Upper Cumberworth is a small village in West Yorkshire, within the civil parish of Denby Dale and the Diocese of Wakefield. It is above the village of Lower Cumberworth, it occupies a rural location, surrounded by fields and woodland but close to Huddersfield, Barnsley and Sheffield by public transport or road. The 2001 Census gave the population of Upper Cumberworth and Lower Cumberworth combined as 1,222; the local woodlands are managed by the Upper Dearne Woodlands Conservation Group, who undertake tasks such as habitat conservation, access management and information. Many public footpaths run through the woodlands with information boards about animals; the woodland contains more than 75 Hairy Northern Wood Ant nests. The annual Cumberworth Carnival is held within the grounds of the first school; the carnival includes a parade of floats, one of which carries the carnival king and queen for the year, who are pupils of the first school. Marquees host stalls selling cakes and books, alongside tombolas and games.
The carnival includes demonstrations from local groups such as the flyball and the dog agility group'Springers', the model helicopter group. For the 2007 carnival the evening event included a live band for the second year running and a barbecue; the village has a pub, the Star Inn, a small shop with a post office. The village has Cumberworth CE First School; the local Saint Nicholas' church is Anglican. The churchyard has a set of stocks by some sculptural gravestones. Upper Cumberworth and Lower Cumberworth have joint cricket teams. There is a small children's playground and a larger field which contains football and basketball facilities. Violinski John Hodgson, drummer/ percussionist with Rick Wakeman's English Rock Ensemble and Violinski, an ELO offshoot. "Cumberworth: The Village", Ckcricketheritage.org.uk, Pdf download required. Retrieved 7 January 2012
Wakefield is a cathedral city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 99,251 at the 2011 census. The Battle of Wakefield took place in the Wars of the Roses and it was a Royalist stronghold in the Civil War. Wakefield became an important market town and centre for wool, exploiting its position on the navigable River Calder to become an inland port. In the 18th century, Wakefield traded in corn, coal mining and textiles and in 1888 its parish church acquired cathedral status, it became the county town of the West Riding of Yorkshire and was the seat of the West Riding County Council from 1889 until 1974, when the county and council were abolished, of the West Yorkshire Metropolitan County Council from 1974 until its dissolution in 1986. The name "Wakefield" may derive from "Waca's field" – the open land belonging to someone named "Waca" or could have evolved from the Old English word wacu, meaning "a watch or wake", feld, an open field in which a wake or festival was held.
In the Domesday Book of 1086, it was written Wachefeld and as Wachefelt. Flint and stone tools and bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and Lupset in the Wakefield area showing evidence of human activity since prehistoric times; this part of Yorkshire was home to the Brigantes until the Roman occupation in AD 43. A Roman road from Pontefract passing Streethouse, Heath Common, Ossett Street Side, through Kirklees and on to Manchester crossed the River Calder by a ford at Wakefield near the site of Wakefield Bridge. Wakefield was settled by the Angles in the 5th or 6th century and after AD 876 the area was controlled by the Vikings who founded twelve hamlets or thorpes around Wakefield, they divided the area into wapentakes and Wakefield was part of the Wapentake of Agbrigg. The settlement grew near a crossing place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate and Kirkgate; the "gate" suffix derives from Old Norse gata meaning road and kirk, from kirkja indicates there was a church.
Before 1066 the manor of Wakefield belonged to Edward the Confessor and it passed to William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings. After the Conquest Wakefield was a victim of the Harrying of the North in 1069 when William the Conqueror took revenge on the local population for resistance to Norman rule; the settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book of 1086, covered a much greater area than present day Wakefield, much of, described as "waste". The manor was granted by the crown to William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey whose descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it after his death in 1088; the construction of Sandal Castle began early in the 12th century. A second castle was abandoned. Wakefield and its environs formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding by the Warennes that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire; the Warennes, their feudal sublords, held the area until the 14th century, when it passed to their heirs. Norman tenants holding land in the region included the Lyvet family at Lupset.
The Domesday Book recorded one in Wakefield and one in Sandal Magna. The Saxon church in Wakefield was rebuilt in about 1100 in stone in the Norman style and was continually enlarged until 1315 when the central tower collapsed. By 1420 the church was again rebuilt and was extended between 1458 and 1475. In 1203 William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey received a grant for a market in the town. In 1204 King John granted the rights for a fair at the feast of All Saints, 1 November, in 1258 Henry III granted the right for fair on the feast of Saint John the Baptist, 24 June; the market was close to the church. The townsfolk of Wakefield amused themselves in games and sports earning the title "Merrie Wakefield", the chief sport in the 14th century was archery and the butts in Wakefield were at the Ings, near the river. During the Wars of the Roses, Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York was killed on 30 December 1460 in the Battle of Wakefield near Sandal Castle; as preparation for the impending invasion by the Spanish Armada in April 1558, 400 men from the wapentake of Morley and Agbrigg were summoned to Bruntcliffe near Morley with their weapons.
Men from Kirkgate, Westgate and Sandal were amongst them and all returned by August. At the time of the Civil War, Wakefield was a Royalist stronghold. An attack led by Sir Thomas Fairfax on 20 May 1643 captured the town for the Parliamentarians. Over 1500 troops were taken prisoner along with Lieutenant-General Goring. In medieval times Wakefield became an inland port on the Calder and centre for the woollen and tanning trades. In 1699 an Act of Parliament was passed creating the Aire and Calder Navigation which provided the town with access to the North Sea; the first Registry of Deeds in the country opened in 1704 and in 1765 Wakefield's cattle market was established and became the one of largest in the north of England. The town was a centre for cloth dealing, with its own piece hall, the Tammy Hall, built in 1766. In the late 1700s Georgian town houses and St John's Church were built to the north of the town centre. Wakefield was dubbed the "Merrie City" in the Middle Ages and in 1538 John Leland described it as, "a quick market town and meately large.
A right honest man shall fare well for 2d. A meal.... There be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield". At the start of 19th century Wakefield was a wealthy market town and inland port trading in wool and grain; the Aire and Calder and Calder and Hebble Navigations and the Barnsley Canal were instrumental in the development of Wakefield as an
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. With some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base; the population of the City of Sheffield is 577,800 and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group. Sheffield is the third-largest English district by population; the metropolitan population of Sheffield is 1,569,000. The city is in the eastern foothills of the Pennines, the valleys of the River Don and its four tributaries, the Loxley, the Porter Brook, the Rivelin and the Sheaf. Sixty-one per cent of Sheffield's entire area is green space, a third of the city lies within the Peak District national park. There are more than 250 parks and gardens in the city, estimated to contain around 4.5 million trees. Sheffield played a crucial role in the Industrial Revolution, with many significant inventions and technologies developed in the city.
In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel were developed locally, fuelling an tenfold increase in the population. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in these industries in the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area; the 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield, along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added has increased by 60% since 1997, standing at £9.2 billion in 2007. The economy has experienced steady growth averaging around 5% annually, greater than that of the broader region of Yorkshire and the Humber; the city has a long sporting heritage, is home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F. C. Games between the two professional clubs, Sheffield United and Sheffield Wednesday, are known as the Steel City derby; the city is home to the World Snooker Championship and the Sheffield Steelers, the UK's first professional ice hockey team.
The area now occupied by the City of Sheffield is believed to have been inhabited since at least the late Upper Paleolithic, about 12,800 years ago. The earliest evidence of human occupation in the Sheffield area was found at Creswell Crags to the east of the city. In the Iron Age the area became the southernmost territory of the Pennine tribe called the Brigantes, it is this tribe who are thought to have constructed several hill forts around Sheffield. Following the departure of the Romans, the Sheffield area may have been the southern part of the Brittonic kingdom of Elmet, with the rivers Sheaf and Don forming part of the boundary between this kingdom and the kingdom of Mercia. Anglian settlers pushed west from the kingdom of Deira. A Britonnic presence within the Sheffield area is evidenced by two settlements called Wales and Waleswood close to Sheffield; the settlements that grew and merged to form Sheffield, date from the second half of the first millennium, are of Anglo-Saxon and Danish origin.
In Anglo-Saxon times, the Sheffield area straddled the border between the kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle reports that Eanred of Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at the hamlet of Dore in 829, a key event in the unification of the kingdom of England under the House of Wessex. After the Norman conquest of England, Sheffield Castle was built to protect the local settlements, a small town developed, the nucleus of the modern city. By 1296, a market had been established at what is now known as Castle Square, Sheffield subsequently grew into a small market town. In the 14th century, Sheffield was noted for the production of knives, as mentioned in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, by the early 1600s it had become the main centre of cutlery manufacture in England outside London, overseen by the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire. From 1570 to 1584, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Sheffield Castle and Sheffield Manor. During the 1740s, a form of the crucible steel process was discovered that allowed the manufacture of a better quality of steel than had been possible.
In about the same period, a technique was developed for fusing a thin sheet of silver onto a copper ingot to produce silver plating, which became known as Sheffield plate. These innovations spurred Sheffield's growth as an industrial town, but the loss of some important export markets led to a recession in the late 18th and early 19th century; the resulting poor conditions culminated in a cholera epidemic that killed 402 people in 1832. The population of the town grew throughout the 19th century; the Sheffield and Rotherham railway was constructed in 1838. The town was incorporated as a borough in 1842, was granted a city charter in 1893; the influx of people led to demand for better water supplies, a number of new reservoirs were constructed on the outskirts of the town. The collapse of the dam wall of one of these reservoirs in 1864 resulted in the Great Sheffield Flood, which killed 270 people and devastated large parts of the town; the growing population led to the construction of many back-to-back dwellings that, along with severe pollution from the factories, inspired George Orwell in 1937 to write: "Sheffield, I suppose, could justly claim to be called the ugliest town in the Old World".
The Great Depression hit the city in the 1930s, but as international tensions increased and the Second
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Shepley is a village in the civil parish of Kirkburton, in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, in the Diocese of Wakefield. It lies 8 miles south south east of Huddersfield and 6 miles north west of Penistone. In the 2011 census the population of Shepley and Birdsedge was 2,851; the name'Shepley' derives from Old English sceap and leah, thus meaning'a clearing or meadow where sheep are kept'. However, Shepley is situated on one of several local leys comprising Crossley, Shepley, Emley, East Midgley, Stanley, Scholey and Astley; the ley idea was introduced by antiquarian Alfred Watkins in his book'The Old Straight Track' in 1925. He suggested that the ancient British used high points and hill tops as sighting points to help them navigate in a straight line and that'ley' or'leigh' place names mean "a grassy track across country", he perceived that many Roman roads followed these straight ancient tracks. Some people associate leys with the occult. Evidence exists of earlier occupation in the area at Castle Hill, a small hilltop above Birdsedge that contains defensive works which might have been either a Roman or tribal look-out station.
Some local historians claim that the ancient ridge above the Sovereign, known as'Burnt Cumberworth' contained ancient furrows before they were destroyed by quarrying in the late 20th century.'Sceaplei' is mentioned in the Domesday Book, written in 1086. Shepley's population suffered during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North 1069–1070 when the king laid to waste towns and villages between the Scottish border and the River Humber in order to put down a northern rebellion against his Norman rule. Thousands of people were put to the sword. However, the village was soon back in political favour, as in 1217, a certain Matthew of Sheplei was knighted and his name appears in the records of the Beaumont family of Whitley Beaumont and of Bretton Hall near Wakefield. There is a reference to Shepley in the Inquisitions Post Mortem, written in the 33rd year of Henry III's reign. "Extent. The vigil of St. Matthew, 33 Hen. III. Scheplay alias Sepeleya town, a capital messuage, 6l. Rents from free tenants, 6s.
10d. From cottars, a mill, a little wood, &c. tenure unspecified."If the township of Shepley was subinfeudated before 1166, Shepley's mesne tenancy would have been held by William de Neville, husband of Amabel, daughter of Adam, son of Sveinn. By the 13th century, the tenancy had passed to the Burgh family. Shepley Hall, situated on Station Road, was the manor house for the village. In 1361 Robert de Goldthorpe, known as Robert Robertson, married Esabell de Shepley and, as a result inherited part of the manor and estates of Shepley. In 1542, during the reign of Henry VIII Thomas Goldthorpe sold his share of Shepley manor and other lands for £290 to a certain Richard Stansfield and thereby appeared to terminate the family's connection with the manor. However, in the local fines records for 1543, it states "William Goldthorp, gent Manor of Shepley called Shepley Hall, tenements in Shepley and Burton. In the early 19th century, Sir Joseph Radcliffe from Milnsbridge House was Lord of the Manor, he was knighted for his role in suppressing the Luddites in the Huddersfield area following the murder of Marsden mill owner William Horsfall in 1812.
In 1868 Shepley was described as a township and chapelry in the parish of Kirkburton, upper division of Agbrigg Wapentake, West Riding County York. The village was recorded as having 30 tailor's shops in a population of around 1,000; these would have sprung up as a result of the four mills around the village manufacturing fine woollen worsteds. The Reverend Ben Swift Chambers, founding father of Everton and Liverpool football clubs was born in the nearby village of Stocksmoor, he lived in the old school house in Shepley. Ben is buried in the village. Shepley is connected by the A629 to Huddersfield through to Barnsley and Sheffield and by the A635/A636 to Wakefield through to Holmfirth. Shepley railway station is on the Penistone line. Shepley's amenities include St. Paul's Church, a Methodist chapel, a first school catering for children aged between 4 and 10 years, a library and information point, a newly built health centre and pharmacy, dentist's surgery. Shops include a post office, newsagent and a small co-operative food store, which became part of Central England Co-operative following refurbishment in August 2013.
The Black Bull and The Farmers Boy are the two public houses near the centre of the village. The Sovereign Inn, The Cask and Spindle and The Toss O'Coin Inn all lie on the periphery. There are many sports facilities in the village including tennis, bowling and most prominently, Shepley Cricket Club. Shepley has a Women's Institute, The Evergreens and Scouts, Rainbows and Guides and a regular village magazine. There is a long tradition of music making in the village and Shepley Band is a successful wind band; the village association meets every month to discuss issues affecting the local community. Everyone who lives in the village can attend meetings. Villagers have set up the Shepley Hub - a community enterprise company - to safeguard the library from closure. Farming and quarrying are the predominant industries in the area. Farming would have been the village's main industry, although the wool trade started to grow from the 14th century onwards, gaining momentum following t
Friends meeting house
A Friends meeting house is a meeting house of the Religious Society of Friends, where meeting for worship is held. Friends meeting houses do not have steeples. Quakers do not believe, they believe that "where two or three meet together in my name, I am there among them". Therefore, meeting for worship may take place in any place. Early Quakers met for worship outdoors or in local public buildings. However, when the Religious Society of Friends began to grow there became a need for buildings to house their meetings. Quakers have always reserved the word church to mean the body of people who make up the worshipping community: Quakers do not use the word church to refer to the bricks and mortar of a worshipping community. George Fox, an early Quaker, spoke of places of worship that have steeples as steeple houses, those that do not as meeting houses; this practice is shared by a number of other non-conformist Christian denominations, including Unitarians, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Mennonites.
Some Friends meeting houses were adapted from existing structures. Briggflatts Meeting House in Cumbria, England is an example of the latter; the hallmark of a meeting house is the absence of any liturgical symbols. More though, the defining characteristics of the Quaker meetinghouse are simplicity, equality and peace. Though never explicitly written or spoken about, these tenets of Quakerism were the basic, only, guidelines for building a meetinghouse, as was seen through the continuity of the use of Testimonies within meetinghouse design. While meetinghouse design evolved over time to a standardization of the double-cell structure without explicit guidelines for building, the meetinghouse’s reflective architecture revealed a deeper meaning; the meetinghouse design manifested and enhanced Quaker Testimonies and the cultivation of the Inner Light, essential to Friends. Quakers moved from one place of meeting to another, but when given the opportunity to design and construct their own place of meeting, Friends infused their Testimonies in the planning and construction of the building.
Meeting Houses built in a traditional style had two meeting rooms: one for the main meeting for worship, another where the women's business meeting may be held. Meeting houses of this style have a minister's gallery at one end of the meeting room, where traditionally those traveling in the ministry would have sat, with an elders bench in front of this. Wooden benches facing this occupy the rest of the room with a gallery for extra seating. Meeting houses of this style have high windows so that worshippers sitting in meeting for worship cannot see outside. Meeting houses built in a more modern design will consist of: a large meeting room, smaller rooms for committees, children's classes, etc. A kitchen and toilets; the meeting room itself is a place for Friends to withdraw from the world. The windows are set sufficiently high that worshippers will not be distracted by the activities of the world's people outside, or in some cases they provide a view into the meeting house garden; the seating was long and wooden.
Today it is separate chairs but the layout remains the same – a square or rectangle facing inwards to a central table. See the list of Friends Meeting Houses in England Briggflatts Meeting House, near Sedbergh, England Brighton Friends Meeting House, East Sussex, England Coanwood Friends Meeting House, in an isolated, unpopulated valley south of Hadrian's Wall, about 2 miles east of the village of Coanwood, about 5 miles south of the town of Haltwhistle in Northumberland, England Come-to-Good Friends Meeting House, near Truro, Cornwall, UK, it was known as Kea Meeting House and Feock Meeting House. Quaker Meetinghouse, Sheffield, England Godalming Friends Meeting House, Surrey, England Ifield Friends Meeting House, Ifield neighbourhood of Crawley, West Sussex, England Jordans Friends Meeting House, England Leicester Friends Meeting House Littlehampton Friends Meeting House, part of the Arun district of West Sussex, England Osmotherley Friends Meeting House, North Yorkshire, England Petts Wood Friends Meeting House, England The historic meeting house of Congénies, since 1788 Quaker Meetinghouse, County Westmeath List of Quaker meeting houses Alexander, William.
Observations on the Construction and Fitting Up of Meeting Houses &c for Public Worship: Illustrated by Plans and Description, Including One Lately Erected in the City of York, Embracing in Particular the Method of Warming and Ventilating. York, England: the author, 1820. Lippincott, Horace Mather. Abington Friends Meeting and School: 1682–1949. N.p.: n.p. 1949. Rose, Harold Wickliffe; the Colonial Houses of Worship in America. New York: Hastings House, Publishers, 1963. Flickr site for photographs of British Friends Meeting Houses, arranged by County Hopewell Centre Monthly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends "Quakers The Hopewell Meeting House was built in 1759 to 1761 and enlarged during 1788–1791. Haverford College triptych tri-college digital library, collection of photographs of meeting houses in the United States Randolph Friends Meeting House Friends meeting houses UK search
The Pennines known as the Pennine Chain or Pennine Hills, are a range of mountains and hills in England separating North West England from Yorkshire and North East England. Described as the "backbone of England", the Pennine Hills form a more-or-less continuous range stretching northwards from the Peak District in the northern Midlands, through the South Pennines, Yorkshire Dales and North Pennines up to the Tyne Gap, which separates the range from the Cheviot Hills; some definitions of the Pennines include the Cheviot Hills while excluding the southern Peak District. South of the Aire Gap is a western spur into east Lancashire, comprising the Rossendale Fells, West Pennine Moors and the Bowland Fells in North Lancashire; the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells in Cumbria are sometimes considered to be Pennine spurs to the west of the range. The Pennines are an important water catchment area with numerous reservoirs in the head streams of the river valleys; the region is considered to be one of the most scenic areas of the United Kingdom.
The North Pennines and Nidderdale are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty within the range, as are Bowland and Pendle Hill. Parts of the Pennines are incorporated into the Peak District National Park and the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Britain's oldest long-distance footpath, the Pennine Way, runs along most of the Pennine Chain and is 268 miles long. Various etymologies have been proposed treating "Pennine" as though it were a native Brittonic/Modern Welsh name related to pen-. In fact, it did not become a common name until the 18th century and certainly derives from modern comparisons with the Apennine Mountains, which run down the middle of Italy in a similar fashion. Following an 1853 article by Arthur Hussey, it has become a common belief that the name derives from a passage in The Description of Britain, an infamous historical forgery concocted by Charles Bertram in the 1740s and accepted as genuine until the 1840s. In 2004, George Redmonds reassessed this, finding that numerous respected writers passed over the origin of the mountains' name in silence in works dedicated to the topological etymology of Derbyshire and Lancashire.
He found that the derivation from Bertram was believed and considered uncomfortable. In fact, he found repeated comparisons going back at least as early as Camden, many of whose placenames and ideas Bertram incorporated into his work. Bertram was responsible with popularizing the name against other contenders such as Daniel Defoe's "English Andes", his own form of the name was the "Pennine Alps", which today is used for a western section of the continental Alps. Those mountains derive their name from the Latin Alpes Pœninæ whose name has been variously derived from the Carthaginians, a local god, Celtic peninus; the St. Bernard Pass was the pass used in the invasions of Italy by the Gallic Boii and Lingones in 390 BC; the etymology of the Apennines themselves—whose name first referred to their northern extremity and later spread southward—is disputed but is taken to derive from some form of Celtic pen or ben. Various towns and geographical features within the Pennines retain Celtic names, including Penrith, the fell Pen-y-ghent, the River Eden, the area of Cumbria.
More local names result from Anglo-Saxon and Norse settlements. In Yorkshire and Cumbria, many words of Norse origin, not used in standard English, are part of everyday speech: for example, gill/ghyll, beck and dale; the northern Pennine range is bordered by the foothills of the Lake District, uplands of the Howgill Fells, Orton Fells and Cheviot Hills. The West Pennine Moors, Rossendale Valley and Forest of Bowland are western spurs of the range, the former two of which are included as part of the South Pennines; the Howgill Fells and Orton Fells are sometimes considered to be part of the Pennines, with both of them lying inside the Yorkshire Dales National Park. The Pennines are fringed by extensive lowlands including the Eden Valley, West Lancashire Coastal Plain, Cheshire Plain, Vale of York, the Midland Plains. Most of the Pennine landscape is characterised by upland areas of high moorland indented by more fertile river valleys, although the landscape varies in different areas; the Peak District consists of hilly plateaus and valleys, divided into the Dark Peak with moorlands and gritstone edges, the White Peak with limestone gorges.
The South Pennines is an area of hilly landscape and moorlands with narrow valleys between the Peak District, Forest of Bowland and Yorkshire Dales. Bowland is dominated by a central upland landform of incised gritstone fells covered with tracts of heather-covered peat moorland, blanket bog and steep-sided wooded valleys linking the upland and lowland landscapes; the landscape is more mountainous in the Yorkshire Dales and North Pennines. The Yorkshire Dales are characterised by moorlands, hills and mountains while the North Pennines consist of high upland plateaus, fells and valleys with most of the area containing flat topped hills while the higher peaks are in the western half. Although the Pennines cover the area between the Tyne Gap and the Peak District, the presence of the Pennine Way affects the northern and southern extents of the defined area; the Cheviot Hills, separated by the Tyne Gap and the Whin Sill, along which run the A69 and Hadrian's Wall, are not part of the Pennines but because the Pennine Way crosses them, they are treated as such.
As a result, the northern end of the Pennines may be considered to be either at the