Álava or Araba Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava, former medieval Catholic bishopric and now Latin titular see. Its capital city, Vitoria-Gasteiz, is the seat of the political main institutions of the autonomous community, it borders the Basque provinces of Biscay and Gipuzkoa to the north, the community of La Rioja to the south, the province of Burgos to the west and the community of Navarre to the east. The Enclave of Treviño, surrounded by Alavese territory, is however part of the province of Burgos, thus belonging to the autonomous community of Castile and León, not Álava, it is the largest of the three provinces in the Basque Autonomous Community in geographical terms, with 2,963 km2, but the least populated with 328,868 inhabitants. Built around the Roman mansion Alba located on the road ab Asturica Burdigalam, it has sometimes been argued the name may stem from that landmark. However, according to the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, the origin may be another: The name is first found on Muslim chronicles of the 8th century referring to the Alavese Plains, laua in old Basque with the Arab article added, developing into Spanish Álava and Basque Araba.
The province numbers 51 municipalities, a population of 315,525 inhabitants in an area of 3,037 km2, with an average of 104.50 inhabitants/km2. The vast majority of the population clusters in the capital city of Álava, Vitoria-Gasteiz, which serves as the capital of the Autonomous Community, but the remainder of the territory is sparsely inhabited with population nuclei distributed into seven counties: Añana. Álava is an inland territory and features a transitional climate between the humid, Atlantic neighbouring northern provinces and the dry and warmer lands south of the Ebro River. According to the relief and landscape characteristics, the territory is divided into five main zones: The Gorbea Foothills: Green hilly landscape; the Valleys: Low valleys, sparsely populated. The Plains: Heartland of Álava comprising Vitoria and Salvatierra-Agurain, with a central urban area and crop landscape prevailing around and bounded south and north by the Basque Mountains; the Alavese Mountains: Higher forest lands.
The Alavese Rioja: Oriented to the south on the left bank of the Ebro River, perfect for vineyards. Ayala: The area clustering around the Nervión River, with Amurrio and Laudio as its major towns; the region shows close bonds with an industrial landscape. Unlike Biscay and Gipuzkoa, but for Ayala and Aramaio, the waters of Álava pour into the Ebro and hence to the Mediterranean by means of two main waterways, i.e. the Zadorra and Bayas Rivers. In addition, the Zadorra Reservoir System harvests a big quantity of waters that supply not only the capital city but other major Basque towns and cities too, like Bilbao. While in 1950 agriculture and farming shaped the landscape of the territory, the trend shifted during the 60s and 70s on the grounds of a growing industrial activity in the Alavese Plains, with the main focus lying on the industrial estates of Vitoria-Gasteiz and, to a lesser extent, Salvatierra-Agurain and Araia. At the turn of the century, only 2% of the working Alavese people was in agriculture, while 60% was in the tertiary sector and 32% in manufacturing.
Industry associated with iron and metal developed earlier in the Atlantic area much in tune with Bilbao's economic dynamics, with droves of people flocking to and clustering in Amurrio and Laudio, which have since become the third and second main towns of Álava. List of rulers: Eylo, up to 866 Rodrigo c. 867–870, count of Castile Vela Jiménez 870–c. 887 Munio Velaz c. 887–c. 921 Álvaro Herraméliz c. 921–931 count of Cerezo and Lantarón Fernán González 931–970 count of Castile, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1030 García Fernández 970–995 Munio González 1030–1043 Fortunio Íñiguez 1043–1046 Munio Muñoz 1046–1060, Álava feudatary of Navarre, 1046–1085 Sancho Maceratiz 1046–1060 Ramiro 1060–1075 Marcelo 1075–1085 Lope Íñiguez 1085–?, Álava feudatary of Castile until 1123 Lope Díaz the White?–1093 Lope González 1093–1099 Lope Sánchez 1099–1114 Diego López I 1114–1123 Ladrón Íñiguez 1123–1158, Álava feudatary of Navarre until 1199 Vela Ladrón 1158–1175 Juan Velaz 1175–1181 Diego López II 1181–1187 Íñigo de Oriz 1187–1199 Diego López de Haro I 1199–1214, Álava feudatary of Castile until personal union of 1332 Lope Diaz de Haro I 1214–1240 Nuño González de Lara 1240–1252 Diego López de Haro II 1252–1274 Fernando de la Cerda 1274–1280 Lope Díaz II de Haro 1280–1288 Juan Alonso de Haro 1288–1310 Diego López de Salcedo 1310–1332The title is attributed to the Castilian kings after 1332.
The Arab invasion of the Ebro valley in the 8th century, many Christians of the Diocese of Calahorra sought refuge in areas further north free of Arab rule. The diocese called Álava or Armentaria was established in 870 on terrirory split off from the Diocese of Calahorra. From until the 11th century the names of several bishops of this see are recorded, the best known being the last, Fortún, who in 1072 went to Rome to argue before Pope Alexander II in defence of the Mozarabic Rite, which King Alfonso VI of León and Castile had decree
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in spoken languages and signs in sign languages. It used to be only the study of the systems of phonemes in spoken languages, but it may cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word or at all levels of language where sound or signs are structured to convey linguistic meaning. Sign languages have a phonological system equivalent to the system of sounds in spoken languages; the building blocks of signs are specifications for movement and handshape. The word'phonology' can refer to the phonological system of a given language; this is one of the fundamental systems which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax and its vocabulary. Phonology is distinguished from phonetics. While phonetics concerns the physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech, phonology describes the way sounds function within a given language or across languages to encode meaning.
For many linguists, phonetics belongs to descriptive linguistics, phonology to theoretical linguistics, although establishing the phonological system of a language is an application of theoretical principles to analysis of phonetic evidence. Note that this distinction was not always made before the development of the modern concept of the phoneme in the mid 20th century; some subfields of modern phonology have a crossover with phonetics in descriptive disciplines such as psycholinguistics and speech perception, resulting in specific areas like articulatory phonology or laboratory phonology. The word phonology comes from phōnḗ, "voice, sound," and the suffix - logy. Definitions of the term vary. Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundzüge der Phonologie defines phonology as "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language," as opposed to phonetics, "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech". More Lass writes that phonology refers broadly to the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language, while in more narrow terms, "phonology proper is concerned with the function and organization of sounds as linguistic items."
According to Clark et al. it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use. Early evidence for a systematic study of the sounds in a language appears in the 4th century BCE Ashtadhyayi, a Sanskrit grammar composed by Pāṇini. In particular the Shiva Sutras, an auxiliary text to the Ashtadhyayi, introduces what may be considered a list of the phonemes of the Sanskrit language, with a notational system for them, used throughout the main text, which deals with matters of morphology and semantics; the study of phonology as it exists today is defined by the formative studies of the 19th-century Polish scholar Jan Baudouin de Courtenay, who shaped the modern usage of the term phoneme in a series of lectures in 1876-1877. The word phoneme had been coined a few years earlier in 1873 by the French linguist A. Dufriche-Desgenettes. In a paper read at the 24th of May meeting of the Société de Linguistique de Paris, Dufriche-Desgenettes proposed that phoneme serve as a one-word equivalent for the German Sprachlaut.
Baudouin de Courtenay's subsequent work, though unacknowledged, is considered to be the starting point of modern phonology. He worked on the theory of phonetic alternations, may have had an influence on the work of Saussure according to E. F. K. Koerner. An influential school of phonology in the interwar period was the Prague school. One of its leading members was Prince Nikolai Trubetzkoy, whose Grundzüge der Phonologie, published posthumously in 1939, is among the most important works in the field from this period. Directly influenced by Baudouin de Courtenay, Trubetzkoy is considered the founder of morphophonology, although this concept had been recognized by de Courtenay. Trubetzkoy developed the concept of the archiphoneme. Another important figure in the Prague school was Roman Jakobson, one of the most prominent linguists of the 20th century. In 1968 Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle published The Sound Pattern of English, the basis for generative phonology. In this view, phonological representations are sequences of segments made up of distinctive features.
These features were an expansion of earlier work by Roman Jakobson, Gunnar Fant, Morris Halle. The features describe aspects of articulation and perception, are from a universally fixed set, have the binary values + or −. There are at least two levels of representation: underlying representation and surface phonetic representation. Ordered phonological rules govern how underlying representation is transformed into the actual pronunciation. An important consequence of the influence SPE had on phonological theory was the downplaying of the syllable and the emphasis on segments. Furthermore, the generativists folded morphophonology into phonology, which both solved and created problems. Natural phonology is a theory based on the publications of its proponent David Stampe in 1969 and in 1979. In this view, phonology is based on a set of universal phonological p
Plentzia is a town and municipality located in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country. The town has 4,146 inhabitants. Plentzia is located 25 km north-east of Bilbao, it is part of the Bilbao metropolitan area, as well as being the terminus of the first line of the city's Metro. In addition to the Metro, two BizkaiBus bus routes serve the town, with further destinations served from Urduliz, the next stop on the Metro. Plentzia is 30 min by car from Bilbao and Bilbao airport. Coming from Bilbao, take the BI-634 from Bilbao to Sopelana and follow the signposts along the BI-2122 to Plentzia. From the airport, take the BI-631 as far as Mungia, from there the BI-2120 to Plentzia. Plentzia is a resort town with a large beach beside the Plentzia River estuary, in the round, shell-shaped Bay of Plentzia, shared with neighbouring Gorliz and Barrika; the beach is popular as it is clean and the sea is calm due to the shelter of the bay and the town has many amenities for visitors.
Plentzia and its neighbouring municipalities are popular locations for better-off families from Bilbao to buy weekend–holiday homes and during the summer months the town's beach and bars and restaurants become much busier thanks to these residents and other visitors from Bilbao. As in most Basque towns, Plentzia has a number of restaurants and bars ranging from small bars offering pintxos to restaurants with formal dining. There is a small Council-run museum telling the town's history and in particular dealing with its history as a merchant marine port; the town has an indoor municipal Jai Alai Fronton where the traditional Basque sport of pelota is played and competitive matches can be seen. The origins of Plentzia goes back to the beginning of the 13th century, when the Lord of Vizcaya Lope Díaz II of Haro define the maritime term of the district of Gorliz, focused on whale hunting. However, the villa was not founded until the year 1299 by Diego López V of Haro, it stood in the area coastal Gaminiz, belonging to the community of Gorliz, which would separate the whole which would constitute the town of Plentzia.
The original name of the new town was Placencia of Butron or Plasencia of Butron, but with the passage of years the use will short it giving rise to the current "Plencia". The “plencianos” were governed by the jurisdiction of Logroño. Subsequent Lords of Vizcaya and Kings of Castile would confirm the privileges of the town. Plentzia Town Council PLENTZIA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Txorierri is a valley of Biscay, Basque Country, separated from Bilbao by low mountains Monte Artxanda and Monte Abril. It includes the municipalities of Erandio, Sondika, Zamudio and Larrabetzu, it holds the international airport of Bilbao. It includes residential areas. Txorierriko Mankomunitatea
Mungialdea is a comarca of the province of Biscay, in the Basque Country, Spain. Mungialdea is the heir of the historical region of Uribe, one of the merindades of Biscay, it comprises the most rural area of the historical region of Uribe, drained by the river Butron and with some small municipalities. It is one of the seven comarcas, its capital city is Mungia. Mungialdea is located at the north of the province of Biscay, limiting with the comarcas of Busturialdea on the east, Greater Bilbao on the east and south and the Bay of Biscay on the north, its landscape fits with the oceanic climate and can be divided into two subregions: The coast, with beaches and high cliffs. Butrón, the area surrounding the Butrón river. Biscay
Aramaio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. ARAMAYONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Deba is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. The town centre is right on the sea, the municipal district includes a series of charming country villages, such as Itziar and Elorriaga; the natural setting is a perfect combination of green mountains. Traditionally, the attraction of Deba is based on the beauty of the landscape, its rich heritage, centuries-old culture and exquisite gastronomy. Today, it is reinforced with modern facilities, entertainment and leisure facilities that meet all visitors' needs. Deba is a town of summer residents, but it is on the St James’s Way. Thousands of years before Deba was founded, the town's relationship with sea and water formed an indelible part of its history; the shell deposits and bone harpoons found in many caves in the Deba municipal districts and some of the figures in the Palaeolithic shrine at Ekain are testimonies of that relationship. Curiously, thousands of year Roman chronicles cite the coast and the Deba, a river that would lend its name to the town.
The town's origins date back to 1343. History tells that Sancho IV of Castile granted the citizens of "Monte-Real", in Itziar, a charter as a township in 1294. Subsequently, they moved closer to the coast and founded a new settlement that they called Monreal de Deba. In the 15th century, Deba enjoyed a period of splendour due to shipping with the export of wool from Castile and Aragón to various European countries. In the 19th century the port declined and a new activity began: tourism. Deba's relationship with the sea changed when the town became one of the pioneers of tourism in Europe. Deba still faces the sea with a taste of salt in the air; the town offers visitors the opportunity to enjoy a unique coast and a modern spa, thus combining fun with therapy. It has an annual festival called "San Roke festivities". Http://ocio.diariovasco.com/fotos-fiesta/deba-sanroke1.php?foto=11 Official Website Information available in Spanish and Basque. DEBA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish