Biostatistics are the development and application of statistical methods to a wide range of topics in biology. It encompasses the design of biological experiments, the collection and analysis of data from those experiments and the interpretation of the results. Biostatistical modeling forms an important part of numerous modern biological theories. Genetics studies, since its beginning, used statistical concepts to understand observed experimental results; some genetics scientists contributed with statistical advances with the development of methods and tools. Gregor Mendel started the genetics studies investigating genetics segregation patterns in families of peas and used statistics to explain the collected data. In the early 1900s, after the rediscovery of Mendel's Mendelian inheritance work, there were gaps in understanding between genetics and evolutionary Darwinism. Francis Galton tried to expand Mendel's discoveries with human data and proposed a different model with fractions of the heredity coming from each ancestral composing an infinite series.
He called this the theory of "Law of Ancestral Heredity". His ideas were disagreed by William Bateson, who followed Mendel's conclusions, that genetic inheritance were from the parents, half from each of them; this led to a vigorous debate between the biometricians, who supported Galton's ideas, as Walter Weldon, Arthur Dukinfield Darbishire and Karl Pearson, Mendelians, who supported Bateson's ideas, such as Charles Davenport and Wilhelm Johannsen. Biometricians could not reproduce Galton conclusions in different experiments, Mendel's ideas prevailed. By the 1930s, models built on statistical reasoning had helped to resolve these differences and to produce the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis. Solving these differences allowed to define the concept of population genetics and brought together genetics and evolution; the three leading figures in the establishment of population genetics and this synthesis all relied on statistics and developed its use in biology. Ronald Fisher developed several basic statistical methods in support of his work studying the crop experiments at Rothamsted Research, including in his books Statistical Methods for Research Workers end The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection.
He gave many contributions to statistics. Some of them include the ANOVA, p-value concepts, Fisher's exact test and Fisher's equation for population dynamics, he is credited for the sentence “Natural selection is a mechanism for generating an exceedingly high degree of improbability”. Sewall G. Wright developed F-statistics and methods of computing them and defined inbreeding coefficient. J. B. S. Haldane's book, The Causes of Evolution, reestablished natural selection as the premier mechanism of evolution by explaining it in terms of the mathematical consequences of Mendelian genetics. Developed the theory of primordial soup; these and other biostatisticians, mathematical biologists, statistically inclined geneticists helped bring together evolutionary biology and genetics into a consistent, coherent whole that could begin to be quantitatively modeled. In parallel to this overall development, the pioneering work of D'Arcy Thompson in On Growth and Form helped to add quantitative discipline to biological study.
Despite the fundamental importance and frequent necessity of statistical reasoning, there may nonetheless have been a tendency among biologists to distrust or deprecate results which are not qualitatively apparent. One anecdote describes Thomas Hunt Morgan banning the Friden calculator from his department at Caltech, saying "Well, I am like a guy, prospecting for gold along the banks of the Sacramento River in 1849. With a little intelligence, I can pick up big nuggets of gold, and as long as I can do that, I'm not going to let any people in my department waste scarce resources in placer mining." Any research in life sciences is proposed to answer a scientific question. To answer this question with a high certainty, we need accurate results; the correct definition of the main hypothesis and the research plan will reduce errors while taking a decision in understanding a phenomenon. The research plan might include the research question, the hypothesis to be tested, the experimental design, data collection methods, data analysis perspectives and costs evolved.
It is essential to carry the study based on the three basic principles of experimental statistics: randomization and local control. The research question will define the objective of a study; the research will be headed by the question, so it needs to be concise, at the same time it is focused on interesting and novel topics that may improve science and knowledge and that field. To define the way to ask the scientific question, an exhaustive literature review might be necessary. So, the research can be useful to add value to the scientific community. Once the aim of the study is defined, the possible answers to the research question can be proposed, transforming this question into a hypothesis; the main propose is called null hypothesis and is based on a permanent knowledge about the topic or an obvious occurrence of the phenomena, sustained by a deep literature review. We can say. In general, HO assumes no association between treatments. On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis is the denial of HO.
It assumes some degree of association between the outcome. Although, the hypothesis is sustained by question research and its expected and unexpected answers; as an example, consider groups of similar animals under two different diet systems. The research question would be: what is the best diet? I
Les Concerts en Chine is a live album by Jean-Michel Jarre, recorded in 1981 and released in 1982 on Disques Dreyfus. It was recorded during Jarre's Concerts in China tour of Autumn 1981, which consisted of five Beijing and Shanghai concerts in China; the album is a balance of released tracks by Jarre, new compositions inspired by Chinese culture, one rearranged traditional Chinese track Fishing Junks at Sunset. The album consists of live material, plus ambient sound recordings and one new studio track "Souvenir of China". Other new compositions recorded live include "Nuit à Shanghai", "Harpe Laser", "Arpégiateur" and "Orient Express". "Jonques de pêcheurs au crépuscule" is a new arrangement of a old traditional Chinese song known as the "Fisherman's Chant at Dusk", performed and recorded with The Peking Conservatoire Symphony Orchestra and is wrongly attributed as being composed by Jean Michel Jarre, misled by the album inlay. The album was released as a double-disc LP as a double-disc CD. There was a CD release in two separate volumes, with the cover color changed to blue and yellow.
In 1997, a one-disc remastered CD was released, made possible by reducing the total running time to 78:17 by reducing the gaps and audience noise between tracks. The remastering was done by Scott Hull at Masterdisk to 24 bit standard. One of the album's original tracks – "Arpégiateur" – was used in the soundtrack of the film 9½ Weeks as well as in several mid-1980s episodes of the American soap opera Santa Barbara. Opening track; the album reached # 1 in Portugal. "The Overture" – 4:47 "Arpegiator" – 6:51 "Equinoxe 4" – 7:39 "Fishing Junks at Sunset" – 9:35 "Band in the Rain" – 1:23 "Equinoxe 7" – 9:52 "Orient Express" – 4:21 "Magnetic Fields 1" – 0:28 "Magnetic Fields 3" – 3:48 "Magnetic Fields 4" – 6:43 "Laser Harp" – 3:26 "Night in Shanghai" – 7:02 "The Last Rumba" – 2:03 "Magnetic Fields 2" – 6:19 "Souvenir of China" – 4:00 Jean-Michel Jarre – Fairlight CMI, Oberheim OB-Xa, Moog Taurus, EMS Synthi AKS, EMS VCS 3, Linn LM-1, Electro-Harmonix Micro Synthesizer, laser harp, Elka X-705 Frederick Rousseau – MDB Polysequencer, RSF, Yamaha CS-60, Korg Rhythm, ARP 2600 Dominique Perrier – Moog Liberation, Sequential Circuits Prophet-5, Korg Polyphonique, RSF Kobol Roger Rizzitelli – Electronic percussion, Simmons electronic drum Pierre Mourey – musical instrument coordinator Peking Conservatoire Symphony Orchestra – Chinese orchestra on "Fishing Junks at Sunset" Huang Feili – orchestra conductor on "Fishing Junks at Sunset" Mrs. Li Meng, Mr. Wang Zhi – collaborating artists on "Fishing Junks at Sunset" Live recording by: René AMMELINE & Patrick AUFOUR with the FLIGHT MOBILE.
Scrub Daddy is a cleaning tools company best known for a sponge that it manufactures called Scrub Daddy, in the shape of a smiley face. The product is made of a polymer which changes texture - hard in cold water; as of 2019, Scrub Daddy had the highest revenue of any product pitched on the ABC reality show Shark Tank. After damaging a car, detailer Aaron Krause invented his own line of polishing pads; the company was acquired by 3M in August 2008. 3M did not purchase a line of sponges. Five years Krause used the remaining sponges to clean his dishes and lawn furniture. According to Krause, this is when he "realized his multi-million dollar idea."According to the company's website, Scrub Daddy, Inc. was founded in 2012 with grassroots marketing. On the Shark Tank episode airing in October 2012, Lori Greiner made a 20% equity stake deal with Krause for $200,000; the following day and Krause sold out of 42,000 sponges in under seven minutes on QVC. Greiner helped Scrub Daddy to be sold in retail stores such as Bed, Bath & Beyond.
In January 2017, Scrub Daddy's total revenues surpassed $100 million – the highest of any Shark Tank product. As of November 2018, the company is valued at $170 million. Scrub Daddy is made from a strong "high-tech polymer"; the texture changes in water: hard in cold, soft in hot. The original product is yellow. Krause has two patents on its design. Krause has launched other sponges in the Scrub Daddy line, including products in multiple colors, lemon-scented, Scrub Daddy Heavy Duty, Scrub Mommy – half Scrub Daddy material and half foam sponge; the Scrub Daisy has been added to its lineup. Official website