click links in text for more info


A biopsy is a medical test performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease. The tissue is examined under a microscope by a pathologist, can be analyzed chemically; when an entire lump or suspicious area is removed, the procedure is called an excisional biopsy. An incisional biopsy or core biopsy samples a portion of the abnormal tissue without attempting to remove the entire lesion or tumor; when a sample of tissue or fluid is removed with a needle in such a way that cells are removed without preserving the histological architecture of the tissue cells, the procedure is called a needle aspiration biopsy. Biopsies are most performed for insight into possible cancerous and inflammatory conditions; the Arab physician Abulcasis developed one of the earliest diagnostic biopsies. He used a needle to puncture a goiter and characterized the material; the term biopsy reflects the Greek words βίος bios, "life," and ὄψις opsis, "a sight."The French dermatologist Ernest Besnier introduced the word biopsie to the medical community in 1879.

When cancer is suspected, a variety of biopsy techniques can be applied. An excisional biopsy is an attempt to remove an entire lesion; when the specimen is evaluated, in addition to diagnosis, the amount of uninvolved tissue around the lesion, the surgical margin of the specimen is examined to see if the disease has spread beyond the area biopsied. "Clear margins" or "negative margins" means that no disease was found at the edges of the biopsy specimen. "Positive margins" means that disease was found, a wider excision may be needed, depending on the diagnosis. When intact removal is not indicated for a variety of reasons, a wedge of tissue may be taken in an incisional biopsy. In some cases, a sample can be collected by devices. A variety of sizes of needle can collect tissue in the lumen. Smaller diameter needles collect cell clusters, fine needle aspiration biopsy. Pathologic examination of a biopsy can determine whether a lesion is benign or malignant, can help differentiate between different types of cancer.

In contrast to a biopsy that samples a lesion, a larger excisional specimen called a resection may come to a pathologist from a surgeon attempting to eradicate a known lesion from a patient. For example, a pathologist would examine a mastectomy specimen if a previous nonexcisional breast biopsy had established the diagnosis of breast cancer. Examination of the full mastectomy specimen would confirm the exact nature of the cancer and reveal the extent of its spread. There are two types of liquid biopsy: circulating tumor cell assays or cell-free circulating tumor DNA tests; these methods provide a non-invasive alternative to repeat invasive biopsies to monitor cancer treatment, test available drugs against the circulating tumor cells, evaluate the mutations in cancer and plan individualized treatments. In addition, because cancer is a heterogeneous genetic disease, excisional biopsies provide only a snapshot in time of some of the rapid, dynamic genetic changes occurring in tumors, liquid biopsies provide some advantages over tissue biopsy-based genomic testing.

In addition, excisional biopsies are invasive, can’t be used and are ineffective in understanding the dynamics of tumor progression and metastasis. By detecting and characterisation of vital circulating tumor cells or genomic alterations in CTCs and cell-free DNA in blood, liquid biopsy can provide real-time information on the stage of tumor progression, treatment effectiveness, cancer metastasis risk; this technological development could make it possible to diagnose and manage cancer from repeated blood tests rather than from a traditional biopsy. Circulating tumor cell tests are available but not covered by insurance yet at maintrac and under development by many pharmaceutical companies; those tests analyze circulating tumor cells Analysis of individual CTCs demonstrated a high level of heterogeneity seen at the single cell level for both protein expression and protein localization and the CTCs reflected both the primary biopsy and the changes seen in the metastatic sites. Analysis of cell-free circulating tumor DNA has an advantage over circulating tumor cells assays in that there is 100 times more cell-free DNA than there is DNA in circulating tumor cells.

These tests analyze fragments of tumor-cell DNA that are continuously shed by tumors into the bloodstream. Companies offering cfDNA next generation sequencing testing include Personal Genome Diagnostics and Guardant Health; these tests are moving into widespread use when a tissue biopsy has insufficient material for DNA testing or when it is not safe to do an invasive biopsy procedure, according to a recent report of results on over 15,000 advanced cancer patients sequenced with the Guardant Health test. A 2014 study of the blood of 846 patients with 15 different types of cancer in 24 institutions was able to detect the presence of cancer DNA in the body, they found tumor DNA in the blood of more than 80 percent of patients with metastatic cancers and about 47 percent of those with localized tumors. The test does not indicate the tumor site or other information about the tumor; the test did not produce false positives. Such tests may be useful to assess whether malignant cells remain in patients whose tumors have been surgically removed.

Up to 30 percent are expected to relapse. Initia

The Mesdag Collection

The Mesdag Collection is an art museum in The Hague, Netherlands. The museum is housed next to the former house of the Dutch painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag and shows the art Mesdag and his wife Sina van Houten collected from 1866 to 1903, it features work of the painters of the Hague School like Willem Roelofs and Anton Mauve and work of the French Barbizon School (Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Théodore Rousseau, Jean-François Millet, Charles-François Daubigny and Eugène Delacroix and paintings of Lawrence Alma-Tadema. There is a large collection of Japanese art and Japanese craftwork on show; this all is shown in a typical 19th-century setting. The museum was closed for renovation until Spring 2011. On 14 May 2011 it was re-opened and renamed from "Museum Mesdag" to "The Mesdag Collection"; the Panorama Mesdag is housed in different premises within easy walking distance from The Mesdag Collection. Mesdag Collectie

First United Methodist Church of Chicago

First United Methodist Church at the Chicago Temple is a church located at the base and in the utmost floors of the Chicago Temple Building, a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. The top of the building is at a height of 173 metres; the congregation was founded in 1831 and built a log cabin on the north bank of the Chicago River in 1834. In 1838, it moved the cabin across the river to the corner of Clark Streets; the current structure was completed after a debate within the congregation whether the church should remain in central Chicago or sell its valuable property and relocate to the growing suburban areas. It had its roots on John Wesley's teaching; the Chicago Temple Building is a 173-meter tall skyscraper church located at 77 W. Washington Street in Chicago, United States, it is home to the congregation of the First United Methodist Church of Chicago. It has 23 floors dedicated to religious and office use, it is by one measure the tallest church building in the world based on the distance from the church's street level entrance to the top of the church's spire or steeple.

Although by stipulating that a church building's usage be or entirely devoted to religious purposes by that standard, Ulm Minster in Ulm, Germany at 161.5 metres in height is the tallest church in the world. It was the tallest building in Chicago from 1924 until 1930, when it was surpassed by the Chicago Board of Trade Building; this claim included the height of the steeple to maintain the title over the 35 East Wacker Building which opened in 1927. The building is constructed on a steel frame faced with limestone and is designed in the neo-gothic style by the firm of Holabird & Roche. During planning and construction, the building was called City Temple, however by the time of completion, the name was changed to Chicago Temple; the building houses three sanctuaries: Sanctuary 1 is four stories tall on the ground floor with seating available for 1,000 people. Sanctuary 2 is known as the "Dixon Chapel" and is on the second floor. Sanctuary 3 known as the "Sky Chapel" is the smallest sanctuary and is situated at the base of the steeple with seating for 30 people.

The Sky Chapel was created in 1952 as a gift from the Walgreen family in memory of Charles Walgreen, the founder of the eponymous pharmacy chain. At 400 ft above ground level, it is considered the world's highest worship space and contains 16 stained glass windows. Four depict scenes from the Old Testament, four from the life of Jesus, four represent the history of the Christian Church in the Old World, the final four the church in the New World; the carved wood altar-front depicts Jesus looking over the city of Chicago, mirroring the front of the sanctuary altar, which shows Jesus looking over Jerusalem. Floors 4 through 21 of the building are rented office space with one residential area, used by the Methodist church's senior pastor as a parsonage, occupying the three floors of the spire, just below the Sky Chapel; the sixth floor of the building once held the office of the famous trial attorney. A fictionalized version of the building is one of the settings in Charles Merrill Smith's Father Randollph detective series, where the title character is the senior pastor resident in the skyscraper's parsonage.

The temple is located at the southeast corner of Clark and Washington Street across from the Richard J. Daley Center which houses offices for the offices for the city of Chicago and Cook County courts and the Chicago Picasso. Due to its proximity to the Cook County and US District Courts, the majority of the building's tenants are attorney's firms. A sculpture entitled Miró's Chicago by Joan Miró occupies a courtyard between the Chicago Temple and the adjacent George Dunne Cook County Building. List of tallest buildings in Chicago Court Street Methodist Church, Wisconsin, another church/commercial building combination First United Methodist Church United Methodist Church - congregational entry Emporis: Chicago Temple Building SkyscraperPage First United Methodist Church

Pumping Iron & Sweating Steel

Pumping Iron & Sweating Steel: The Best of the Iron City Houserockers is a compilation album by the Iron City Houserockers. Released in 1992 under Rhino Records, it was at that time the only Iron City Houserockers material available on compact disc; the disc covers all four of the Iron City Houserockers albums from the late seventies and early eighties and places them in chronological order with a few extra tracks thrown in to make it a worthy buy for collectors. Tracks 1–5 were taken from Love's So Tough, with "School Days", a Chuck Berry cover, being an unreleased outtake from that album. Tracks 6–11 were taken from Have a Good Time but Get out Alive!, but with the single edit version of "Junior's Bar". Tracks 12–15 were taken from Blood on the Bricks, tracks 16–17 from Cracking Under Pressure and "Goodbye Steeltown", a Joe Grushecky single released in August 1984, was included as the final song; the songs were remastered for compact disc by Bill Inglot. "I Can't Take It" – 3:55 "Dance With Me" – 4:47 "Love So Tough" – 3:43 "Heroes Are Hard to Find" – 2:57 "School Days" – 3:23 "Have a Good Time" – 3:52 "Blondie" – 2:46 "Pumping Iron" – 3:56 "Old Man Bar" – 3:17 "Junior's Bar" – 3:55 "Rock Ola" – 2:57 "Blood on the Bricks" – 4:20 "Fool's Advice" – 5:12 "Saints and Sinners" – 4:26 "Be My Friend" – 4:22 "There'll Never Be Enough Time" – 4:52 "Angels" – 3:40 "Goodbye Steeltown" – 4:17 Joe Grushecky's official web site

Leptosiphon androsaceus

Leptosiphon androsaceus is a species of flowering plant in the phlox family known by the common name false babystars. The plant is endemic to California in the San Francisco Bay Area, in the California Coast Ranges of northern and central California, the Southern Sierra Nevada, the Peninsular Ranges and Transverse Ranges of southern California, it grows below 1,200 metres in chaparral, oak woodland, grassland habitats. Similar species are: Leptosiphon latisectus, endemic to the Outer Northern California Coast Ranges. Leptosiphon androsaceus is an annual herb producing a hairy stem from 5–45 centimetres long growing erect; the oppositely arranged leaves are each divided into lobes up to 3 centimeters long and oval in shape to linear to needlelike. The tip of the stem is occupied by an inflorescence of flowers one to three centimeters wide pink or lavender with yellow or white throats; this plant is similar to its true babystars. The species is cultivated as an ornamental plant for its small, colorful blooms in traditional, native plant, drought tolerant, wildlife gardens.

Flora of the California chaparral and woodlands List of California native plants Calflora Database: Leptosiphon androsaceus Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Leptosiphon androsaceus UC CalPhotos gallery: Leptosiphon androsaceus

Rahamim Naouri

Rahamim Naouri was an Algerian rabbi. He served as the chief rabbi of Bône, French Algeria, the head of a rabbinical court in Paris, France. Rahamim Naouri was born in 1902. Naouri served as the chief rabbi of Bône. Naouri was a religious Zionist, he was an advocate of the creation of the State of Israel in 1948, he supported Bnei Akiva. At the outset of the Algerian War, Naouri vowed to stay in Bône as long. In 1962, some suggested Naouri should join a temporary unity government in Rocher Noir in the manner of the Moroccan government. Naouri subsequently served as the head of a rabbinical court in Paris. Naouri died in 1985, he was honored in a Hazkara at the Synagogue de la Roquette on July 9, 2015 by Chief Rabbi of Paris Michel Gugenheim