Bipolar disorder known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and abnormally elevated moods. If the elevated mood is severe or associated with psychosis, it is called mania. During mania, an individual feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable. Individuals make poorly thought out decisions with little regard to the consequences; the need for sleep is reduced during manic phases. During periods of depression, there may be crying, a negative outlook on life, poor eye contact with others; the risk of suicide among those with the illness is high at greater than 6% over 20 years, while self-harm occurs in 30–40%. Other mental health issues such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorder are associated with bipolar disorder; the causes are not understood, but both environmental and genetic factors play a role. Many genes, each with small effects, contribute to the disorder. About 70-90% of the risk is attributed to genetics. Environmental risk factors include a history of long-term stress.
The condition is classified as bipolar I disorder if there has been at least one manic episode, with or without depressive episodes, as bipolar II disorder if there has been at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. In those with less severe symptoms of a prolonged duration, the condition cyclothymic disorder may be diagnosed. If the symptoms are due to drugs or medical problems, it is classified separately. Other conditions that may present include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders and substance use disorder as well as a number of medical conditions. Medical testing is not required for a diagnosis, though blood tests or medical imaging can be done to rule out other problems. Bipolar disorder is treated with medications, such as mood stabilizers and antipsychotics, as well as with psychotherapy. Mood stabilizers may improve mood disturbances, include lithium and certain anticonvulsants such as valproate and carbamazepine. Involuntary treatment in a psychiatric hospital may be needed if a person is a risk to themselves or others but refuses treatment.
Severe behavioral problems, such as agitation or combativeness, may be managed with short-term antipsychotics or benzodiazepines. In periods of mania, it is recommended. If antidepressants are used for periods of depression, they should be used with a mood stabilizer. Electroconvulsive therapy, while not well studied, may be tried for those who do not respond to other treatments. If any treatment is stopped, it is recommended. Many individuals have social or work-related problems due to the illness; these difficulties occur in one quarter to a third of affected individuals, on average. Due to lifestyle choices and the side effects of medications, the risk of death from natural causes such as coronary heart disease in people with bipolar is twice that of the general population. Bipolar disorder affects 1% of the global population. In the United States, about 3% are estimated to be affected at some point in their life; the most common age at which symptoms begin is 25. The economic cost of the disorder has been estimated at $45 billion for the United States in 1991.
A large proportion of this was related to a higher number of missed work days, estimated at 50 per year. People with bipolar disorder face problems with social stigma. Both mania and depression are characterized by disruptions in normal mood, psychomotor activity-the level of physical activity, influenced by mood-, circadian rhythm, cognition. Mania can present with varying levels of mood disturbance, ranging from euphoria, associated with "classic mania" to dysphoria and irritability; the core symptom of mania involves an increase in energy of psychomotor activity. Mania can present with increased self-esteem or grandiosity, rapid speech, the subjective feeling of rapid thoughts, disinhibited social behavior, or impulsivity. According to the DSM-5 criteria, mania is distinguished from hypomania by length, as hypomania requires four consecutive days, mania requires more than a week. Unlike mania, hypomania is not always associated with impaired functioning; the biological mechanisms responsible for switching from a manic or hypomanic episode to a depressive episode, or vice versa, remain poorly understood.
Mania is a distinct period of at least one week of elevated or irritable mood, which can range from euphoria to delirium. Those experiencing hypomania or mania exhibit several of the following behaviors: speaking in a rapid, uninterruptible manner, decreased need for sleep, short attention span, racing thoughts, increased goal-oriented activities, agitation, or exhibition of behaviors characterized as impulsive or high-risk, such as hypersexuality or excessive spending. To meet the definition for a manic episode, these behaviors must impair the individual's ability to socialize or work. If untreated, a manic episode lasts three to six months. Manic individuals have a history of substance abuse developed over years as a form of "self-medication". At the most extreme, a person in a full-blown manic state can experience psychosis: a break with reality, a state in which thinking is affected along with mood, they may feel unstoppable, or as if they have been "chosen" and are on a "special mission", or have other grandiose or delusional ideas.
This may lead to violent behavior and, hospitalization in an inpatient psychiatric
Keith Alison Olive is a theoretical physicist, director at the William I Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Minnesota, specializing in particle physics and cosmology. His main topics of research are: big bang nucleosynthesis, an explanation of the origin of the light element isotopes through 7Li. Olive received in 1978 a bachelor's degree in mathematics from the University of Chicago and a master's degree in physics in the same year and in 1981 a PhD in physics, his dissertation dealt with particle physics. In 1982/83 he was at CERN. There Olive began his research on supersymmetry. Olive is a professor at the University of Minnesota, where in 1998 he became McKnight University Professor. At the Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, he was the director from 1999 to 2005 and in 2011 again became the director. Olive was the 2018 Hans Bethe Prize Recipient, he is one of the editors of a book, Inner Space/Outer Space, The University of Chicago Press and a number of journal articles. His most cited article, cited 2,357 times according to Google Scholar is "Supersymmetric relics from the big bang".
Science Watch December 2011
Northfleet United Football Club was a football club based in Northfleet, Kent. The club were founded in 1890. In 1905 Northfleet United moved into the newly constructed Stonebridge Road ground, they joined the Kent League in 1906–07 and were runners-up in their inaugural season.'The Fleet' followed that with three successive championship titles in 1907–08, 1908–09 and 1909–10. The team repeated winning the championship in 1919–20 and were runners-up in 1921–22. In the intervening season, 1920–21, they were winners of the Kent Senior Cup. Following financial difficulties in 1923, Northfleet entered into a formal arrangement whereby they played youngsters from Football League Tottenham Hotspur. United were Kent League Cup winners in 1923–24, League runners-up in the following season and a year in 1925–26 were Kent League Division 1 champions scoring 172 goals over a 36 match season; the club were Kent League Cup finalists in 1926–27, losing to the Chatham based Royal Naval Depot. For five successive seasons between 1923–24 to 1927–28 Northfleet United won the Kent Senior Cup.
Northfleet United joined the Southern League in 1927–28, joining the Easern Section, but left in 1930. and rejoined the Kent League In 1931, the arrangement with Tottenham Hotspur was upgraded to full nursery team status, this heralded a period of seven seasons of success during which period they scored a minimum of 110 goals in league competition each season. Northfleet were Kent League Division 1 Championship and Kent League Cup double winners in 1931–32, 1934–35, 1936–37. Additionally, they were Kent League Division 1 Championship winners twice more in 1935–36 & 1938–39, were Kent League Cup victors again in 1937–38, lifted the Kent Senior Cup in 1937–38 too; the club were Kent Senior Cup semi-finalists in both 1935–36 and 1936–37, losing to ultimate winners and Arsenal nursery team Margate on both occasions. The 1932–33 season was by comparison a relative anticlimax as Kent League runners-up, to Margate on goal average only! With the outbreak of the Second World War league competition ceased as did the nursery team arrangement.
In 1946, the club merged with Gravesend United to form Gravesend & Northfleet, now known as Ebbsfleet United who continue to play at the Northfleet United home ground of Stonebridge Road. In November 2015, to celebrate the 125th anniversary of its founding, a complete history of the club – called Set In Concrete – was published. Key Sources Non-League Football matters Football Club History Database The Southern Counties East Football League Jeff Trice's Margate FC history website 1. Players that have played/managed in any foreign equivalent to this level. 2. Players with full international caps. 3. Players that hold a club record or have captained the club. Charles Alton Sidney Mulford Bill Nicholson Ted Ditchburn Ron Burgess