Switch (house DJ)
David James Andrew Taylor, better known his stage name Switch, is an English DJ, sound engineer, record producer. He is best known for his work with M. I. A.. In the fidget house genre, Switch runs his own music label "Dubsided", as well as the label Counterfeet, established in 2006 with fellow producer Sinden, he has released various singles under his own name, is well known for remixing and producing for many major artists. He is a former member of the American electronic dancehall group Major Lazer. Most notably Switch has worked extensively with fellow British artist M. I. A. Co-producing tracks on Kala. For the latter, he travelled to work with M. I. A. in A. R. Rahman's Panchathan Record Inn and AM Studios and other locations such as Kodambakkam and Trinidad and Tobago, he says "When you go somewhere like India, Jamaica, it puts you in a different train of thought, outside your usual working conditions. They use music as their voice. So, I think for people that are struggling, they can use it to vent frustrations, or to celebrate.”He has produced tracks for artists like Christina Aguilera, Amanda Blank, Nicola Roberts and Beyoncé.
In 2009 Switch collaborated with fellow producer Diplo to create the album Guns Don't Kill People... Lazers Do under the name Major Lazer. 2009 Guns Don't Kill People... Lazers Do 2006 House Bash-Up Mix 2008 Fabric Live.43 – Get Familiar 2003 "Get Ya Dub On" 2004 "Get on Downz" 2005 "Just Bounce 2 This" 2005 "This is Sick" 2006 "A Bit Patchy" 2011 "I Still Love You" 2005 M. I. A. "Arular": Pull Up The People, Bucky Done Gun 2007 M. I. A. "Kala": Bamboo Banga, Bird Flu, Jimmy, Hussel, 20 Dollar, World Town, XR2, Far Far 2008 Santigold "Santigold": You'll Find a Way, Shove It, Say Aha, Starstruck, Anne 2010 Christina Aguilera "Bionic": Bionic, Elastic Love, Monday Morning, Bobblehead 2010 M. I. A. "Maya": Steppin Up, Born Free,lovealot 2011 Beyoncé "4": Run The World, End Of Time 2011 Alex Clare "The Lateness Of the Hour" 2012 Santigold "Master of My Make-Believe": GO!, Freak Like Me, Pirate in the Water, Big Mouth 2012 Brandy "Two Eleven": Slower 2013 Kerli "Utopia": Sugar 2013 M. I. A. "Matangi": Karmageddon, MATANGI, Only 1 U, Come Walk With Me, aTENTion, Bring The Noize, Lights 2019 Chaka Khan "Hello Happiness" Songs that Switch has remixed include: 2003 Audio Bullys – "Way Too Long" 2003 The Chemical Brothers – "Get Yourself High" 2003 Futureshock – "Late at Night" 2004 Basement Jaxx – "Right Here's the Spot" 2004 The Chemical Brothers – "Galvanize" 2004 Faithless – "Miss U Less, See U More" 2004 Half Pint – "Red Light Green Light" 2004 Magik Johnson – "Feel Alright" 2004 Jentina – "French Kisses" 2004 Shaznay Lewis – "You" 2004 Mondo Grosso – "Fire & Ice" 2005 Basement Jaxx – "Fly Life Xtra" 2005 BodyRockers – "Round & Round" 2005 Dubble D – "Switch" 2005 Evil Nine – "Pearl Shot" 2005 Infusion – "The Careless Kind" 2005 Les Rythmes Digitales – "Jacques Your Body" 2005 X-Press 2 – "Give It" 2006 Lily Allen – "LDN" 2006 Coldcut – "True Skool" 2006 Def Inc – "Waking the Dread" 2006 Fatboy Slim – "Champion Sound" 2006 The Futureheads – "Worry About It Later" 2006 Jaydee – "Plastic Dreams" 2006 Kelis – "Bossy" 2006 MYNC Project feat.
Abigail Bailey – "Something on Your Mind" 2006 Sharon Phillips – "Want 2 / Need 2" 2006 Playgroup – "Front 2 Back" 2006 Spank Rock – "Bump" 2007 Basement Jaxx – "Hey U" 2007 The Black Ghosts – "Face" 2007 Klaxons – "Golden Skans" 2007 P. Diddy – "Tell Me" 2007 Freeform Five – "No More Conversations" 2007 Just Jack – "Glory Days" 2007 DJ Mehdi – "I Am Somebody" 2007 Mika – "Love Today" 2007 Nine Inch Nails – "Capital G" 2007 Simian Mobile Disco – "I Believe" 2007 Speaker Junk – "Foxxy" 2007 Ben Westbeech – "Dance with Me" 2007 Robbie Williams – "Never Touch That Switch" 2007 Jacknife Lee – "Making Me Money" 2007 Radioclit – "Divine Gosa" 2007 Armand Van Helden – "Je T'Aime" 2007 Santogold – "You'll Find a Way" 2007 Santogold – "L. E. S. Artistes" 2008 Blaqstarr feat. Rye Rye – "Shake It To The Ground" 2008 Late of the Pier – "Space And The Woods" 2008 Laughing Boy and the Wrath of Khan – "PM Chalkman" 2008 Santogold – "Shove It" 2008 Underworld – "Boy, Boy" 2008 Mystery Jets – "Hideaway" 2009 Björk – "Náttúra" 2010 Sugababes – "Wear My Kiss" 2010 Christina Aguilera – "Bionic, Monday Morning, Elastic Love" 2011 TV on the Radio – "Will Do" 2011 Ke$ha – "Animal" 2012 M.
I. A. – "Bad Girls" 2013 Kylie Minogue – "Skirt" 2015 Roots Manuva – "Crying" 2018 Chaka Khan – "Like Sugar"
Electronic music is music that employs electronic musical instruments, digital instruments and circuitry-based music technology. In general, a distinction can be made between sound produced using electromechanical means, that produced using electronics only. Electromechanical instruments include mechanical elements, such as strings, so on, electric elements, such as magnetic pickups, power amplifiers and loudspeakers. Examples of electromechanical sound producing devices include the telharmonium, Hammond organ, the electric guitar, which are made loud enough for performers and audiences to hear with an instrument amplifier and speaker cabinet. Pure electronic instruments do not have vibrating strings, hammers, or other sound-producing mechanisms. Devices such as the theremin and computer can produce electronic sounds; the first electronic devices for performing music were developed at the end of the 19th century, shortly afterward Italian futurists explored sounds that had not been considered musical.
During the 1920s and 1930s, electronic instruments were introduced and the first compositions for electronic instruments were made. By the 1940s, magnetic audio tape allowed musicians to tape sounds and modify them by changing the tape speed or direction, leading to the development of electroacoustic tape music in the 1940s, in Egypt and France. Musique concrète, created in Paris in 1948, was based on editing together recorded fragments of natural and industrial sounds. Music produced from electronic generators was first produced in Germany in 1953. Electronic music was created in Japan and the United States beginning in the 1950s. An important new development was the advent of computers to compose music. Algorithmic composition with computers was first demonstrated in the 1950s. In the 1960s, live electronics were pioneered in America and Europe, Japanese electronic musical instruments began influencing the music industry, Jamaican dub music emerged as a form of popular electronic music. In the early 1970s, the monophonic Minimoog synthesizer and Japanese drum machines helped popularize synthesized electronic music.
In the 1970s, electronic music began having a significant influence on popular music, with the adoption of polyphonic synthesizers, electronic drums, drum machines, turntables, through the emergence of genres such as disco, new wave, synth-pop, hip hop and EDM. In the 1980s, electronic music became more dominant in popular music, with a greater reliance on synthesizers, the adoption of programmable drum machines such as the Roland TR-808 and bass synthesizers such as the TB-303. In the early 1980s, digital technologies for synthesizers including digital synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 were popularized, a group of musicians and music merchants developed the Musical Instrument Digital Interface. Electronically produced music became prevalent in the popular domain by the 1990s, because of the advent of affordable music technology. Contemporary electronic music includes many varieties and ranges from experimental art music to popular forms such as electronic dance music. Today, pop electronic music is most recognizable in its 4/4 form and more connected with the mainstream culture as opposed to its preceding forms which were specialized to niche markets.
At the turn of the 20th century, experimentation with emerging electronics led to the first electronic musical instruments. These initial inventions were not sold, but were instead used in demonstrations and public performances; the audiences were presented with reproductions of existing music instead of new compositions for the instruments. While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of orchestral instruments, it achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Critics of musical conventions at the time saw promise in these developments. Ferruccio Busoni encouraged the composition of microtonal music allowed for by electronic instruments, he predicted the use of machines in future music, writing the influential Sketch of a New Esthetic of Music. Futurists such as Francesco Balilla Pratella and Luigi Russolo began composing music with acoustic noise to evoke the sound of machinery.
They predicted expansions in timbre allowed for by electronics in the influential manifesto The Art of Noises. Developments of the vacuum tube led to electronic instruments that were smaller and more practical for performance. In particular, the theremin, ondes Martenot and trautonium were commercially produced by the early 1930s. From the late 1920s, the increased practicality of electronic instruments influenced composers such as Joseph Schillinger to adopt them, they were used within orchestras, most composers wrote parts for the theremin that could otherwise be performed with string instruments. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes; the instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.
Developments in early recording technology paralleled that of electronic instruments. The first means of recording and reproducing audio was invented in the late 19th century with the mechanical phonograph. Record players became a common household item, by the 1920s comp
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds. In principle, any object that produces sound can be considered a musical instrument—it is through purpose that the object becomes a musical instrument; the history of musical instruments dates to the beginnings of human culture. Early musical instruments may have been used for ritual, such as a trumpet to signal success on the hunt, or a drum in a religious ceremony. Cultures developed composition and performance of melodies for entertainment. Musical instruments evolved in step with changing applications; the date and origin of the first device considered. The oldest object that some scholars refer to as a musical instrument, a simple flute, dates back as far as 67,000 years; some consensus dates early flutes to about 37,000 years ago. However, most historians believe that determining a specific time of musical instrument invention is impossible due to the subjectivity of the definition and the relative instability of materials used to make them.
Many early musical instruments were made from animal skins, bone and other non-durable materials. Musical instruments developed independently in many populated regions of the world. However, contact among civilizations caused rapid spread and adaptation of most instruments in places far from their origin. By the Middle Ages, instruments from Mesopotamia were in maritime Southeast Asia, Europeans played instruments from North Africa. Development in the Americas occurred at a slower pace, but cultures of North and South America shared musical instruments. By 1400, musical instrument development was dominated by the Occident. Musical instrument classification is a discipline in its own right, many systems of classification have been used over the years. Instruments can be classified by their material composition, their size, etc.. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel-Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound; the academic study of musical instruments is called organology. A musical instrument makes sounds.
Once humans moved from making sounds with their bodies—for example, by clapping—to using objects to create music from sounds, musical instruments were born. Primitive instruments were designed to emulate natural sounds, their purpose was ritual rather than entertainment; the concept of melody and the artistic pursuit of musical composition were unknown to early players of musical instruments. A player sounding a flute to signal the start of a hunt does so without thought of the modern notion of "making music". Musical instruments are constructed in a broad array of styles and shapes, using many different materials. Early musical instruments were made from "found objects" such a shells and plant parts; as instruments evolved, so did the selection and quality of materials. Every material in nature has been used by at least one culture to make musical instruments. One plays a musical instrument by interacting with it in some way—for example, by plucking the strings on a string instrument. Researchers have discovered archaeological evidence of musical instruments in many parts of the world.
Some finds are 67,000 years old, however their status as musical instruments is in dispute. Consensus solidifies about artifacts dated back to around 37,000 years old and later. Only artifacts made from durable materials or using durable methods tend to survive; as such, the specimens found. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving in the northwest region of Slovenia; the carving, named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age at between 43,400 and 67,000 years, making it the oldest known musical instrument and the only musical instrument associated with the Neanderthal culture. However, some archaeologists and ethnomusicologists dispute the flute's status as a musical instrument. German archaeologists have found mammoth bone and swan bone flutes dating back to 30,000 to 37,000 years old in the Swabian Alps; the flutes were made in the Upper Paleolithic age, are more accepted as being the oldest known musical instruments.
Archaeological evidence of musical instruments was discovered in excavations at the Royal Cemetery in the Sumerian city of Ur. These instruments, one of the first ensembles of instruments yet discovered, include nine lyres, two harps, a silver double flute and cymbals. A set of reed-sounded silver pipes discovered in Ur was the predecessor of modern bagpipes; the cylindrical pipes feature three side-holes. These excavations, carried out by Leonard Woolley in the 1920s, uncovered non-degradable fragments of instruments and the voids left by the degraded segments that, have been used to reconstruct them; the graves these instruments were buried in have been carbon dated to between 2600 and 2500 BC, providing evidence that these instruments were used in Sumeria by this time. Archaeologists in the Jiahu site of central Henan province of China have found flutes made of bones that date back 7,000 to 9,000 years, representing some of the "earliest complete, tightly-dated, multinote musical instruments" found.
Scholars agree that there are no reliable methods of determining the exact chronology of musical instruments across cultures. Comparing and organizing instruments based on their complexity is misleading, since advancements in musical instruments have sometimes reduced complexity. For example, construction of early slit drums involved f
Sticky & Sweet Tour
Sticky & Sweet Tour was the eighth concert tour by American singer Madonna to promote her eleventh studio album, Hard Candy. It began in August 2008 and was Madonna's first tour from her new recording and business deal with Live Nation; the tour was announced in February 2008, with dates for North American venues revealed. Though planned, the tour did not visit Australia due to financial problems and the financial recession. Costume designer Arianne Phillips designed the costumes, supported by a number of famous designers and brands; the stage for the main show was planned to that of her previous 2006 Confessions Tour. After the tour concluded in 2008, Madonna announced plans of playing a second European leg in 2009 to play in territories she either had never been to or had not played for a long time; the tour was described as a "rock driven dancetastic journey". It was divided into four acts: Pimp, where S&M was the main theme, Old School, where Madonna's classic songs were performed while displaying work of deceased artist Keith Haring, Gypsy, a fusion of Romani folk music and dance with the performances ranging from melancholy to joyous, Rave, where high-energy uptempo songs were performed.
The last section of the show included a special'request song', to which the audience was invited to sing-along. Some changes were made to the set list during the second European leg of the tour in 2009, including a dance tribute to deceased singer Michael Jackson; the tour generated positive reviews from critics. The Sticky & Sweet Tour broke many records in terms of its ticket sales, commercial gross and audience attendance. After the first leg, it became the highest-grossing tour by a solo artist, earning US$282 million, breaking the previous record Madonna herself held with her Confessions Tour. Overall, Madonna performed to over 3.5 million fans in 32 countries, grossing a total of US$408 million, making it the second highest-grossing tour of all time, behind only The Rolling Stones's A Bigger Bang Tour. It still remains the highest-grossing tour by a female artist and the sixth highest-grossing tour of all time. At the 2009 Billboard Touring Awards, the Sticky & Sweet Tour won the Top Tour and Top Draw prizes, which acknowledge the highest-grossing and highest-attended tours of the year, respectively.
Madonna's manager Guy Oseary won the Top Manager award. While on tour, a number of statements by Madonna against 2008 American Republican Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates John McCain and Sarah Palin faced strong opposition from the Republican Party. While performing in Romania in 2009, Madonna's statement about gypsy discrimination in eastern European countries was received negatively. During the second leg, two workers constructing her stage at Stade Vélodrome in Marseille were killed when the roof of the stage collapsed; the Sticky & Sweet Tour has been broadcast on a number of private channels and a CD-DVD and Blu-ray version of the concert was released in March 2010. The world tour was confirmed on May 8, 2008, by Guy Oseary, Madonna's manager, Arthur Fogel, Live Nation's Global Touring CEO and Global Music Chairman. Billboard confirmed that the tour was to begin on August 23, 2008 in Cardiff, with performances throughout the rest of the year, it was planned to visit three continents on 50 -- 60 dates.
The tour was promoted Madonna's studio album Hard Candy. Billboard confirmed performances in Europe until the end of September and stadiums in sixteen markets of North America in October and November, followed by stadiums of Mexico and South America in late November and early December; the tour was described as a "rock driven dancetastic journey". The show featured four acts: Pimp, a homage to 1920s deco and modern-day gangsta pimp, Old School, portraying early'80s downtown New York City dance roots with works of deceased artist Keith Haring and the dance culture vibe of that time, including the birth of rap – Gypsy, consisting of Romani folk music and dance, lastly Rave, consisting of eastern influences. On January 30, 2009, it was announced that Madonna had decided to resume the tour in the summer of 2009, with around twenty-five more shows in Europe; the second leg of the tour was to start from London at The O2 on July 4, wrapping up two months in Tel Aviv, Israel. The rest of the dates included stadiums and parks in European markets Madonna had either never played or did not play in several years, according to Fogel.
He said, "It has not happened in the four tours I've been involved with, There has been talk during each one, but it has never come to be. But with this one, she loves the show, she's had a great time and she's excited about playing new markets. We went to quite a few markets she hasn't been to in 15-plus years; this is a continuation of that in the sense of playing new and different markets."Originally, Live Nation reported that the tour would make stops in America and Europe. Music promoter and manager Michael Chugg stated that an Australian leg "will happen" and that local promoters were working hard to make it fruitful. Madonna had apologized to her Australian fans during the 2006 Confessions Tour, saying that she tried to work Australia into her schedule but could not, her last tour in Australia was The Girlie Show World Tour in 1993. In October 2008, the Australian TV show Sunrise reported that Madonna will tour Australia in January 2009, she had agreed for performances in Sydney and Melbourne, but they were cancelled.
Local promoter Michael Coppel stated, "Madonna was coming to Australia, the dates were resolved economics got in the
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Santi White, known professionally as Santigold, is an American singer and record producer. Her debut studio album, received critical acclaim, her second album, Master of My Make-Believe, was released in 2012. She released her third album, 99¢, in 2016, her second mixtape, I Don't Want: The Gold Fire Sessions, in 2018. Santigold was born on September 1976 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, she is of African American descent. She attended Germantown Friends School in Philadelphia, attended college at Wesleyan University, where she double-majored in music and African-American studies. White is married to Trevor Andrew, with whom she has a son named Radek, born in 2014, she obtained her pseudonym in the 1990s. She worked for Epic Records as an A&R representative but left the position to co-write and executive produce How I Do, the singer Res's debut album, she was the singer of Philadelphia-based punk rock band Stiffed, which released the albums Sex Sells and Burned Again: Both were produced by Bad Brains bassist Darryl Jenifer.
While in the band, White was offered a solo contract by Martin Heath of London-based independent label Lizard King Records. Her first singles as a soloist "Creator" and "L. E. S. Artistes" received attention from Internet media outlets in 2007, her debut album Santogold, conceived with fellow Stiffed member John Hill, was issued in April 2008; the record featured appearances and production work from Chuck Treece, Diplo and Jonnie "Most" Davis, among others. Blending a variety of musical genres ranging from new wave to alternative rock and reggae, the album was well received by critics upon release and was noted for its "cross-genre confidence". Santogold was critically acclaimed by both Entertainment Weekly and Spin, while "L. E. S. Artistes" made the number 2 position on Rolling Stone's "Singles of the Year" list. Santogold was sixth on the magazine's "Albums of the Year" list. "Creator," along with "Lights Out," appeared in commercials in the US and the UK. During the summer of 2008, she released a mixtape CD, Top Ranking: A Diplo Dub, well received by Pitchfork and NME.
To support Santogold, she toured with M. I. A. and Björk, in June 2008, Coldplay invited her to be their opening act in the US. Her own US tour was called Goldrush Tour, upon its completion, she supported Jay-Z and Kanye West on a number of their shows and The Streets at BBC's Electric Proms music festival, she finished the tour opening for Beastie Boys for three concerts on their get-out-the-vote Swing State Tour. In February 2009, White announced that she changed her stage name to Santigold for reasons related to a possible lawsuit from director Santo Victor Rigatuso, who produced the 1985 movie Santo Gold's Blood Circus, she finished the second leg of the tour in August 2009 at the Lollapalooza Festival in Chicago with Billboard noting that she "delivered a bright set and drew a headliner-sized audience" for a late afternoon concert. Before leaving the stage, she announced. In 2011, White published the song "Go!" which featured Karen O of the Yeah Yeah Yeahs. The track was produced by Switch, Q-Tip and herself, NME praised it as a "brittle and brilliant brawler of a track" with "great reverberating militaristic kettle-drum booms."She announced the follow-up to Santogold would be out in spring 2012: It was recorded in part in Jamaica and co-produced in part with TV on the Radio's Dave Sitek.
She described Master of My Make-Believe as "sonically eclectic but with some epic curveballs thrown into the mix." The singer further said, "I want it to be about creating your own reality. I have a song called “The Keepers”: “We’re the keepers, while we sleep in America our house is burning down." "Big Mouth", the first track and video from the album was issued in late January as a free download. In February, an animated video for "Disparate Youth" was uploaded to her official YouTube channel; as the first single of the album. It was released on iTunes in the US and along with several remixes, in the UK. Master of My Make-Believe was released in late April to critical acclaim. "Disparate Youth" was featured in a December 2012 advertisement for the 2013 Honda Civic and a piano version of the song was used in a 2012-13 ad for Direct Line insurance. She went on tour and opened a few shows on the US leg of the Red Hot Chili Peppers' I'm with You Tour. In May and June, she headlined her own US shows before a summer European tour.
On August 15, 2012, she performed on the deck of the USS Intrepid as part of "Stephest Colbchella'012: Rocktaugustfest" on The Colbert Report, on May 9, 2013, she appeared as herself on The Office episode "A. A. R. M.. In 2013, she recorded the song "Girls" for the soundtrack of the series of the same name, she made a special guest appearance as Millie in the Adult Swim original NTSF:SD:SUV::. In June 2015, she contributed the song "Radio" to the soundtrack of the film Paper Towns. In November, "Can't Get Enough of Myself", the first single of her forthcoming new album 99¢, was released. In February 2016, Santigold released an interactive music video for the song, which allowed viewers to insert themselves in the video, furthering the song's message about self-absorption and promotion in the social media age. Regarding the song and video, Santigold commented: "We have no illusion that we don’t live in this world where everything is packaged. People’s lives, everything, is deliberate, mediated, it can be dark and haunting and tricky, freak us out, but it can be be silly and fun and we can learn to play with it".
A second track, "Who Be Lovin Me" which featured iLoveMakonnen, was made available in December. 99¢, her third album, was