Middle Irish is the Goidelic language, spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900–1200 AD. The modern Goidelic languages—Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx—are all descendants of Middle Irish; the Lebor Bretnach, the "Irish Nennius", survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Middle Irish is a VSO, nominative-accusative language. Nouns decline for two genders: masculine, though traces of neuter declension persist. Adjectives agree with nouns in gender and case. Verbs conjugate for three tenses: past, future. Verbs conjugate for an impersonal, agentless form. There are a number of preverbal particles marking the negative, subjunctive, relative clauses, etc. Prepositions inflect for number. Different prepositions govern different cases, depending on intended semantics; the following is a poem in Middle Irish about King of Connacht. Dún Eogain Bél forsind loch forsrala ilar tréntroch, ní mair Eogan forsind múr ocus maraid in sendún. Maraid inad a thige irraibe' na chrólige, ní mair in rígan re cair nobíd.
Cairptech in rí robúi and, innsaigthech oirgnech Érenn, ní dechaid coll cána ar goil, rocroch tríchait im óenboin. Roloisc Life co ba shecht, rooirg Mumain tríchait fecht, nír dál do Leith Núadat nair co nár dámair immarbáig. Doluid fecht im-Mumain móir do chuinchid argait is óir, d’iaraid sét ocus móine do gabail gíall dagdóine. Trían a shlúaig dar Lúachair síar co Cnoc mBrénainn isin slíab, a trían aile úad fo dess co Carn Húi Néit na n-éces. Sé fodéin oc Druimm Abrat co trían a shlúaig, nísdermat, oc loscud Muman maisse, ba subach don degaisse. Atchím a chomarba ind ríg a mét dorigne d’anfhír, nenaid ocus tromm ’malle, conid é fonn a dúine. Dún Eogain. MacManus, Damian. "A chronology of the Latin loan words in early Irish". Ériu. 34: 21–71. McCone, Kim. "The dative singular of Old Irish consonant stems". Ériu. 29: 26–38. McCone, Kim. "Final /t/ to /d/ after unstressed vowels, an Old Irish sound law". Ériu. 31: 29–44. McCone, Kim. "Prehistoric and Middle Irish". Progress in medieval Irish studies. Pp. 7–53.
McCone, Kim. A First Old Irish Reader, Including an Introduction to Middle Irish. Maynooth Medieval Irish Texts 3. Maynooth. Dictionary of the Irish Language
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
West Highland Free Press
The West Highland Free Press was founded in the Scottish Highlands in 1972 as a left-wing weekly newspaper, but with the principal objective of providing its immediate circulation area with the service which a local paper is expected to provide. It is based at Broadford on the Isle of Skye, covering Wester Ross and the Outer Hebrides; the paper's priorities are summarised in the Gaelic slogan on its masthead: "An Tir, an Canan'sna Daoine – The Land, the Language, the People". It is a slogan borrowed from the Highland Land League which, in the late 19th century, fought crucial battles to win security of tenure for crofters; the land issue is at the heart of the Free Press's politics. The paper perceives a fundamental conflict of interest in private landlordism, this is reflected in many of the most celebrated stories which it has reported, it has championed the cause of community land ownership with considerable impact upon public policy including the establishment of a Scottish Land Fund and a Community Land Unit at Highland Enterprise in the late 1990s.
The paper has advocated community co-operatives and other locally based forms of economic development. The Free Press has championed the cause of the Gaelic language, both by giving it political support and by publishing written Gaelic material; the Press has reported and campaigned on environmental-impact stories such as the construction of a private-enterprise tollbridge to Skye. It has supported renewable energy though this has proved to be a controversial stance on the Isle of Lewis. Though supportive of the Labour Party, it has criticised Labour governments on issues such as crofting reform and has played a major part in shaping political debate in the West Highlands and Islands; the West Highland Free Press has seen a number of notable columnists, including Professor Donald MacLeod, former principal and leading theologian of the Free Church of Scotland College in Edinburgh, Angus Peter Campbell, the award-winning Gaelic writer and award-winning novelist Roger Hutchinson. The paper's founding editor, Brian Wilson, was a regular contributor since retiring from politics as a Labour MP and British government minister.
The West Highland Free Press is available extensively within the West Highlands and Islands and in towns and cities throughout Scotland, each Friday. The full paper is now available by subscription on the internet. In 2013, it had a weekly circulation of over 7,500. Regular contributor Donald Macleod wrote a 22 May 2015 column on a future "Islamic dominance in Britain", he argued that, while minority groups fit in with the majority, that this would alter once Muslims formed majorities in the UK, saying:All minorities prefer to keep a low profile and avoid trouble. Generations of British Muslims have done that, many have made an invaluable contribution to British society, many are prepared to listen while Christians ‘witness’ to them, but when minorities become majorities, things change, as German Jews discovered in the 1930s. Once the Nazis achieved ascendancy, friendly German neighbours became informants for the Gestapo. West Highland Free Press Editor Ian McCormack required Macleod to “moderate his language”, MacLeod refused and resigned.
Brian Wilson was sacked for writing a column criticising his former colleagues. Broadcaster and columnist Maggie Cunningham left the title in protest. Editor McCormack suggested he had made "a serious error of judgement" and was following his worker-owner colleagues' intentions, he made "no apology" for Wilson's sacking. While he "share many of the views he expressed" he felt the column was a breach of trust, due to its criticism of the paper's owners. Free speech groups attacked the sacking, while human rights lawyer Aamer Anwar condemned the column as "Islamophobic" lacking in "Jesus's encouragement to'turn the other cheek'"; the newspaper has won awards at the Highlands and Islands Media Awards. In 2012 this included Journalist of Sports Writer of the Year, Photographer of the Year. In previous years they have picked up Newspaper of the Year, Website of the Year, Feature Writer of the Year, Gaelic Columnist of the Year, Reporter of the Year. On 27 October 2009 the West Highland Free Press became the only employee-owned newspaper in the United Kingdom.
The newspaper celebrated its 40th Anniversary in April 2012. The newspaper's managing director, Paul Wood, is a board member with Co-operative Development Scotland, the Scottish Government subsidiary promoting employee-ownership and mutualism within Scotland. WHFP Website
History of Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames, it is accepted by scholars that Gaelic was brought to Scotland in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll. However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover; this view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde; this was spurred by the intermarriage of Gaelic and Pictish aristocratic families, the political merger of the two kingdoms in the early 9th century, the common threat of attack by Norse invaders.
By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic. An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts, but we do not know whether this was because a new kingdom was established or because "Alba" was a closer approximation of the Pictish name for the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. By the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba, its spread to southern Scotland was less and less complete. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west, as well as in West Lothian and parts of western Midlothian.
Less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. This latter region is the area of the old Kingdom of Strathclyde, annexed by the Kingdom of Alba in the early 11th century, but its inhabitants may have continued to speak Cumbric as late as the 12th century. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken: the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria. After the Lothians were conquered by Malcolm II at the Battle of Carham in 1018, the elites spoke Gaelic and continued to do so until about 1200; however commoners retained Old English. With the incorporation of Strathclyde and the Lothians, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith in Scotland; the language in Scotland had been developing independently of the language in Ireland at least as early as its crossing the Druim Alban into Pictland. The entire country was for the first time being referred to in Latin as Scotia, Gaelic was recognised as the lingua Scotia.
Many historians mark the reign of King Malcolm Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's decline in Scotland. In either 1068 or 1070, the king married the exiled Princess Margaret of Wessex; this future Saint Margaret of Scotland was a member of the royal House of Wessex, which had occupied the English throne from its founding until the Norman Conquest. Margaret was Anglo-Saxon, is credited for taking the first significant steps in anglicising the Scottish court, she spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland. Her family served as a conduit for the entry of English nobles into Scotland; when both Malcolm and Margaret died just days apart in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald as the next King of Scots. Known as Donald Bàn, the new king had lived 17 years in Ireland as a young man, his power base as an adult was in the Gaelic west of Scotland. Upon Donald's accession to the throne, in the words of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, "the Scots drove out all the English, with King Malcolm".
Malcolm's sons fled to the English court, but in 1097 returned with an Anglo-Norman army backing them. Donald was overthrown and imprisoned for the remaining two years of his life; because of the strong English ties of Malcolm's sons Edgar and David – each of whom became king in turn – Donald Bàn is sometimes called the "last Celtic King of Scotland". He was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the one-time centre of the Scottish Gaelic Church and the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba. During the reigns of the sons of Malcolm Canmore, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the north-eastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French became dominant among the new feudal aristocracy in southern Scotland, displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking "Inglis", the language of the merchant class.
This was the beginning of Gaelic's statu
Scottish Gaelic literature
Scottish Gaelic literature refers to literature composed in the Scottish Gaelic language, a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages, along with Irish and Manx. In early Middle Ages what is now Scotland was politically divided. In the West of were the Gaelic-speaking people of Dál Riata, who had close links with Ireland, from where they brought with them the name Scots. Few works of Gaelic poetry survive from the early Medieval period, most of these are in Irish manuscripts. There are religious works that can be identified as Scottish, including the Elegy for St Columba by Dallan Forgaill and "In Praise of St Columba" by Beccan mac Luigdech of Rum, c. 677. A series of anecdotes contained in the tenth century Betba Adamnáin are derived from works composed on Iona. Outside of these there are a few poems in praise of Pictish kings contained within Irish annals that are from Scotland. Beginning in the eighth century, Viking raids and invasions may have forced a merger of the Gaelic and Pictish crowns.
The Kingdom of Alba emerged, which would become known as the Kingdom of Scotland, traced its origin to Cínaed mac Ailpín in the 840s through the House of Alpin. The Kingdom of Alba was overwhelmingly an oral society dominated by Gaelic culture. Fuller sources for Ireland of the same period suggest that there would have been filidh, who acted as poets and historians attached to the court of a lord or king, passed on their knowledge and culture in Gaelic to the next generation. At least from the accession of David I, as part of a Davidian Revolution that introduced French culture and political systems, Gaelic ceased to be the main language of the royal court and was replaced by French. After this "de-gallicisation" of the Scottish court, a less regarded order of bards took over the functions of the filidh, they would continue to act in a similar role in the Highlands and Islands into the eighteenth century, they trained in bardic schools. A few of these, like the one run by the MacMhuirich dynasty, who were bards to the Lord of the Isles, continued until they were suppressed from the seventeenth century.
Members of bardic schools were trained in the complex forms of Gaelic poetry. Much of their work was never written down, what survives was only recorded from the sixteenth century, it is possible that more Middle Irish literature was written in Medieval Scotland than is thought, but has not survived because the Gaelic literary establishment of eastern Scotland died out before the fourteenth century. Thomas Owen Clancy has argued that the Lebor Bretnach, the so-called "Irish Nennius", was written in Scotland, at the monastery in Abernethy, but this text survives only from manuscripts preserved in Ireland. Other literary works that have survived include that of the prolific poet Gille Brighde Albanach, his Heading for Damietta dealt with his experiences of the Fifth Crusade. In the late Middle Ages, Middle Scots simply called English, became the dominant language of the country, it was derived from Old English, with the addition of elements from Gaelic and French. Although resembling the language spoken in northern England, it became a distinct dialect from the late fourteenth century onwards.
As the ruling elite abandoned French, they began to adopt Middle Scots, by the fifteenth century it was the language of government, with acts of parliament, council records and treasurer's accounts all using it from the reign of James I onwards. As a result, once dominant north of the Tay, began a steady decline. Lowland writers began to treat Gaelic as a second class and amusing language, helping to frame attitudes towards the highlands and to create a cultural gulf with the lowlands; the major corpus of Medieval Scottish Gaelic poetry, The Book of the Dean of Lismore was compiled by the brothers James and Donald MacGregor in the early decades of the sixteenth century. Beside Scottish Gaelic verse it contains a large number of poems composed in Ireland as well as verse and prose in Scots and Latin; the subject matter includes heroic ballads and philosophical pieces. It is notable for containing poetry by at least four women; these include Aithbhreac Nighean Coirceadail, who wrote a lament for her husband, the constable of Castle Sween.
Walter Kennedy, one of the makars associated with the court of James IV, may have written works in the language, although only examples of his poetry in Scots survive. The Book of Common Order was translated into Scottish Gaelic by Séon Carsuel, Bishop of the Isles, printed in 1567; this is considered the first printed book in Scottish Gaelic though the language resembles classical Irish. By the early modern era Gaelic had been in geographical decline for three centuries and had begun to be a second class language, confined to the Highlands and Islands; the tradition of classic Gaelic poetry survived longer in Scotland than in Ireland, with the last competent member of the MacMhuirich dynasty, who were hereditary poets to the Lords of the Isles and the Donalds of Clanranald, still working in the early eighteenth century. Interest in the sponsorship of panegyric Gaelic poetry was declining among the clan leaders. Gaelic was being overtaken by Middle Scots, which became the language of both the nobility and the majority population.
Middle Scots was derived from Old English, with Gaelic and French influences. It was called Inglyshe and was close to the language spoken in northern England, Unlike many of his predecessors, James VI despised Gaelic culture; as the trad
Scottish Gaelic grammar
This article describes the grammar of the Scottish Gaelic language. Gaelic shares with other Celtic languages a number of interesting typological features: Verb–subject–object basic word order in simple sentences with non-periphrastic verbal constructions, a typological characteristic uncommon among the world's languages. Conjugated prepositions: complex forms derived from the fusion of a preposition + pronoun sequence prepositional constructions for expressing possession and ownership:Tha taigh agam — "I have a house" Tha an cat sin le Iain - "Iain owns that cat" emphatic pronouns: Emphatic forms are systematically available in all pronominal constructions. Tha cat agadsa ach tha cù agamsa – "You have a cat but I have a dog" Lenition and slenderisation play a crucial role in Scottish Gaelic grammar. Lenition, as a grammatical process, affects the pronunciation of initial consonants, is indicated orthographically by the addition of an h: caileag → chaileag "girl" beag → bheag "small" faca → fhaca "saw" snog → shnog "nice"Lenition is not indicated in writing for words beginning with l, n or r.
Nor does it affect words that begin with either a vowel, or with sg, sm, sp, or st. In most cases, lenition is caused by the presence of particular trigger words to the left. In this article, the leniting effect of such words is indicated, where relevant, by the superscript "+L". Slenderisation, on the other hand, is a change in the pronunciation of the final consonant of a word, it is indicated by the addition of an i: facal → facail "word" balach → balaich "boy" òran → òrain "song" ùrlar → ùrlair "floor"In many cases slenderisation accompanies more complex changes to the final syllable of the word: cailleach → caillich "old woman" ceòl → ciùil "music" fiadh → fèidh "deer" cas → cois "foot"Slenderisation has no effect on words that end in a vowel, or words whose final consonant is slender. Most cases of slenderisation can be explained as the palatalizing influence of a following front vowel in earlier stages of the language. Although this vowel has now disappeared, its effects on the preceding consonant are still preserved.
Lenition of initial consonants was triggered by the final vowel of the preceding word, but in many cases, this vowel is no longer present in the modern language. Many word-final consonants have disappeared in the evolution of Scottish Gaelic, some traces of them can be observed in the form of prosthetic or linking consonants that appear in some syntactic combinations, for example, after some determiners. Gaelic nouns and pronouns belong to one of two grammatical genders: feminine. Nouns with neuter gender in Old Gaelic were redistributed between the feminine; the gender of a small number of nouns differs between dialects. A small group of nouns have declensional patterns that suggest mixed gender characteristics. Foreign nouns that are recent loans arguably fall into a third gender class, if considered in terms of their declensional pattern, it is arguable that feminine gender is under pressure and that the system may be becoming simplified with the feminine paradigms incorporating some masculine patterns.
Nouns have three grammatical numbers: singular and plural. Dual forms of nouns are only found after the numeral dà; the dual form is identical in form to the dative singular. Plurals are formed in a variety including suffixation and slenderisation. Pluralisation, as in Irish Gaelic and Manx, can vary according to noun class, however on the whole depends on the final sound of the singular form. For counting, or with numerals that are not followed by a noun, the form is different. Nouns and pronouns in Gaelic have four cases: nominative, vocative and dative case. There is no distinct accusative case form. Nouns can be classified into a number of major declension classes, with a small number of nouns falling into minor patterns or irregular paradigms. Case forms can be related to the base form by suffixation, slenderisation, or a combination of such changes. See the example paradigms below for further details; the case system is now under tremendous pressure and speakers exhibit varying degrees of paradigm simplification.
Nouns in the dative case only occur after a preposition, never, for example, as the indirect object of a verb. Nouns in the vocative case are introduced by the particle a+L, which lenites a following consonant, is elided before a vowel; the vocative form of feminine singular nouns is otherwise identical to the nominative. Feminine: Màiri → a Mhàiri Anna → Anna masculine: Seumas → a Sheumais Aonghas → Aonghais In the genitive construction, the genitive follows the word it governs (taigh m' athar house my father "my father's house". Gaelic has no indefinite article. Cù may mean either "dog
Gaelic type is a family of Insular script typefaces devised for printing Classical Gaelic. It was used from the 16th until the mid-18th century or the mid-20th century but is now used. Sometimes, all Gaelic typefaces are called Celtic or uncial although most Gaelic types are not uncials; the "Anglo-Saxon" types of the 17th century are included in this category because both the Anglo-Saxon types and the Gaelic/Irish types derive from the Insular manuscript hand. The terms Gaelic type, Gaelic script and Irish character translate the Irish phrase cló Gaelach. In Ireland, the term cló Gaelach is used in opposition to Roman type; the Scottish Gaelic term is corra-litir. Alasdair mac Mhaighstir Alasdair was one of the last Scottish writers with the ability to write in this script, but his main work, Ais-Eiridh na Sean Chánoin Albannaich, was published in the Roman script. Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, Gaelic typefaces must include all vowels with acute accents ⟨Áá Éé Íí Óó Úú⟩ as well as a set of consonants with dot above ⟨Ḃḃ Ċċ Ḋḋ Ḟḟ Ġġ Ṁṁ Ṗṗ Ṡṡ Ṫṫ⟩, the Tironian sign et ⟨⁊⟩, used for agus'and' in Irish.
Gaelic typefaces often include insular forms: ⟨ꞃ ꞅ⟩ of the letters ⟨r⟩ and ⟨s⟩, some of the typefaces contain a number of ligatures used in earlier Gaelic typography and deriving from the manuscript tradition. Lower-case ⟨i⟩ is drawn without a dot, the letters ⟨d f g t⟩ have insular shapes ⟨ꝺ ꝼ ᵹ ꞇ⟩. Many modern Gaelic typefaces include Gaelic letterforms for the letters ⟨j k q v w x y z⟩, provide support for at least the vowels of the other Celtic languages, they distinguish between ⟨&⟩ and ⟨⁊⟩, though some modern fonts replace the ampersand with the Tironian note ostensibly because both mean'and'. The Irish uncial alphabet originated in medieval manuscripts as an "insular" variant of the Latin alphabet; the first Gaelic typeface was designed in 1571 for a catechism commissioned by Elizabeth I to help attempt to convert the Irish Catholic population to Anglicanism. Typesetting in Gaelic script remained common in Ireland until the mid-20th century. Gaelic script is today used for decorative typesetting.
Edward Lhuyd's grammar of the Cornish language used Gaelic-script consonants to indicate sounds like and. In 1996 Raidió Teilifís Éireann created a new corporate logo; the logo consists of a modern take on the Gaelic type face. The R's counter is large with a short tail, the T is roman script while the E is curved but does not have a counter like a lower case E, the letters have slight serifs to them. TG4's original logo, under the brand TnaG used a modernization of the font, the use of the curved T and a sans-serif A in the word "na". Other Irish companies that have used Gaelic script in their logos including the GAA, Telecom Éireann and An Post; the Garda Síochána uses Gaelic Script on its official seal. The GAA logo uses the script to incorporate both the English language GAA acronym and the Irish language CLG acronym; the logo more shows the more used acronym GAA but taking a closer look a C joins with an L and to a G lying down. Unicode treats the Gaelic script as a font variant of the Latin alphabet.
A lowercase insular g was added in version 4.1 as part of the Phonetic Extensions block because of its use in Irish linguistics as a phonetic character for. Unicode 5.1 added a capital G and both capital and lowercase letters D, F, R, S, T, besides "turned insular G", on the basis that Edward Lhuyd used these letters in his 1707 work Archaeologia Britannica as a scientific orthography for Cornish. Ꝺ ꝺ Insular D ◌ᷘ Combining Small Insular D Ꝼ ꝼ Insular F Ᵹ ᵹ Insular G Ꝿ ꝿ Turned insular G Ꞃ ꞃ Insular R Ꞅ ꞅ Insular S Ꞇ ꞇ Insular T In each figure above, the first sentence is a pangram and reads:Chuaigh bé mhórshách le dlúthspád fíorfhinn trí hata mo dhea-phorcáin bhig,Ċuaiġ bé ṁórṡáċ le dlúṫspád fíorḟinn trí hata mo ḋea-ṗorcáin ḃig, meaning "A maiden of great appetite with an intensely white, dense spade went through my good little porker’s hat". The second sentence reads:Duibhlinn/Ceanannas an cló a úsáidtear anseo, meaning "Duibhlinn/Ceannanas is the font used here"; the second sentence uses the short forms of the letters r and s.
See: Long s and R rotunda. Blackletter Fraktur Irish orthography ISO/IEC 8859-14 Theobald Stapleton Lynam, E. W. 1969. The Irish character in print: 1571–1923. New York: Barnes & Noble. First printed as Oxford University Press offprint 1924 in Transactions of the Bibliographical Society, 4th Series, Vol. IV, No. 4, March 1924.) McGuinne, Dermot. Irish type design: A history of printing types in the Irish character. Blackrock: Irish Academic Press. ISBN 0-7165-2463-5 Brendan Leen's Four centuries of printing in the Irish character, Cregan Library, St Patrick's College, Drumcondra Vincent Morley's An Cló Gaelach Mícheál Ó Searcóid's The Irish Alphabet, an article on the origin and present-day usage of the Irish typeface, 1990 Mathew D. Staunton's Trojan Horses and Friendly Faces: Irish Gaelic Typography as Propaganda. La revue LISA. ISSN 1762-6153. Vol. III. 2005. Bunchló GC, a Gaelic modern minuscule font in Un