; this gives them the ability to create patient specific pluripotent cells, which could be used in therapies or disease research. Embryonic stem; these cells are deemed to have a pluripotent potential because they have the ability to give rise to all of the tissues found in an adult organism. This ability allows stem cells to create any cell type, which could be transplanted to replace damaged or destroyed cells. Controversy surrounds human ESC work due to the destruction of viable human embryos. Leading scientists to seek an alternative method of obtaining stem cells, SCNT is one such method.
A potential use of stem cells genetically matched to a patient would be to create cell lines that have genes linked to a patient's particular disease. By doing so, an in vitro model could be created, would be useful for studying that particular disease discovering its pathophysiology, discovering therapies. For example, if a person with Parkinson's disease donated his or her somatic cells, the stem cells resulting from SCNT would have genes that contribute to Parkinson's disease; the disease specific stem cell lines could be studied in order to better understand the condition. Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or organs for transplant into the specific patient; the resulting cells would be genetically identical to the somatic cell donor, thus avoiding any complications from immune system rejection. Only a handful of the labs in the world are using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University and Advanced Cell Technology are researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells.
In the United Kingdom, the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority has granted permission to research groups at the Roslin Institute and the Newcastle Centre for Life. SCNT may be occurring in China. In 2005, a South Korean research team led by Professor Hwang Woo-suk, published claims to have derived stem cell lines via SCNT, but supported those claims with fabricated data. Recent evidence has proved. Though there has been numerous successes with cloning animals, questions remain concerning the mechanisms of reprogramming in the ovum. Despite many attempts, success in creating human nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells has been limited. There lies a problem in the human cell's ability to form a blastocyst; this is thought to be a result from the somatic cell nucleus being unable to tur
Biomedical sciences are a set of applied sciences applying portions of natural science or formal science, or both, to knowledge, interventions, or technology that are of use in healthcare or public health. Such disciplines as medical microbiology, clinical virology, clinical epidemiology, genetic epidemiology, biomedical engineering are medical sciences. In explaining physiological mechanisms operating in pathological processes, pathophysiology can be regarded as basic science. Biomedical Sciences, as defined by the UK Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education Benchmark Statement in 2015 includes those science disciplines whose primary focus is the biology of human health and disease and ranges from the generic study of biomedical sciences and human biology to more specialised subject areas such as pharmacology, human physiology and human nutrition, it is underpinned by relevant basic sciences including anatomy and physiology, cell biology, microbiology and molecular biology, immunology and statistics, bioinformatics.
As such the biomedical sciences have a much wider range of academic and research activities and economic significance than that defined by hospital laboratory sciences. Biomedical Sciences are the major focus of bioscience funding in the 21st century. A sub-set of biomedical sciences is the science of clinical laboratory diagnosis; this is referred to in the UK as'biomedical science' or'healthcare science'. There are at least 45 different specialisms within healthcare science, which are traditionally grouped into three main divisions: specialisms involving life sciences specialisms involving physiological science specialisms involving medical physics or bioengineering The healthcare science workforce is an important part of the UK's National Health Service. While people working in healthcare science are only 5% of the staff of the NHS, 80% of all diagnoses can be attributed to their work; the volume of specialist healthcare science work is a significant part of the work of the NHS. Every year, NHS healthcare scientists carry out: nearly 1 billion pathology laboratory tests more than 12 million physiological tests support for 1.5 million fractions of radiotherapyThe four governments of the UK have recognised the importance of healthcare science to the NHS, introducing the Modernising Scientific Careers initiative to make certain that the education and training for healthcare scientists ensures there is the flexibility to meet patient needs while keeping up to date with scientific developments.
What is Healthcare Science: NHS Careers Extraordinary You: Case studies of Healthcare scientists in the UK's National Health Service National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences The US National Library of Medicine Health Science Researchers and Discussions Healthcare Reviews
Biomedical Engineering or Medical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis and therapy. Included under the scope of a biomedical engineer is the management of current medical equipment within hospitals while adhering to relevant industry standards; this involves equipment recommendations, routine testing and preventative maintenance, through to decommissioning and disposal. This role is known as a Biomedical Equipment Technician or clinical engineering. Biomedical engineering has emerged as its own study, as compared to many other engineering fields; such an evolution is common as a new field transition from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself.
Much of the work in biomedical engineering consists of research and development, spanning a broad array of subfields. Prominent biomedical engineering applications include the development of biocompatible prostheses, various diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices ranging from clinical equipment to micro-implants, common imaging equipment such as MRIs and EKG/ECGs, regenerative tissue growth, pharmaceutical drugs and therapeutic biologicals. Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that develops methods and software tools for understanding biological data; as an interdisciplinary field of science, bioinformatics combines computer science, statistics and engineering to analyze and interpret biological data. Bioinformatics is considered both an umbrella term for the body of biological studies that use computer programming as part of their methodology, as well as a reference to specific analysis "pipelines" that are used in the field of genomics. Common uses of bioinformatics include the identification of candidate nucleotides.
Such identification is made with the aim of better understanding the genetic basis of disease, unique adaptations, desirable properties, or differences between populations. In a less formal way, bioinformatics tries to understand the organisational principles within nucleic acid and protein sequences. Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of the mechanical aspects of biological systems, at any level from whole organisms to organs and cell organelles, using the methods of mechanics. A biomaterial is any surface, or construct that interacts with living systems; as a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering, it has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science. Biomedical optics refers to the interaction of biological tissue and light, how this can be exploited for sensing and treatment.
Tissue engineering, like genetic engineering, is a major segment of biotechnology – which overlaps with BME. One of the goals of tissue engineering is to create artificial organs for patients that need organ transplants. Biomedical engineers are researching methods of creating such organs. Researchers have grown solid tracheas from human stem cells towards this end. Several artificial urinary bladders have been grown in laboratories and transplanted into human patients. Bioartificial organs, which use both synthetic and biological component, are a focus area in research, such as with hepatic assist devices that use liver cells within an artificial bioreactor construct. Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology, genetic modification/manipulation and gene splicing are terms that apply to the direct manipulation of an organism's genes. Unlike traditional breeding, an indirect method of genetic manipulation, genetic engineering utilizes modern tools such as molecular cloning and transformation to directly alter the structure and characteristics of target genes.
Genetic engineering techniques have found success in numerous applications. Some examples include the improvement of crop technology, the manufacture of synthetic human insulin through the use of modified bacteria, the manufacture of erythropoietin in hamster ovary cells, the production of new types of experimental mice such as the oncomouse for research. Neural engineering is a discipline that uses engineering techniques to understand, replace, or enhance neural systems. Neural engineers are uniquely qualified to solve design problems at the interface of living neural tissue and non-living constructs. Pharmaceutical engineering is an interdisciplinary science that includes drug engineering, novel drug delivery and targeting, pharmaceutical technology, unit operations of Chemical Engineering, Pharmaceutical Analysis, it may be deemed as a part of pharmacy due to its focus on the use of technology on chemical agents in providing better medicinal treatment. This is an broad category—essentially covering all health care products that do not achieve their intended results through predominantly chemical or biological means, do not involve metabolism.
A medical device is intended for
Engineering is the application of knowledge in the form of science and empirical evidence, to the innovation, construction and maintenance of structures, materials, devices, systems and organizations. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to 1390 when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."
In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in Egypt, the Acropolis and the Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and the Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.
Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Pharos of Alexandria were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, the first known mechanical computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes are examples of early mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering. Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hungarian armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult.
In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed. Before the development of modern engineering, mathematics was used by artisans and craftsmen, such as millwrights, clock makers, instrument makers and surveyors. Aside from these professions, universities were not believed to have had much practical significance to technology. A standard reference for the state of mechanical arts during the Renaissance is given in the mining engineering treatise De re metallica, which contains sections on geology and chemistry. De re metallica was the standard chemistry reference for the next 180 years; the science of classical mechanics, sometimes called Newtonian mechanics, formed the scientific basis of much of modern engineering. With the rise of engineering as a profession in the 18th century, the term became more narrowly applied to fields in which mathematics and science were applied to these ends. In addition to military and civil engineering, the fields known as the mechanic arts became incorporated into engineering.
Canal building was an important engineering work during the early phases of the Industrial Revolution. John Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed civil engineer and is regarded as the "father" of civil engineering, he was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Using a model water wheel, Smeaton conducted experiments for seven years, determining ways to increase efficiency. Smeaton introduced iron gears to water wheels. Smeaton made mechanical improvements to the Newcomen steam engine. Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse where he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse, he is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, because he identified the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime.