Liverpool Central railway station
Liverpool Central railway station in Liverpool, forms a central hub of the Merseyrail network, being on both the Northern Line and the Wirral Line. The station is located underground below the site of a former mainline terminus, it is the busiest station in Liverpool, though smaller than Lime Street station, the mainline terminus, the busiest station to operate the Merseyrail network. In terms of passenger entries and exits between April 2010 and March 2011, Liverpool Central is the seventh-busiest station outside London; the station is the busiest underground station outside London serving 40,000 people daily. The station in passengers per platform is the busiest underground railway station in the United Kingdom at 5,217,547 per platform per annum and laying third in all stations, underground or overground. Liverpool Central is one of nine stations on the Merseyrail network to incorporate automatic ticket gates; the main concourse is part of a shopping centre, includes a subway link to the former Lewis's department store.
The original station, a large, above-ground terminal station, opened on 2 March 1874, at the end of the Cheshire Lines Committee line to Manchester Central. It replaced Brunswick station as the CLC's Liverpool terminus, becoming the headquarters of the committee; the three-storey building fronted Ranelagh Street in the city centre, with a 65 feet high, arched iron and glass train shed behind. There were six platforms within the station, offering journeys to Manchester Central, London St. Pancras, Harwich, Stockport Tiviot Dale, Southport Lord Street and an alternative London route to that of the Midland Railway, terminating at London Marylebone; until the nationalisation of Britain's railways, the station was always busy, but as with many other stations in the UK, it was closed under the Beeching Axe, as the routes served could be taken from nearby Liverpool Lime Street. In 1966, most services on the CLC route were diverted to Lime Street via the Hunts Cross chord, leaving only a dozen urban commuter trains per day to and from Gateacre.
These final services were withdrawn on 17 April 1972, with a promise to reinstate the Gateacre route when the Merseyrail network was completed in 1978. The High Level station was demolished in 1973, having served a short time as a car park, although some former station buildings remained while work was in progress on rebuilding the underground station in the mid-1970s; the area of the train shed now forms the centre of the stalled Central Village development. Liverpool Central Low Level underground terminal station opened on 11 January 1892, at the end of the Mersey Railway's route, via the Mersey Railway Tunnel from Birkenhead, when the route was extended from James Street station; the Mersey Railway platforms were underground, accessed from stairs within the High Level station and situated in the same position as the escalators accessing the Northern Line today. The Mersey Railway tunnel entering Central Low Level from the north of the station was aligned with the High Level station's approach tunnel from the south.
This was to ensure minimum engineering work if the two tunnels were to be linked up—as did occur in the 1970s. The Merseyrail network was created in the 1970s by merging separate railways into one comprehensive network. Central underground station would service the Wirral Lines. A new loop tunnel was built in Liverpool city centre for Wirral Line trains, linking James Street station with Moorfields, Lime Street and Liverpool Central stations, returning to James Street. A new deep-level underground platform was built at Liverpool Central as part of this loop tunnel; the former CLC route was taken underground connecting to the underground Mersey Railway platforms. Another new tunnel, the Link Tunnel, allowed trains to continue northwards via Moorfields to the approach lines to Liverpool Exchange, creating one long line from Hunts Cross to Southport. Liverpool Exchange terminal station was closed in 1977; the rebuilt underground station was opened by British Rail in the same year. In the original 1970s Merseyrail plan, southbound trains would have continued to Warrington and Manchester.
Works to allow the Northern Line to be connected to the Victoria Tunnel, called the Edge Hill Spur, to connect the eastern section of the city to the city centre underground section were undertaken later abandoned. Trains would have operated from Central station to the east of the city and out to St Helens. On 26 October 2005, a Wirral Line train derailed on the approach to Liverpool Central en route from Liverpool Lime Street. There were no serious injuries; the statistics for interchanges at this station exclude exchanges between trains, estimated at around 2 million, concessionary pass holders. It was announced in September 2011 that, as part of the Central Village multimillion-pound development, as well as through a £40 million investment from Network Rail, Liverpool Central was to have a major refurbishment programme to allow improvement works to take place. All the underground stations would be involved in the investment, with half that amount earmarked for Liverpool Central allowing necessary improvement works to take place to the platform area of the station, although the concourse will see major improvements including new lighting, new toilet facilities and new escalators to the
New Brighton railway station
New Brighton railway station is situated in New Brighton, England. It is situated at the end of the New Brighton branch of the Wirral Line 8.25 miles west of Liverpool Lime Street on the Merseyrail network. The station was built as the terminus of the Wirral Railway's route from Birkenhead Park station, opening in 1888. Through services via the Mersey Railway Tunnel to Liverpool commenced in 1938, when the London Midland and Scottish Railway electrified the line; the station had a goods yard, which closed on 30 October 1965. Between 1960 and 1971, diesel services on the Borderlands Wrexham to Bidston line ran through to New Brighton; this arrangement started when the service was converted to diesel trains and the branch to Seacombe station, used as the terminus in North Wirral was closed. The service on the last leg from Bidston to New Brighton was little used, apart from on peak summer days, as most passengers from the west of the Wirral and North Wales were heading for Liverpool or Birkenhead.
From 4 January 1971, the service was terminated at Birkenhead North and, from 2 October 1978, the terminus was cut back one more station to Bidston. From 1960, there was a direct diesel service from Chester Northgate station to New Brighton using the Borderlands Line; the service ceased on 9 September 1968, prior to the closure of Northgate station. The diesel trains used the northern face of the island platform at New Brighton, with the electric services using the southern face. In 1986, Gary Kelly, a 16-year-old boy, died from electrocution at the station after fleeing from Akinwale Arobieke, believed to have been intimidating him. Arobieke was convicted of manslaughter, but the conviction was quashed on appeal after it was ruled that Arobieke had committed no crime in "standing and looking into trains"; the station is staffed, during all opening hours, has platform CCTV. There is a station cafe and a vending machine, as well as a waiting room and toilets. There is a booking office, live departure and arrival screens, for passenger information, the terminus island platform has a further sheltered waiting area.
The station has a drop-off point, a cycle rack with four spaces and secure cycle storage for 10 cycles. The station has car parking for three vehicles. Both platforms and the ticket office are accessible to wheelchair users. Current service levels are every 15 minutes to Liverpool during Monday to Saturday daytime, every 30 minutes at other times; these services are all provided by Merseyrail's fleet of Class 508 EMUs. Mitchell, Vic. Wrexham to New Brighton. West Sussex: Middleton Press. ISBN 9781908174475. OCLC 859543196. Train times and station information for New Brighton railway station from National RailStation information for New Brighton railway station from Merseyrail
The Wirral line is one of two commuter railway lines operated by Merseyrail and centred on Merseyside, the other being the Northern line. A third line of the local rail network, the City Line, is not operated by the Merseyrail train operating company, though it receives funding from Merseytravel, the passenger transport executive for Merseyside; the Wirral line connects Liverpool to the Wirral Peninsula via the Mersey Railway Tunnel, with branches to New Brighton, West Kirby and Ellesmere Port. Beneath Liverpool, the line follows a clockwise circular route in a single-track tunnel called the Loop, built in the early 1970s; the line was created by the amalgamation of several historic railways, has carried its present name since the opening of the Merseyrail network by Queen Elizabeth II on 25 October 1978 during the British Rail period. The Wirral line is electrified with a DC third rail, has existed in its current form since May 1994 with the start of electric services to Ellesmere Port. A total of 34 stations are served, with connections available to mainline services at Liverpool Lime Street and Chester.
The line connects with the Northern Line of the Merseyrail network at Liverpool Central and Moorfields. The Wirral line was not conceived as a single route, but was built as several lines by individual private railway companies. After the Grouping Act of 1921, three of the Big Four companies were active on the Wirral Peninsula until the nationalisation of the railways in 1948 when all four were absorbed into British Railways. During the 1970s under British Rail, the Merseyrail network was developed and privatisation during the 1990s has resulted in services once again being run by private operators, now known as train operating companies. Part of the Chester and Birkenhead Railway forms the oldest section of today's Wirral line; the route between the two settlements was surveyed by George Stephenson in 1830, however the railway company itself was not incorporated until 12 July 1837 after a previous bill had been rejected a few months earlier. Between 1830 and 1837 an alternative route was surveyed by Francis Giles, but Stephenson's plans were favoured with construction work starting in May 1838 and allocated to three different contractors.
By October 1839 over 900 navvies and 40 horses were employed on the southern 5 miles 37 chains of the route which included the construction of Mollington Viaduct over the Shropshire Union Canal at Moston, now Grade II listed, in 2011 having undergone strengthening work at a cost of around £800,000. The total cost of the railway was around £513,000, more than double the original estimate of £250,000, the full length of 14 miles 71 3⁄4 chains opened as a single track line on 23 September 1840 between temporary termini at Grange Lane in Birkenhead and Brook Street in Chester, close to the present location of Chester railway station; the inaugural service was operated by locomotive "The Wirral", taking 50 minutes to travel the length of the line from Birkenhead. In 1842 the company purchased Monks Ferry station and extended their railway north from Grange Lane to reach the new combined rail and ferry terminal, which opened on 23 October 1844. On 22 July 1847 the line was merged with the Birkenhead and Cheshire Railway into the Birkenhead and Cheshire Junction Railway who doubled the track.
Chester General station opened a year on 1 August 1848, still extant today as the southern terminus of the Wirral line and renamed to "Chester" in 1969 following the closure of Chester's other station, Chester Northgate. In 1859 the Birkenhead and Cheshire Junction Railway shortened its name to become the Birkenhead Railway, but was taken over in 1860 by the Great Western Railway and the London and North Western Railway who operated the line as a joint affair known as the Birkenhead Joint Railway. Birkenhead Woodside station opened on 31 March 1878 as a new terminus to replace the facilities at Monks Ferry. To connect the new station to the railway, a 0.5 miles tunnel was dug using the cut and cover method. On 28 July 1863 the Hoylake Railway was incorporated due to The Hoylake Railway Act being granted Royal Assent which authorised the construction of a railway line between Birkenhead and Hoylake. A 5 miles 22 chains single track line was constructed between Hoylake and Birkenhead Dock, the railway opened to passengers on 2 July 1866.
The railway had ambitious plans that included the construction of a bridge across the Dee Estuary to join the LNWR North Wales Coast Line at Mostyn, but due to financial difficulties the company went into receivership on 13 February 1869. The railway was bought by the Hoylake and Birkenhead Tramway Company who passed a bill for a new tramway from the Bridge Road station to Woodside Ferry Terminal on 18 July 1872; the Hoylake Railway reopened on 1 August 1872 and in 1878 was extended to West Kirby to the west and an interchange with the tramway and the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board railway system to the east where Birkenhead Dock station had been built. The tramway was sold to the Birkenhead Tramways Company on 11 October 1879, operating other tramways in Birkenhead. On 18 July 1881 the railway became the Seacombe, Hoylake & Deeside Railway Company and acts were passed for lines to Seacombe and Warren Drive extended to New Brighton. Before these extensions were complete the railway became the Wirral Railway Company and a decision was made to double the track as far as the western terminus at West Kirby.
Whilst the new lines to Seacombe and New Brighton were being surveyed and built, a new joint company to become the North Wales and Liverpool Railway Company, took over the constr
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Mersey Railway was the first part of the passenger railway connecting the communities of Liverpool and now the rest of the Wirral Peninsula in England, which lie on opposite banks of the River Mersey, via the Mersey Railway Tunnel. The railway opened in 1886 with four stations using steam locomotives hauling unheated wooden carriages. Using the first tunnel under the Mersey the line is the world's oldest underground railway outside London; because the steam locomotives created a polluted atmosphere in the tunnel, many passengers reverted to using the river ferries and the railway was bankrupt by 1900. Recovery came after the railway adopted electric traction in 1903; the Mersey Railway remained independent after the railway grouping of 1923, although it became integrated with the electric train services operated by the London and Scottish Railway over the former Wirral Railway routes after 1938. The Mersey Railway was nationalised, along with most other British railway companies, in 1948.
The tunnel and railway are still in use today as part of the Wirral Line of the Merseyrail rail network. Records exist of a ferry service across the River Mersey between Birkenhead on the west bank and Liverpool on the east since the middle ages. In 1332 the monks of Birkenhead Priory were granted exclusive rights to operate a ferry, it is recorded that Marc Isambard Brunel suggested a road tunnel when designing the Birkenhead docks and from the 1850s a railway tunnel under the Mersey was proposed several times. The Mersey Pneumatic Railway received Royal Assent for a single line pneumatic railway in 1866 but failed to raise the necessary capital. In 1871 the Mersey Railway was given the necessary permissions for an orthodox two track railway connecting the Birkenhead Railway near their Rock Ferry station through a tunnel under the Mersey to an underground station serving Liverpool; however the company found it difficult to raise the necessary funds until Major Samuel Isaac undertook to build the railway in 1881.
He contracted construction to John Waddell, who appointed Charles Douglas Fox and James Brunlees as Engineers. Construction of the river tunnel started from two 180 feet deep shafts, one on each bank, containing water pumps. Three tunnels were to be one for the two tracks, a drainage tunnel and a ventilation tunnel. A 7 feet 2 inches diameter ventilation tunnel was dug as the pilot heading; some 38 million bricks were used for the construction of the main tunnel. When the tunnel was opened, fans on both banks changed the air in the tunnel every seven minutes; the geology of the riverbed meant that the plans were changed and at the deepest section the drainage and ventilation tunnels combined. The grade on the Liverpool side was increased to 1 in 27. Estimates of the influx of water varied from 5,000 imp gal to 36,000 imp gal per minute. There were two pumping stations, Shore Road Pumping Station on the Birkenhead bank near Hamilton Square and Georges Dock Pumping Station on Mann Island on the Liverpool Bank.
The Railway's Workshop was built next to Birkenhead Central. The Mersey Railway was formally opened on 20 January 1886 and public services started on 1 February; the route had four new stations: Green Lane, Birkenhead Central and Hamilton Square in Birkenhead and James Street station in Liverpool. Green Lane and Birkenhead Central were below ground level in open cuttings whereas James Street and Hamilton Square were deep underground and accessed by lifts. In 1888 a branch tunnel to Birkenhead Park station opened, with a connection to the Wirral Railway; this was followed in 1891 by an extension from Green Lane to bay platforms at the Birkenhead Railway's Rock Ferry station, in 1892 the tunnel was extended from James Street to a new underground station at Liverpool Central. The railway opened with steam locomotives hauling four-wheeled 27 feet long wooden carriages, with first and third class accommodation provided in unheated compartments. In 1900 in the peak periods trains left the Rock Ferry terminus every 7 1⁄2 minutes and the Birkenhead Park terminus every 15 minutes, giving a train every 5 minutes between Hamilton Square and Liverpool Central.
At off-peak times this was reduced to a train every 7 1⁄2 minutes, alternately from the Rock Ferry and Birkenhead Park branches. The scheduled journey time between Rock Ferry and Central was 14 minutes; as well as some through working of carriages from the Wirral Railway at Birkenhead Park, in the summer of 1899 a through service worked from Liverpool to Folkestone Harbour. Connecting ferries and trains allowed Paris to be reached in under 15 hours; the traffic peaked in 1890, when ten million passengers were carried, declined. Two years the company had been declared bankrupt and receivers appointed, because it was unable to pay the charges on its debt. Steam locomotives running at five-minute headways left a dirty atmosphere in the tunnel that the mechanical ventilation was unable to remove, so many passengers preferred the ferries; some other urban railways had been constructed for electric traction: in 1890 the City and South London underground tube had opened with electric traction, followed in 1893 by the more local Liverpool O
Birkenhead North railway station
Birkenhead North railway station is situated in Birkenhead, England. The station is situated on the Wirral Line of the Merseyrail network, close to the junction of the New Brighton and West Kirby branches. Birkenhead North TMD, situated just to the west of the station, is the main Traction Maintenance Depot for the Merseyrail fleet; the station was built by the Wirral Railway, replacing their earlier terminus at Wallasey Bridge Road which had opened in 1866. The station was known as Birkenhead Docks and opened on 2 January 1888 as through station with Birkenhead Park station becoming the new terminus; the station had three through platforms from prior to 1898, which it still retains to the present day. However, the outer face of the north side island platform sees little use apart from trains to and from Birkenhead North depot at the start and end of service; the Wirral Railway subsequently became part of the London and Scottish Railway, who renamed the station Birkenhead North in 1926. The line through Birkenhead North was electrified, using a 650 V DC third rail system, brought into passenger service on 14 March 1938, allowing through services from New Brighton to Liverpool Central via the Mersey Railway Tunnel.
Services used the former Mersey Railway electric units. The Mersey Railway electric units operated through the station until 1957. From 4 January 1971 until 2 October 1978, the diesel service on the Bidston to Wrexham line, which had operated from New Brighton, was diverted to Birkenhead North; these trains terminated on the centre platform, used for Liverpool-bound services, when one of the diesel trains was present, Liverpool-bound electric services used the outer north side of the island platform instead. The diesel service was cut back to Bidston from 2 October 1978. Regular use of the outer platform at Birkenhead North thereafter ceased. Birkenhead North No. 1 was a 40-lever signal box, situated at the western end of the southern platform and opened in 1888. This signal box was demolished over the following two days. Birkenhead North No. 2 was a 25-lever signal box, situated to the west of the station a third of the distance towards Bidston. The box was located on the northern side of the Wirral Line at the junction with the Birkenhead Dock Branch goods line.
The signal box was closed on 15 September 1994 and was subject to arson in November 1994. The station has a booking office, on-street parking, upgraded and replaced with a Park and Ride facility, linked directly to the platform; the station is staffed, at all times during opening hours, has platform CCTV. Each platform has open-air seating and live departure and arrival screens, for passenger information. There is a payphone available; the station provides a Ride service. There are 630 car parking spaces which are free to use for travellers, with lighting columns and CCTV to meet Merseytravel's Travelsafe requirements. There is secure cycle storage for 12 cycles. In 2016 charging posts were added to the car park for the recharging of electric vehicles; as of 4 June 2014, there is step-free access to the platforms for passengers with wheelchairs or prams. Trains operate every 15 minutes to New Brighton and West Kirby and every 5–10 minutes via Hamilton Square to Liverpool. At other times, trains run every 30 minutes to New Brighton and West Kirby, every 15 minutes to Liverpool.
These services are all provided by Merseyrail's fleet of Class 508 EMUs. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations. Yeovil: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 1-85260-508-1. R508. Gahan, John W.. The Line Beneath The Liners. Birkenhead: Countryvise. P. 58. ISBN 978-0-907-76840-1. Maund, T. B.. The Wirral Railway and its Predecessors. Gloucestershire: Lightmoor Press. ISBN 978-1-899-88938-9. Mitchell, Vic. Birkenhead to West Kirby. West Sussex: Middleton Press. ISBN 9781908174611. OCLC 885451764. Train times and station information for Birkenhead North railway station from National RailStation information for Birkenhead North railway station from Merseyrail
West Kirby is a town on the north-west corner of the Wirral Peninsula in Merseyside, England, at the mouth of the River Dee. To the north-east lies Hoylake, to the east Grange and Newton, to the south-east Caldy. At the 2011 Census, the population was 12,733; the town is on the opposite side of the River Dee to Mostyn in North Wales. The name West Kirby is of Viking origin Kirkjubyr, meaning'village with a church'; the form with the modifier "West" exists to distinguish it from the other town of the same name in Wirral: Kirkby-in-Walea. The earliest usage given of this form is West Kyrkeby in Wirhale in 1285; the old village lay around St. Bridget's Church, but the town today is centred on West Kirby railway station, about 1 km away; the town has a Victorian promenade, flanked by the West Kirby Marine Lake that permits boats to sail at low tide. The original wall was built to create the lake in 1899 but suffered a catastrophic leak in 1985. A new lake was constructed on the site, wider than and allows better sporting opportunities.
The Hoylake and West Kirby War Memorial is a notable local landmark, designed in 1922 by the British sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, responsible for a number of war memorials around the world, including the Royal Artillery Memorial at Hyde Park Corner in London. West Kirby was a parish within the Wirral Hundred, it became part of Hoylake West Kirby civil parish and Hoylake Urban District in 1894. The population was 148 in 1801, 435 in 1851 and 4,542 in 1901. On 1 April 1974, West Kirby was absorbed into the newly created Metropolitan Borough of Wirral as part of local government reorganisation in England and Wales. At that point, West Kirby ceased to be in Cheshire for administrative purposes and became part of the new administrative county of Merseyside. In February 2008 plans were raised for a regeneration of the concourse sports and leisure centre including new retail space and controversially a multi-storey car park; as of 2013 the project appears to have stalled with developers' funding wavering.
Local residents' opposition is strong. West Kirby lies at the north-western corner of the Wirral Peninsula. West Kirby is on the eastern side of the mouth of the Dee Estuary, opposite North Wales and 8 miles west of Liverpool. Hilbre Island is 1 mile offshore from West Kirby, at the mouth of the Dee Estuary. Secondary schools in the area are Calday Grange Grammar School on Caldy Hill, West Kirby Grammar School and Hilbre High School, which includes the WestWirralWorks City Learning Centre and West Kirby Residential School. St Bridget's Church is West Kirby's Church of England parish church, the chancel of the present church dates from around 1320. St Andrew's Church is West Kirby's second Church of England church built as a chapel of ease for St Bridget's, gaining its own parish in 1920. St Agnes' Church is the local Roman Catholic church. West Kirby has a United Reformed church, which dates to 1890, a Methodist church dating from 1904. West Kirby Library is situated within West Kirby Concourse, operated by the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral.
The West Kirby Museum, founded in 1892, is located adjacent to St Bridget's Church. The town itself contains Ashton Park and a starting point of the Wirral Way, which follows the trackbed of the former Birkenhead Railway branch line from Hooton. Sandlea Park lies in the centre of a short walk from the railway station. Coronation Gardens is located between the southern end of the promenade between South Parade and Banks Road. There are bowling greens situated around the town. Another popular activity is to walk out to the islands of Little Eye, Middle Eye and Hilbre Island at low tide; the promenade and the walk to the war memorial allow an excellent panoramic view of part of the North Wales coastline. Sailboarding and kayaking are all popular local sports. In October 1991 the World Windsurfing Speed Record was set by Dave White on the West Kirby Marine Lake at 42.16 knots. It was held for two years. Water sports fans are warned to wear appropriate footwear while using the marine lake because of the presence of weaver fish with sharp poisonous barbs.
There is an RNLI Lifeboat Station near West Kirby Sailing Club. The Royal Liverpool Golf Club, a links course sited between West Kirby and Hoylake, has hosted 11 British Open Golf championships in the past 121 years, most the 2006 and 2014 British Opens. Tennis tournaments have been held in Ashton Park. Here, players including John McEnroe, Boris Becker, Monica Seles and Pete Sampras have played in competition. West Kirby FC is the town's senior football club, which plays in the West Cheshire League and plays its matches at Marine Park, Greenbank Road. West Kirby Ladies FC was established in 2017 and play their matches at Marine Park; the town has one of the largest junior football clubs in the North West, with over 90 teams and 1,000 players at West Kirby United. The Wasps section play on Greenbank Road and the Panthers section play at Calday Grammar School and Hilbre High School; the two sections were separate clubs until July 2017. The junior clubs play in the Eastham League with a youth section who play as West Kirby United in the North West under-21 League.
West Kirby is home to Hoylake Amateur Swimming Club who train at West Kirby Concourse. West Kirby has a large man-made coastal lake, the'Marine Lake'; the structure is large enough to hold sailing events, such as the Wilson Trophy and many more water-related activities including canoeing and power-boating. In early 2009 it was reported that the