Victoria is a state in south-eastern Australia. Victoria is Australia's smallest mainland state and its second-most populous state overall, thus making it the most densely populated state overall. Most of its population lives concentrated in the area surrounding Port Phillip Bay, which includes the metropolitan area of its state capital and largest city, Australia's second-largest city. Victoria is bordered by Bass Strait and Tasmania to the south,New South Wales to the north, the Tasman Sea to the east, South Australia to the west; the area, now known as Victoria is the home of many Aboriginal people groups, including the Boon wurrung, the Bratauolung, the Djadjawurrung, the Gunai/Kurnai, the Gunditjmara, the Taungurong, the Wathaurong, the Wurundjeri, the Yorta Yorta. There were more than 30 Aboriginal languages spoken in the area prior to the European settlement of Australia; the Kulin nation is an alliance of five Aboriginal nations which makes up much of the central part of the state. With Great Britain having claimed the half of the Australian continent, east of the 135th meridian east in 1788, Victoria formed part of the wider colony of New South Wales.
The first European settlement in the area occurred in 1803 at Sullivan Bay, much of what is now Victoria was included in 1836 in the Port Phillip District, an administrative division of New South Wales. Named in honour of Queen Victoria, who signed the division's separation from New South Wales, the colony was established in 1851 and achieved self government in 1855; the Victorian gold rush in the 1850s and 1860s increased both the population and wealth of the colony, by the time of the Federation of Australia in 1901, Melbourne had become the largest city and leading financial centre in Australasia. Melbourne served as federal capital of Australia until the construction of Canberra in 1927, with the Federal Parliament meeting in Melbourne's Parliament House and all principal offices of the federal government being based in Melbourne. Politically, Victoria has 37 seats in the Australian House of Representatives and 12 seats in the Australian Senate. At state level, the Parliament of Victoria consists of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
The Labor Party led Daniel Andrews as premier has governed Victoria since 2014. The personal representative of the Queen of Australia in the state is the Governor of Victoria Linda Dessau. Victoria is divided into 79 municipal districts, including 33 cities, although a number of unincorporated areas still exist, which the state administers directly; the economy of Victoria is diversified, with service sectors including financial and property services, education, retail and manufacturing constitute the majority of employment. Victoria's total gross state product ranks second in Australia, although Victoria ranks fourth in terms of GSP per capita because of its limited mining activity. Culturally, Melbourne hosts a number of museums, art galleries, theatres, is described as the world's sporting capital; the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the largest stadium in Australia and the Southern Hemisphere, hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The ground is considered the "spiritual home" of Australian cricket and Australian rules football, hosts the grand final of the Australian Football League each year, drawing crowds of 100,000.
Nearby Melbourne Park has hosted the Australian Open, one of tennis' four Grand Slam events, annually since 1988. Victoria has eight public universities, with the oldest, the University of Melbourne, dating from 1853. Victoria, like Queensland, was named after Queen Victoria, on the British throne for 14 years when the colony was established in 1851. After the founding of the colony of New South Wales in 1788, Australia was divided into an eastern half named New South Wales and a western half named New Holland, under the administration of the colonial government in Sydney; the first British settlement in the area known as Victoria was established in October 1803 under Lieutenant-Governor David Collins at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip. It consisted of 402 people, they had been sent from England in HMS Calcutta under the command of Captain Daniel Woodriff, principally out of fear that the French, exploring the area, might establish their own settlement and thereby challenge British rights to the continent.
In 1826, Colonel Stewart, Captain Samuel Wright, Lieutenant Burchell were sent in HMS Fly and the brigs Dragon and Amity, took a number of convicts and a small force composed of detachments of the 3rd and 93rd regiments. The expedition landed at Settlement Point, on the eastern side of Western Port Bay, the headquarters until the abandonment of Western Port at the insistence of Governor Darling about 12 months afterwards. Victoria's next settlement was on the south west coast of what is now Victoria. Edward Henty settled Portland Bay in 1834. Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman, who set up a base in Indented Head, John Pascoe Fawkner. From settlement, the region around Melbourne was known as the Port Phillip District, a separately administered part of New South Wales. Shortly after, the site now known as Geelong was surveyed by Assistant Surveyor W. H. Smythe, three weeks after Melbourne, and in 1838, Geelong was declared a town, despite earlier European settlements dating back to 1826
Calder Highway is a highway in Australia, linking Melbourne in Victoria, to Bendigo and Mildura and the Victoria/New South Wales border on the way to Broken Hill. It continues through New South Wales to Broken Hill and the New South Wales/Queensland border as the Silver City Highway, posted as route B79 as far as Broken Hill; the highway is called the Calder Freeway south of Bendigo where it has been upgraded to freeway-standard, superseding sections of the original Calder Highway. It has been extended in phases from the southern end to Ravenswood South subsuming the older Calder Highway stretches; the Victorian Government completed the duplication of the Calder Highway from Melbourne to Bendigo to freeway conditions on 20 April 2009. The Calder Highway was named after William Calder, chairman of the Country Roads Board from 1913 to 1928; the CRB is today known as VicRoads. The highway was allocated a National Route 79 shield. With Victoria's conversion to the newer alphanumeric system in the late 1990s this was altered to an A79 designation for the highway portion, M79 designation for the freeway portion into Melbourne, the New South Wales section allocated B79 in 2013.
The Calder Highway started at the end of Keilor Road in Niddrie. In the early 1970s the road was upgraded to freeway standard together with the Tullamarine Freeway, ending in Keilor East in suburban Melbourne and rejoining the Calder Highway. By the early 1980s the Freeway was extended to Keilor and rejoined the Calder Highway. However, it was not until the 1990s; the Calder Highway between the Melton Highway and the Western Ring Road is shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F4 Freeway corridor, which extends past the Tullamarine Freeway and Bell Street to Templestowe. South of the Victoria/New South Wales border the highway is a two-lane, single carriageway in each direction, continuing through northwest Victoria from the Abbotsford Bridge, through Merbein to the major regional town of Mildura, where it is 2 lanes each way through southern Mildura and Irymple, in the state's north-west. Here it crosses the Sturt Highway leading to capital cities Adelaide heading west and Sydney heading east.
Further south, it crosses the Mallee Highway at Ouyen and runs south-east to Bendigo. Between Red Cliffs and Wycheproof the highway has a speed limit of 110 km/h; the Calder Alternate Highway bypasses the Bendigo suburban area. Its southern end is just north of Ravenswood and the northern end is at Marong, west of Bendigo. For most of its length from Ravenswood South to the junction with the Tullamarine Freeway in Melbourne, the Calder Freeway is a four lane dual carriageway freeway which bypasses the towns the old alignment of the highway used to serve; the Old Calder Highway has been designated C794 from where it leaves the new Calder Freeway at Ravenswood South. The north-western end of the freeway is duplexed with the A300 until south of Harcourt where the highway resumes south-westerly to the major regional centres of Castlemaine and Geelong. Towns bypassed by, but still accessible from, the Calder Freeway include: Harcourt, Taradale, Kyneton, Macedon and Diggers Rest, it gains the State Route 40 shield at the Green Gully Road interchange in Keilor, which continues east onto the Tullamarine Freeway city-bound.
The freeway ends at the interchange with the Tullamarine Freeway, the main route from the central business district to Melbourne Airport. Continuing on the Tullamarine Freeway brings vehicles onto CityLink, thus, central Melbourne. Within the urban section of the Calder Freeway, the standard travel time, in each direction, is 10 minutes. (5 minutes between Kings Road and the Western Ring Road and 5 minutes between the Western Ring Road and the Tullamarine Freeway. The usual peak period travel time, is between 9–13 minutes. However, when there is extreme congestion or roadworks, including being residual from an incident, the travel time can go beyond 13 minutes, sometimes upwards of 20 minutes plus. 1972 - 1.2 miles with 3 lanes in each direction, opened from the Tullamarine Freeway/Lancefield Road to the Calder Highway at Niddrie. This section was opened 21 April 1972, by the Minister for Local Government, the Hon. A J Hunt, MLC, at a cost of $A3m. 1975 - Keilor East. 2 km from The Avenue to Erberus Street, opened December 1974 at a cost of A$2.5m.
1982 - 3.8 km from Erebus Street, Keilor Park to Arundel Road, with two lanes each direction, plus emergency stopping lanes. Opened 18 May 1982 by Minister for Transport, the Hon S M Crabb MP at a cost of A$15.5m. 1984 – Keilor bypass. Bendigo-bound carriageway opened 17 April 1984, from Arundel Road to west of Oakbank Road; the opening of this carriageway completed the bypass of Keilor. The cost of the entire bypass from Erebus Street to west of Oakbank Road was A$30m. 1989 – Gisborne bypass opened 17 March 1989. The 6 km bypass cost A$25m. 1990/1991 – Oakbank Road, Keilor North to Duncans Lane, Diggers Rest. 7.7 km of newly duplicated ‘2 lane carriageway’ opened to traffic at a cost of A$14m. No exact date was given, however VicRoads Annual Reports cover the previous financial year. 1991/1992 – 2 km of duplication completed at Ravenswood during 1991/1992 at a cost of A$1.3m. 1993 - Diggers Rest bypass. $A32m 6.5 km bypass opened to traffic in July 1993, followed by the Vinyard Road interchange in November 1993.
1994 – Ravenswood section. Duplication of the highway completed ‘in 1994’ 1995 - Kyneton bypass opened to traffic in April 1995, a
Swan Hill is a city in the northwest of Victoria, Australia on the Murray Valley Highway and on the south bank of the Murray River, downstream from the junction of the Loddon River. At the 2016 census, Swan Hill had a population of 10,905. In the Dreamtime, Totyerguil ran out of spears; this chase is part of the mythology of the creation of the Murray River. Based on evidence from Coobool Creek and Kow Swamp, it appears that Aboriginal people have lived in the area for the last 13,000–9,000 years; the area is inhabited by the Wati-Wati people. Swan Hill was "place of the Platypus" by the Wemba Wemba people; the area was given its current name by explorer Thomas Mitchell, while camping beside a hill on 21 June 1836. Among the reeds on the point of ground between the two rivers was a shallow lagoon where swans and other wild fowl so abounded that, although half a mile from our camp, their noise disturbed us through the night. I therefore named this somewhat remarkable and isolated feature Swan Hill, a point which may be found to mark the junction of two fine streams.
The European community grew up around a punt river crossing, established as early as 1846. This crossing serviced the growing agricultural area, was the only river crossing for 100 km; the Post Office opened here on 1 February 1849. In 1853 Francis Cadell navigated the Murray river from its mouth in South Australia to Swan Hill in his paddle steamer, Lady Augusta, he arrived on 17 September 1853, narrowly beating William Randell of Mannum, who arrived 4 hours in the PS Mary Ann. This demonstrated the feasibility of river traffic, which flourished until the introduction of the railway. In 1876 Swan Hill was described in the following terms: Swan-hill is a small, notwithstanding its 20 or 25 years of existence, not flourishing, township… The population does not exceed 100 persons, but the township can boast of a substantial post and telegraph office, the principal building in the place. There is a church built of brick, belonging to the Church of England, a small wooden chapel owned by some other denomination.
The hospital, for Swan-hill can boast of a hospital, is prettily situated at the junction of the Little Murray with the main stream. The district around the town is principally pastoral. About 10 or 12 miles distant there is a salt lake, from which a coarse salt is obtained and exported to Riverina and the Upper Murray. There is a mail three times a week, the township is connected with the metropolis by telegraph. In 1883 the first of several red brick water towers were built to supply the growing town with water. Water was pumped out of the river and into the top of the tower by a wood-fired steam engine, flowed by gravitation to surrounding businesses and private residences. Many of these towers can still be seen around town; the railway from Bendigo was extended from Kerang to Swan Hill station in May 1890, being extended to Piangil in 1915. The punt river crossing was replaced by a timber truss, steel lift span bridge in 1896; the first six telephones were connected in Swan Hill on 2 October 1911.
The National Bank was phone number 1. In 1914, Isaburo Takasuka produced the first commercial rice crop in Australia, he grew Japanese varieties on 200 acres of flood prone land on the Murray River near Swan Hill. The Chinese had been growing rice in Australia since at least 1877. Swan Hill became a city in 1965; the Burke and Wills expedition reached Swan Hill on Thursday, 6 September 1860 on their journey across Australia from Melbourne to the Gulf of Carpentaria. They made Camp XV in the police paddock on the banks of the Murray River in an area, now Riverside Park; the expedition stayed in Swan Hill until 10 September while they reorganised the stores. Burke dismissed four men, he hired Alexander McPherson, a saddler from Epsom and Charlie Gray, a former sailor from Scotland who had worked as an ostler for Cobb and Co between Bendigo and Swan Hill and, now employed at the Lower Murray Inn in Swan Hill. The party was strengthened further by the arrival from Melbourne of journalist, William Hodgkinson, scientist Georg von Neumayer.
The local inhabitants gave the expedition a rousing farewell. Folklore alleges Burke and Wills planted a Moreton Bay Fig tree in the garden of the local doctor, Dr B W Gummow; the tree is now 27 metres high and has a branch spread of 44 metres and can be seen in Curlewis Street. The Murray River road bridge over the Murray River connects McCallum Street in Swan Hill to the Swan Hill Road in Murray Downs in New South Wales; the bridge is listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register. Swan Hill gives its name to a wine region straddling the Murray River; the vines are predominantly irrigated from the river. Swan Hill cool to mild winters. Around 88% of the people living in Swan Hill were born in Australia. Migrants account for around 12 per cent, these include Italy. 3.2% of the population are Indigenous. In Swan Hill there are four primary schools, two secondary schools and three schools which run both primary and secondary syllabuses; these are Swan Hill College, MacKillop College, St Mary's Primary School, Swan Hill Primary School, Swan Hill North Primary School, Sun Centre Christian School, Victorian P-12 College of Koorie Education - Payika Campus and Swan Hill Specialist School.
Swan Hill College is well known for its anti-drug program. Tertiary education is delivered
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Wheat is a grass cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain, a worldwide staple food. The many species of wheat together make up the genus Triticum; the archaeological record suggests that wheat was first cultivated in the regions of the Fertile Crescent around 9600 BCE. Botanically, the wheat kernel is a type of fruit called a caryopsis. Wheat is grown on more land area than any other food crop. World trade in wheat is greater than for all other crops combined. In 2016, world production of wheat was 749 million tonnes, making it the second most-produced cereal after maize. Since 1960, world production of wheat and other grain crops has tripled and is expected to grow further through the middle of the 21st century. Global demand for wheat is increasing due to the unique viscoelastic and adhesive properties of gluten proteins, which facilitate the production of processed foods, whose consumption is increasing as a result of the worldwide industrialization process and the westernization of the diet.
Wheat is an important source of carbohydrates. Globally, it is the leading source of vegetal protein in human food, having a protein content of about 13%, high compared to other major cereals but low in protein quality for supplying essential amino acids; when eaten as the whole grain, wheat is a source of dietary fiber. In a small part of the general population, gluten – the major part of wheat protein – can trigger coeliac disease, noncoeliac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis. Cultivation and repeated harvesting and sowing of the grains of wild grasses led to the creation of domestic strains, as mutant forms of wheat were preferentially chosen by farmers. In domesticated wheat, grains are larger, the seeds remain attached to the ear by a toughened rachis during harvesting. In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these traits by farmers might not have been deliberately intended, but have occurred because these traits made gathering the seeds easier.
As the traits that improve wheat as a food source involve the loss of the plant's natural seed dispersal mechanisms domesticated strains of wheat cannot survive in the wild. Cultivation of wheat began to spread beyond the Fertile Crescent after about 8000 BCE. Jared Diamond traces the spread of cultivated emmer wheat starting in the Fertile Crescent sometime before 8800 BCE. Archaeological analysis of wild emmer indicates that it was first cultivated in the southern Levant, with finds dating back as far as 9600 BCE. Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadag Mountains in southeastern Turkey. Dated archeological remains of einkorn wheat in settlement sites near this region, including those at Abu Hureyra in Syria, suggest the domestication of einkorn near the Karacadag Mountain Range. With the anomalous exception of two grains from Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 date for einkorn wheat remains at Abu Hureyra is 7800 to 7500 years BCE. Remains of harvested emmer from several sites near the Karacadag Range have been dated to between 8600 and 8400 BCE, that is, in the Neolithic period.
With the exception of Iraq ed-Dubb, the earliest carbon-14 dated remains of domesticated emmer wheat were found in the earliest levels of Tell Aswad, in the Damascus basin, near Mount Hermon in Syria. These remains were dated by Willem van Zeist and his assistant Johanna Bakker-Heeres to 8800 BCE, they concluded that the settlers of Tell Aswad did not develop this form of emmer themselves, but brought the domesticated grains with them from an as yet unidentified location elsewhere. The cultivation of emmer reached Greece and Indian subcontinent by 6500 BCE, Egypt shortly after 6000 BCE, Germany and Spain by 5000 BCE. "The early Egyptians were developers of bread and the use of the oven and developed baking into one of the first large-scale food production industries." By 3000 BCE, wheat had reached Scandinavia. A millennium it reached China; the oldest evidence for hexaploid wheat has been confirmed through DNA analysis of wheat seeds, dating to around 6400-6200 BCE, recovered from Çatalhöyük.
The first identifiable bread wheat with sufficient gluten for yeasted breads has been identified using DNA analysis in samples from a granary dating to 1350 BCE at Assiros in Macedonia. From Asia, wheat continued to spread across Europe. In the British Isles, wheat straw was used for roofing in the Bronze Age, was in common use until the late 19th century. Technological advances in soil preparation and seed placement at planting time, use of crop rotation and fertilizers to improve plant growth, advances in harvesting methods have all combined to promote wheat as a viable crop; when the use of seed drills replaced broadcasting sowing of seed in the 18th century, another great increase in productivity occurred. Yields of pure wheat per unit area increased as methods of crop rotation were applied to long cultivated land, the use of fertilizers became widespread. Improved agricultural husbandry has more included threshing machines and reaping machines, tractor-drawn cultivators and planters, better varieties.
Great expansion of wheat production occurred as new arable land was farmed in the Americas and Australia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reprod
Berriwillock is a town in the Mallee region in the north-west of the Australian state of Victoria. Berriwillock is 332 kilometres north-west of Melbourne. Nearby towns include Boigbeat (about 11 kilometres north west and Culgoa 11 kilometres south east. Berriwillock is 80 kilometres due west of the Murray River and is a vibrant grain producing community. Berriwillock is adjacent to the Calder Highway, 334 kilometres northwest of Melbourne, it is served by the Berriwillock railway station on the Kulwin railway line. The line has not carried passenger services since 1977, but is still available for freight, there are bulk grain silos at the station. Berriwillock Post Office opened on 16 April 1894 shortly after the arrival of the railway. Berriwillock is the home of a charitable scheme. In drought years, it may not make a profit to donate, but most years the scheme provides grants to a range of charitable causes, it has been running since 1953. In response to a discussion with the Presbyterian minister, one farmer committed 60 hectares of land and many others contributed the seed and equipment to plant and harvest the land.
As technology has improved, what was once a day's work for 30 farmers and a picnic for their families is now only a few hours for one machine. The proceeds are split 50:50 between international causes; the proceeds of the first year went to underfed people in Europe and Asia, to the Melbourne Hospital. Golfers play at the Berriwillock Golf Club; the town is part of the Sea Lake Nandaly Football Club and until 2015 had a game played in Berriwillock every year. Media related to Berriwillock at Wikimedia Commons
Culgoa is a town in the Mallee region in the north west of the Australian state of Victoria. The town is 319 kilometres from the state capital, Melbourne. At the 2016 census, Culgoa had a population of 101, declining from 339 in 2011. Primary production in the area is predominantly barley, with some legume and oil crops. Sheep numbers have been down; the Post Office opened on 27 May 1893 as Kaneira shortly after the arrival of the railway and was renamed Culgoa in 1920. In 2006 the post office was relocated to the Culgoa Community Store, a community owned not for profit business to meet the daily needs of the locals. In 2003 when it looked like the local store would close the community formed a co-operative and purchased the store to run for themselves; the store provides newspapers, milk and some takeaway. Computer access is available to the community. Golfers may play at the Culgoa Golf Club on the Calder Highway. Other sporting venues include tennis, lawn bowls and football. In 2008 the local Primary School closed its doors after 98 years of service to the children of the area.
Media related to Culgoa at Wikimedia Commons