Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies approaches and methods traditionally used in physics to study biological phenomena. Biophysics covers all scales of biological organization, from molecular to organismic and populations. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with biochemistry, molecular biology, physical chemistry, nanotechnology, computational biology, developmental biology and systems biology; the term biophysics was introduced by Karl Pearson in 1892. Ambiguously, the term biophysics is regularly used in academia to indicate the study of the physical quantities in biological systems, which is, by definition, performed by physiology. Other biological sciences perform research on the biophysical properties of living organisms including molecular biology, cell biology and biochemistry. Molecular biophysics addresses biological questions similar to those in biochemistry and molecular biology, seeking to find the physical underpinnings of biomolecular phenomena.
Scientists in this field conduct research concerned with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis, as well as how these interactions are regulated. A great variety of techniques are used to answer these questions. Fluorescent imaging techniques, as well as electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and small-angle scattering both with X-rays and neutrons are used to visualize structures of biological significance. Protein dynamics can be observed by neutron spin. Conformational change in structure can be measured using techniques such as dual polarisation interferometry, circular dichroism, SAXS and SANS. Direct manipulation of molecules using optical tweezers or AFM, can be used to monitor biological events where forces and distances are at the nanoscale. Molecular biophysicists consider complex biological events as systems of interacting entities which can be understood e.g. through statistical mechanics and chemical kinetics.
By drawing knowledge and experimental techniques from a wide variety of disciplines, biophysicists are able to directly observe, model or manipulate the structures and interactions of individual molecules or complexes of molecules. In addition to traditional biophysical topics like structural biology or enzyme kinetics, modern biophysics encompasses an extraordinarily broad range of research, from bioelectronics to quantum biology involving both experimental and theoretical tools, it is becoming common for biophysicists to apply the models and experimental techniques derived from physics, as well as mathematics and statistics, to larger systems such as tissues, organs and ecosystems. Biophysical models are used extensively in the study of electrical conduction in single neurons, as well as neural circuit analysis in both tissue and whole brain. Medical physics, a branch of biophysics, is any application of physics to medicine or healthcare, ranging from radiology to microscopy and nanomedicine.
For example, physicist Richard Feynman theorized about the future of nanomedicine. He wrote about the idea of a medical use for biological machines. Feynman and Albert Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would be possible to "swallow the doctor"; the idea was discussed in Feynman's 1959 essay There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom. Some of the earlier studies in biophysics were conducted in the 1840s by a group known as the Berlin school of physiologists. Among its members were pioneers such as Hermann von Helmholtz, Ernst Heinrich Weber, Carl F. W. Ludwig, Johannes Peter Müller. Biophysics might be seen as dating back to the studies of Luigi Galvani; the popularity of the field rose when the book What Is Life? by Erwin Schrödinger was published. Since 1957, biophysicists have organized themselves into the Biophysical Society which now has about 9,000 members over the world; some authors such as Robert Rosen criticize biophysics on the ground that the biophysical method does not take into account the specificity of biological phenomena.
While some colleges and universities have dedicated departments of biophysics at the graduate level, many do not have university-level biophysics departments, instead having groups in related departments such as biochemistry, cell biology, computer science, mathematics, molecular biology, pharmacology and physiology. Depending on the strengths of a department at a university differing emphasis will be given to fields of biophysics. What follows is a list of examples of how each department applies its efforts toward the study of biophysics; this list is hardly all inclusive. Nor does each subject of study belong to any particular department; each academic institution makes its own rules and there is much overlap between departments. Biology and molecular biology – Gene regulation, single protein dynamics, patch clamping, virophysics. Structural biology – Ångstrom-resolution structures of proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and complexes thereof. Biochemistry and chemistry – biomolecular structure, siRNA, nucleic acid structure, structure-activity relationships.
Computer science – Neural networks and drug databases. Computational chemistry – molecular dynamics simulation, molecular docking, quantum chemistry Bioinformatics – sequence alignment, structural alignment, protein structure pr
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"Fallen Angel" is a song by Canadian rock band Three Days Grace. The song was released on 15 September 2015, as the fourth and final single from the band's fifth studio album Human. In December 2015, Three Days Grace's drummer Neil Sanderson said "Fallen Angel" was about his mother's grief after the deaths of his brother and father when he was five years old. An official lyric video for the single was released on 2 November 2015, directed by Matthew JC; the video begins with singer Matt Walst stating, "This song is about losing the people we love and wishing we could have been the ones to save them." Lyrics are overlaid atop the band's live performance at the Bomb Factory in Dallas, TX. In 2016, Sanderson said the band created a page on their official website entitled the "Fallen Angel Dedication Wall" where messages can be posted in memory of loved ones. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics