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Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. Biopolymers contain monomeric units. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomeric units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotides, which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers. Other examples of biopolymers include rubber, suberin and lignin. Cellulose is biopolymer on Earth. About 33 percent of all plant matter is cellulose; the cellulose content of cotton is 90 percent, for wood. A major defining difference between biopolymers and synthetic polymers can be found in their structures. All polymers are made of repetitive units called monomers. Biopolymers have a well-defined structure, though this is not a defining characteristic: The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure, in the case of proteins. Many biopolymers spontaneously fold into characteristic compact shapes, which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures.

Structural biology is the study of the structural properties of the biopolymers. In contrast, most synthetic polymers' have more random structures; this fact leads to a molecular mass distribution, missing in biopolymers. In fact, as their synthesis is controlled by a template-directed process in most in vivo systems, all biopolymers of a type are all alike: they all contain the similar sequences and numbers of monomers and thus all have the same mass; this phenomenon is called monodispersity in contrast to the polydispersity encountered in synthetic polymers. As a result, biopolymers have a polydispersity index of 1; the convention for a polypeptide is to list its constituent amino acid residues as they occur from the amino terminus to the carboxylic acid terminus. The amino acid residues are always joined by peptide bonds. Protein, though used colloquially to refer to any polypeptide, refers to larger or functional forms and can consist of several polypeptide chains as well as single chains.

Proteins can be modified to include non-peptide components, such as saccharide chains and lipids. The convention for a nucleic acid sequence is to list the nucleotides as they occur from the 5' end to the 3' end of the polymer chain, where 5' and 3' refer to the numbering of carbons around the ribose ring which participate in forming the phosphate diester linkages of the chain; such a sequence is called the primary structure of the biopolymer. Sugar-based biopolymers are difficult with regards to convention. Sugar polymers can be linear or branched and are joined with glycosidic bonds; the exact placement of the linkage can vary, the orientation of the linking functional groups is important, resulting in α- and β-glycosidic bonds with numbering definitive of the linking carbons' location in the ring. In addition, many saccharide units can undergo various chemical modifications, such as amination, can form parts of other molecules, such as glycoproteins. There are a number of biophysical techniques for determining sequence information.

Protein sequence can be determined by Edman degradation, in which the N-terminal residues are hydrolyzed from the chain one at a time and identified. Mass spectrometer techniques can be used. Nucleic acid sequence can be determined using gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis. Lastly, mechanical properties of these biopolymers can be measured using optical tweezers or atomic force microscopy. Dual-polarization interferometry can be used to measure the conformational changes or self-assembly of these materials when stimulated by pH, ionic strength or other binding partners; some biopolymers- such as PLA occurring zein, poly-3-hydroxybutyrate can be used as plastics, replacing the need for polystyrene or polyethylene based plastics. Some plastics are now referred to as being'degradable','oxy-degradable' or'UV-degradable'; this means that they break down when exposed to light or air, but these plastics are still oil-based and are not certified as'biodegradable' under the European Union directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste.

Biopolymers will break down, some are suitable for domestic composting. Biopolymers are produced from biomass for use in the packaging industry. Biomass comes from crops such as sugar beet, potatoes or wheat: when used to produce biopolymers, these are classified as non food crops; these can be converted in the following pathways: Sugar beet > Glyconic acid > Polyglyconic acid Starch > > Lactic acid > Polylactic acid Biomass > > Bioethanol > Ethene > Polyethylene Many types of packaging can be made from biopolymers: food trays, blown starch pellets for shipping fragile goods, thin films for wrapping. Biopolymers can be sustainable, carbon neutral and are always renewable, because they are made from plant materials which can be grown indefinitely; these plant materials come from agricultural non food crops. Therefore, the use of biopolymers would create a sustainable industry. In contrast, the feedstocks for polymers derived from petrochemicals will deplete. In addition, biopolymers have the potential to cut carbon emissions and

Yoseikan budō

Yoseikan budō may be classified as a sōgō budō form, but is used here to indicate a martial art into which various martial ways have been integrated. It is most known for its connection to a pre-war style of aikido; the name of the art yō-sei-kan is derived from three Japanese characters, yō meaning'teaching', sei meaning "truth", kan meaning "place", which may be translated into English as "the place where the truth is taught" or alternately "place for practising what is right". The intent of the name was not to assert an exclusive possession of the truth regarding the martial arts but rather to describe how the comprehensive nature of the yoseikan training environment allows an individual to discover their own sense of "truth" by studying a wide range of differing martial techniques and principles. Yoseikan Budo originated in 1931 as the style created by its founder Minoru Mochizuki, a high ranking student and assistant to Kanō Jigorō, the founder of judo and Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of aikido, in the pre-World War II period.

In addition to the high ranks he held in these arts he was student of one of the oldest styles of traditional Japanese koryū budō, the Katori Shintō-ryō, studied with various karate teachers including Gichin Funakoshi, the man who brought karate from the Okinawan islands to mainland Japan. The old Yoseikan style included jujutsu, kobudo and a few karate techniques, such as: foot sweeps and trips, standing throws and groundwork. A curious characteristic of the old style is that it did not support much of the esoteric ways that evolved with post-World War II traditional Aikido and some of its offshoots. At one point Kisshomaru Ueshiba, the headmaster and son of the aikido founder, reputedly asked Mochizuki to refrain from using the name aikido to refer to the aiki portion of his system; the system although still employing the term aikido is known to use the term aiki budo to refer to this part of the art. Minoru Mochizuki's 1932 licence from Ueshiba was in Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu as Ueshiba had not yet renamed the art he was teaching.

Still Mochizuki continued to enjoy a warm relationship with Morihei Ueshiba in his years. Although philosophically most influenced by Ueshiba, Mochizuk's method of teaching and systematizing his art seems to show a larger debt to the teachings of Kanō Jigorō due to his own roots in judo, his method of developing kata and use of a scientific approach to explain the finer parts of his art seems to show the imprint of Kano's early teaching method. Indeed, it was Kano who sent Mochizuki, along with other judo teachers, to study aikido with Ueshiba for the purpose of bringing back the techniques for use in the Kodokan's self-defense program. Many of these aikido inspired techniques can be seen preserved in Kodokan Goshin Jutsu kata or forms of self-defense which were most introduced by Kenji Tomiki, another senior judo teacher, who trained with Mochizuki at Ueshiba's dojo. In Mochizuki's case Kano's plan to have judo players learn aikido worked too well, resulting in Minoru becoming a live-in student under Ueshiba and once being asked to inherit the leadership of the art should Kisshomaru be unable to.

Mochizuki's inclination toward eclecticism can be seen as part of the influence imparted to him from Kano's teachings. As Kano had fused the forms of traditional jujutsu he had learned, with elements as different as ground work from the Fusen ryu and Western wrestling tactics so too did Mochizuki strive to learn many different arts in order to expand his overall understanding of fighting methods. Indeed, many of his early explorations in arts such as iaido and classical forms of jujutsu were at the suggestion of Kano during his time at the Kodokan, he expanded this to include an investigation of Western boxing and classical Japanese swordsmanship. Conversely when he made the suggestion to Ueshiba that aikidoka might benefit from a knowledge of the skilled striking techniques employed by karate practitioners his suggestion met with no enthusiasm. On a technical level the influence of judo great Kyuzo Mifune and classical jujutsu practitioner Sanjuro Oshima of the Gyokushin-ryu cannot be overstated.

One of the specialties of the Yoseikan Budo system under Minoru Mochizuki came to be the use of sutemi-waza or sacrifice techniques, in which these two teachers excelled. Although the far greater influence was undoubtedly Mifune in whose lessons the youthful Mochizuki found much greater enthusiasm, the teaching of the Gyokushin theory of'spherical spirit' stayed with Mochizuki over the years, inspiring him to invent new techniques with this art's principles in mind. Mochizuki credited his quick mastery of aikido with having learned this style which held many techniques in common with Ueshiba's art. In the context of contemporary aikido Minoru Mochizuki's art seems judo based. Indeed, many strong judoka came to train with the master throughout his life. One such person was Frenchman Patrick Auge who still maint


The GEOStar is a family of satellite buses designed and manufactured by Orbital ATK. The family started focused on small geostationary communications satellites; the first iterations focused on the sub-5 kW commercial segment, left vacated after the retirement of the HS-376 satellite bus. It started with the STARBus on CTA Space Systems, bought by Orbital Sciences. Developed by CTA Space Systems, won its first order with IndoStar-1. Orbital Sciences Corporation acquired CTA in 1997 and continued selling the platform under the STAR-1 designation, it was able to sell three STAR-1 satellites to B-SAT of Japan, BSAT-2b and BSAT-2c. Orbital introduced a new version of the platform known as STAR-2, its first launch was with the sale of the satellite bus only, with N-STAR c. With the introduction of the LEOStar satellite bus, STAR-2 was renamed as GEOStar-2, a platform, capable of up to 5.5 kW of power production. Orbital would introduce the GEOStar-1 platform, capable of only 1.5 kW of power production.

It is not to be confused with the original STAR-1, since GEOStar-1 is the project Aquila, a platform smaller than the GEOStar-2 designed for military applications in geostationary orbit and medium Earth orbit. On March 10, 2014, Orbital introduced the GEOStar-3 platform. Not only was this a bigger platform that could generate up to 8 kW of power, but it offered a satellite stacking feature for a dual launch option. On April 29, 2014, Orbital Sciences announced that it would merge with Alliant Techsystems to create a new company called Orbital ATK, Inc.. On February 9, 2015, Orbital ATK started operating as an entity. During 2015, Orbital ATK would introduce a variation of the bus dedicated to servicing spacecrafts in geostationary orbit, the Gemini bus, they would announce their first win for Gemini platform on April 12, 2016, with the agreement to sell the services of Mission Extension Vehicle-1 to Intelsat in 2019. Through the years there have been different variations of the platform: Gemini: platform designed for rendezvous capabilities.

It can carry payloads with a mass of up to 1,700 kg and requiring up to 3 kW of power. Its expected design life is 6 to 15 years and has a 21 to 36 month to delivery lead time. GEOStar-1: micro platform for government satellite, it can carry payloads with a mass of up to 100 kg and requiring up to 1.5 kW of power. Its expected design life is 5 to 7 years and has a 27 to 30 month to delivery lead time. GEOStar-2: small platform for commercial clients, it can carry payloads with a mass of up to 500 kg and requiring up to 5.5 kW of power. Its expected design life is 15 to 18 years and has a 24 to 27 month to delivery lead time. GEOStar-3: medium platform for commercial clients, it can carry payloads with a mass of up to 800 kg and requiring up to 8 kW of power. Its expected design life has a 27 to 30 month to delivery lead time. STAR-1: small commercial satellite platform. Developed by CTA, bought by Orbital Sciences Corporation. Could handle payloads with a mass of up to 200 kg and requiring up to 555 W of power.

It used a solid Star 30CBP apogee kick motor for orbital circularization and had a 10-year design life. Orbital ATK – Designer and manufacturer of the platform. Orbital ATK

Christopher Bostick

Christopher Michael Bostick is an American professional baseball outfielder and second baseman, a free agent. He has played in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates and Miami Marlins. Bostick grew up in Gates, New York, attended the Aquinas Institute in Rochester, New York. Playing for the school's baseball team, he had a.507 batting average as a junior and a.510 average as a senior. In his senior year, he was named the New York State Class B Player of the Year, he committed to attend St. John's University on a college baseball scholarship; the Oakland Athletics selected Bostick in the 44th round, with the 1,366th overall selection, of the 2011 MLB draft. He opted to sign with the Athletics rather than attend college, received a $125,000 signing bonus. Bostick made his professional debut with the Arizona Athletics of the Rookie-level Arizona League in 2011, played for the Vermont Lake Monsters of the Class A-Short Season New York–Penn League in 2012, he appeared in the New York–Penn League All-Star Game.

The Athletics assigned Bostick to the Beloit Snappers of the Class A Midwest League in 2013. On December 3, 2013, the Athletics traded Bostick and Michael Choice to the Texas Rangers for outfielder Craig Gentry and pitcher Josh Lindblom. Playing for the Myrtle Beach Pelicans of the Class A-Advanced Carolina League, Bostick had a.251 batting average, a.322 on-base percentage, a.412 slugging percentage. After the 2014 season, the Rangers traded Bostick and Abel De Los Santos to the Washington Nationals for Ross Detwiler. Bostick began the 2015 season with the Potomac Nationals of the Carolina League, was promoted to the Harrisburg Senators of the Class AA Eastern League in June, played for the Salt River Rafters in the Arizona Fall League following the 2015 season, where he had ten extra base hits in 71 at bats; the Nationals added him to their 40-man roster after the 2015 season. After beginning the 2016 season with Harrisburg, he received a promotion to the Syracuse Chiefs of the Class AAA International League in June.

The Nationals designated Bostick for assignment in September 2016. They traded him to the Pittsburgh Pirates for cash considerations, he began the 2017 season with the Indianapolis Indians of the International League, was promoted to the major leagues on May 8. He batted 8-for-27 for the Pirates in 2017; the Pirates designated Bostick for assignment on August 7, 2018. The Miami Marlins acquired Bostick on August 12 for cash considerations, he elected to become a free agent after the 2018 season after clearing waivers. On November 14, 2018, Bostick signed a minor league deal with the Baltimore Orioles and was assigned to the Norfolk Tides of the International League for the 2019 season, he became a free agent following the 2019 season. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference

Bandhan (1998 film)

Bandhan is a 1998 Bollywood drama/action film starring Jackie Shroff, Salman Khan and Ashwini Bhave. The film was a remake of the Tamil film Pandithurai; the film was a third hit of Salman Khan after Pyaar Kiya To Darna Kya and Jab Pyaar Kisise Hota Hai in the following year. Thakur Suraj Pratap sees a young woman performing pooja at a temple, falls in love with her; this is Pooja, who belongs to a poor family, consisting of her dad, her mom and a kid brother named Raju. Thakur sends an emissary to Ramlal, delighted to give his daughter to Thakur in marriage, the wedding is celebrated with due ceremony. Pooja is fond of Raju and takes him along with her to her husband's house; this is the only "gift" that Pooja's impoverished parents are able to give their daughter at the wedding, it is beneficial for the young boy to grow up in a more affluent household. At the Thakur's palatial home, Pooja is greeted by Thakur's kid sister; the years pass. Pooja has been unable to bear children. Raju, now grown up, is intensely loyal to Thakur, his brother-in-law.

He and Thakur's sister Jyoti are in love. One day, Thakur meets a courtesan who sings and dances for a living. Vaishali has no relatives except one brother, an unscrupulous card-sharp named Gajendra who lives off his sister's earnings. Vaishali becomes his mistress, her brother, posing as a respectable man, demands that Thakur marry Vaishali and make the relationship public. Thakur is reluctant. On the one hand, he hopes that Vaishali will make him a father. On the other hand, he is attached to his dutiful loving brother-in-law. Gajendra and his friends hatch a plot to kill two birds with one stone: to induce Thakur to marry Vaishali, at the same time, break the strong relationship between Thakur and Raju; the conspirators make a fool of Raju, as a result of which he causes the police to raid Gajendra's house, on the allegation that the house is being used as a brothel. During the police raid, Raju is horrified to find that the'customer' found in Vaishali's company is none other than his brother-in-law.

Thakur is angered to find that the person who has caused him this infamy and police entanglement is none other than Raju. In order to avoid legal proceedings, Thakur tells the police that he is present in the house in order to discuss the possibility of marrying Vaishali, the reason being that his wife has remained childless. Raju falls at Thakur's feet, begs forgiveness, pleads with him not to take a second wife, his pleas fall on deaf ears. Raju tells his parents of how Pooja now has a co-wife, they create a scene. Annoyed at the commotion, Thakur tells Pooja to make her choice once and for all: she can either accept Vaishali as her co-wife and remain in his household with the respectability of being the senior wife, or depart with her parents for good. Pooja chooses to remain with her husband and co-wife, for as she says, her wifely duty. Raju, who has lived in Thakur's household for many years, now goes away with his parents; these events cause a great rift between the two families, because of which the two lovers are separated.

Vaishali is ensconced in the Thakur's mansion, her brother becomes Thakur's confidant. He now wants to marry Thakur's sister, Jyoti, so that he and his sister Vaishali will control the vast wealth of the Thakur family. A naïve Thakur is taken in by his new brother-in-law's seeming decency, it is arranged that Gajendra will marry Jyoti. However, Jyoti bravely refuses to marry anyone except Raju, she is supported by Pooja, who makes the point that it would be wrong and sinful for Jyoti to marry one man while being in love with another. Thakur decides to delay the matter for the time being. Gajendra is aghast at this and makes a plan to abduct Jyoti so that afterward she will have no choice but to marry him, he reveals his plan to his sister and asks her to help him, but Vaishali has undergone a personality change after her marriage. She now wants to be a respectable woman and is grateful to Thakur for having given her the chance to reform, she berates and opposes her brother, makes it clear that she will inform her husband.

Gajendra feels betrayed by his sister and sees that she has gained so much, whereas he, has, in fact, lost his only source of income, the money from his sister's song-and-dance performances. In a fit of rage, he kills her, he makes an effort to frame Thakur for Vaishali's murder. There are some further shenanigans until, in the climax, Thakur realizes that he has been used and manipulated, that Raju, is the epitome of goodness, loyalty and every noble human quality. At Thakur's behest, Raju dispatches the villains, rescues Jyoti and protects Thakur's honour, gamely taking a bullet in the shoulder during the Big Fight, he survives to dance another song, Thakur, now reconciled with his beloved and loyal Raju, gives Jyoti in marriage to him. The two couples live ever after, with great love existing both within each couple and between the two couples. Salman Khan as Raju and Jyoti's love interest Himani Shivpuri as Raju and Pooja's mother Aanjjan Srivastav as Raju and Pooja's father Jackie Shroff as Thakur Suraj Pratap (Jyoti's brother

2016 UCI Road World Championships – Men's time trial

The Men's time trial of the 2016 UCI Road World Championships was a cycling event that took place on 12 October 2016 in Doha, Qatar. It was the 23rd edition of the championship. Kiryienka was unable to defend his title as he was beaten by Germany's Tony Martin, who won a record-equalling fourth world title in the discipline. Martin finished 45.05 seconds clear of Kiryienka, with the bronze medal being won by the European champion Jonathan Castroviejo from Spain, 25.86 seconds behind Kiryienka and 1 minute, 10.91 seconds in arrears of Martin. The race started at the Lusail Sports Complex and finished at The Pearl-Qatar, after a flat course of 40 kilometres. All National Federations were allowed to enter two riders to start the time trial