Billie Joe Armstrong
Billie Joe Armstrong is an American singer, musician, record producer, actor. Armstrong serves as the lead vocalist, primary songwriter, lead guitarist of the punk rock band Green Day, co-founded with Mike Dirnt, he is a guitarist and vocalist for the punk rock band Pinhead Gunpowder, provides lead vocals for Green Day's side projects Foxboro Hot Tubs, The Network and The Longshot. Raised in Rodeo, Armstrong developed an interest in music at a young age, recorded his first song at the age of five, he met Mike Dirnt while attending elementary school, the two bonded over their mutual interest in music, forming the band Sweet Children when the two were 15 years old. The band changed its name to Green Day, would achieve commercial success. Armstrong has pursued musical projects outside of Green Day's work, including numerous collaborations with other musicians. In 1997, to coincide with the release of Nimrod, Armstrong founded Adeline Records in Oakland to help support other bands releasing music, signed bands such as The Frustrators, AFI and Dillinger Four.
The record company came under the management of Pat Magnarella and shut down in August 2017. Armstrong was born in Oakland and raised in nearby Rodeo, the youngest of six children of Ollie Jackson and Andrew M. Armstrong. Armstrong's father, a jazz musician and truck driver for Safeway, died of esophageal cancer in September 1982, when Armstrong was 10; the song "Wake Me Up. He has five older siblings: David, Marci and Anna, his mother worked as waitress at Rod's Hickory Pit restaurant in El Cerrito, where Armstrong and Dirnt played their first gig in 1987. Armstrong's great-great-grandparents Pietro Marsicano and Teresa Nigro were Italian immigrants from Viggiano, Basilicata who moved to Boston, Massachusetts before arriving in Berkeley, California in 1869. For this, he received the honorary citizenship of Viggiano in June 2018 by mayor Amedeo Cicala, he is of Scotch-Irish, Scottish, Spanish and Welsh descent. Armstrong's interest in music started at a young age, he attended Hillcrest Elementary School in Rodeo, where a teacher encouraged him to record a song titled "Look for Love" at the age of five on the Bay Area label Fiat Records.
After his father died, his mother married a man whom her children disliked, which resulted in Armstrong's further retreat into music. At the age of 10, Armstrong met Mike Dirnt in the school cafeteria, they bonded over their love of music, he became interested in punk rock after being introduced to the genre by his brothers. Armstrong has cited Minneapolis-based bands The Replacements and Hüsker Dü as major musical influences; the first concert Armstrong watched was Van Halen in 1984. Armstrong and Dirnt's first live performance under the name Green Day was in Davis, a town an hour's drive northeast of the San Francisco Bay area. Along with Hillcrest Elementary, Armstrong attended Carquinez Middle School and John Swett High School, both in Crockett, transferred to Pinole Valley High School in Pinole. On his 18th birthday, he dropped out to pursue his musical career. In 1986, aged 14, Armstrong formed a band called Sweet Children with his childhood friend Mike Dirnt. In the beginning and Dirnt both played guitar, with Raj Punjabi on drums and Sean Hughes on bass.
Punjabi was replaced on drums by John Kiffmeyer known as Al Sobrante. After a few performances, Hughes left the band in 1988, they changed their name to Green Day in April 1989, choosing the name because of their fondness for marijuana. In 1989, Armstrong provided lead guitar and backing vocals on three songs for The Lookouts' final EP IV; that same year, Green Day released their debut EP 1,000 Hours through Lookout! Records, they recorded their debut studio album 39/Smooth and the extended play Slappy in 1990, which were combined with 1,000 Hours into the compilation 1,039/Smoothed Out Slappy Hours in 1991. Tré Cool became Green Day's drummer in late 1990. Cool made his debut on Kerplunk. In 1991, Armstrong joined the band Pinhead Gunpowder, consisting of bassist Bill Schneider, drummer Aaron Cometbus, fellow vocalist/guitarist Sarah Kirsch. Kirsch left the group in 1992, was replaced by Jason White; the group has released several extended plays and albums from 1991 to the present, performs live shows on an intermittent basis.
In 1993, Armstrong played live several times with California punk band Rancid. Rancid's lead singer, Tim Armstrong, asked Billie Joe Armstrong to join his band, but he refused due to his progress with Green Day. However, Billie Joe Armstrong was credited as a co-writer on Radio. With their third LP, Green Day broke through into the mainstream, have remained one of the most popular rock bands of the 1990s and 2000s with over 60 million records sold worldwide; the album was followed by Insomniac and Warning. Armstrong collaborated with many artists, he co-wrote The Go-Go's 2001 song "Unforgiven". He has co-written songs with Penelope Houston, sung backing vocals with Melissa Auf der Maur on Ryan Adams' "Do Miss America". Armstrong produced an album for The Riverdales, he was part of the Green Day side project The Network from 2003 to 2005. The Network released one album, 2003's Money Money 2020. Hoping to clear his head and develop new ideas fo
The Stonewall riots were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. They are considered to constitute the most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States. Gay Americans in the 1950s and 1960s faced an anti-gay legal system. Early homophile groups in the U. S. sought to prove that gay people could be assimilated into society, they favored non-confrontational education for homosexuals and heterosexuals alike. The last years of the 1960s, were contentious, as many social/political movements were active, including the civil rights movement, the counterculture of the 1960s, the anti–Vietnam War movement; these influences, along with the liberal environment of Greenwich Village, served as catalysts for the Stonewall riots. Few establishments welcomed gay people in the 1950s and 1960s.
Those that did were bars, although bar owners and managers were gay. At the time, the Stonewall Inn was owned by the Mafia, it catered to an assortment of patrons and was known to be popular among the poorest and most marginalized people in the gay community: drag queens, transgender people, effeminate young men, butch lesbians, male prostitutes, homeless youth. Police raids on gay bars were routine in the 1960s, but officers lost control of the situation at the Stonewall Inn. Tensions between New York City police and gay residents of Greenwich Village erupted into more protests the next evening, again several nights later. Within weeks, Village residents organized into activist groups to concentrate efforts on establishing places for gays and lesbians to be open about their sexual orientation without fear of being arrested. After the Stonewall riots and lesbians in New York City faced gender, race and generational obstacles to becoming a cohesive community. Within six months, two gay activist organizations were formed in New York, concentrating on confrontational tactics, three newspapers were established to promote rights for gays and lesbians.
Within a few years, gay rights organizations were founded across the U. S. and the world. On June 28, 1970, the first gay pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago commemorating the anniversary of the riots. Similar marches were organized in other cities. Today, Gay Pride events are held annually throughout the world toward the end of June to mark the Stonewall riots; the Stonewall National Monument was established at the site in 2016. As of 2017, plans were advancing by the State of New York to host the largest international LGBT pride celebration in 2019, known as Stonewall 50 / WorldPride, to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall Riots. In New York City, the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events produced by Heritage of Pride will be enhanced through a partnership made with the I LOVE NY program's LGBT division and will include a welcome center during the weeks surrounding the Stonewall 50 / WorldPride events, open to all. Additional commemorative arts and educational programing to mark the 50th anniversary of the rebellion at the Stonewall Inn will be taking place throughout the city and the world.
In addition to events requiring paid admission, a march open to the public is scheduled for June 30, 2019. Following the social upheaval of World War II, many people in the United States felt a fervent desire to "restore the prewar social order and hold off the forces of change", according to historian Barry Adam. Spurred by the national emphasis on anti-communism, Senator Joseph McCarthy conducted hearings searching for communists in the U. S. government, the U. S. Army, other government-funded agencies and institutions, leading to a national paranoia. Anarchists and other people deemed un-American and subversive were considered security risks. Homosexuals were included in this list by the U. S. State Department on the theory that they were susceptible to blackmail. In 1950, a Senate investigation chaired by Clyde R. Hoey noted in a report, "It is believed that those who engage in overt acts of perversion lack the emotional stability of normal persons", said all of the government's intelligence agencies "are in complete agreement that sex perverts in Government constitute security risks".
Between 1947 and 1950, 1,700 federal job applications were denied, 4,380 people were discharged from the military, 420 were fired from their government jobs for being suspected homosexuals. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the U. S. Federal Bureau of Investigation and police departments kept lists of known homosexuals, their favored establishments, friends. S. Post Office kept track of addresses. State and local governments followed suit: bars catering to homosexuals were shut down, their customers were arrested and exposed in newspapers. Cities performed "sweeps" to rid neighborhoods, parks and beaches of gay people, they outlawed the wearing of opposite gender clothes, universities expelled instructors suspected of being homosexual. In 1952, the American Psychiatric Association listed homosexuality in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual as a mental disorder. A large-scale study of homosexuality in 1962 was used to justify inclusion of the disorder as a supposed pathological hidden fear of the opposite sex caused by traumatic parent–child relationships.
This view was wide
Free love is a social movement that accepts all forms of love. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, adultery, it claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, no one else. Much of the free love tradition reflects a liberal philosophy that seeks freedom from state regulation and church interference in personal relationships. According to this concept, the free unions of adults are legitimate relations which should be respected by all third parties whether they are emotional or sexual relations. In addition, some free love writing has argued that both men and women have the right to sexual pleasure without social or legal restraints. In the Victorian era, this was a radical notion. A new theme developed, linking free love with radical social change, depicting it as a harbinger of a new anti-authoritarian, anti-repressive sensibility. According to today's stereotype, earlier middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world.
To this mentality are attributed strongly-defined gender roles, which led to a minority reaction in the form of the free-love movement. While the phrase free love is associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s the free-love movement has not advocated multiple-sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. Rather, it has argued that sexual relations that are entered into should not be regulated by law; the term "sex radical" is used interchangeably with the term "free lover", was the preferred term by advocates because of the negative connotations of "free love". By whatever name, advocates had two strong beliefs: opposition to the idea of forced sexual activity in a relationship and advocacy for a woman to use her body in any way that she pleases. Laws of particular concern to free love movements have included those that prevent an unmarried couple from living together, those that regulate adultery and divorce, as well as age of consent, birth control, homosexuality and sometimes prostitution.
The abrogation of individual rights in marriage is a concern—for example, some jurisdictions do not recognize spousal rape or treat it less than non-spousal rape. Free-love movements since the 19th century have defended the right to publicly discuss sexuality and have battled obscenity laws. At the turn of the 20th century, some free-love proponents extended the critique of marriage to argue that marriage as a social institution encourages emotional possessiveness and psychological enslavement; the history of free love is entwined with the history of feminism. From the late 18th century, leading feminists, such as Mary Wollstonecraft, have challenged the institution of marriage, many have advocated its abolition. According to feminist critique, a married woman was a wife and mother, denying her the opportunity to pursue other occupations. In 1855, free love advocate Mary Gove Nichols described marriage as the "annihilation of woman," explaining that women were considered to be men's property in law and public sentiment, making it possible for tyrannical men to deprive their wives of all freedom.
For example, the law allowed a husband to beat his wife. Free-love advocates argued that many children were born into unloving marriages out of compulsion, but should instead be the result of choice and affection—yet children born out of wedlock did not have the same rights as children with married parents. In 1857, in the Social Revolutionist, Minerva Putnam complained that "in the discussion of free love, no woman has attempted to give her views on the subject" and challenged every woman reader to "rise in the dignity of her nature and declare herself free."In the 19th century at least six books endorsed the concept of free love, all of which were written by men. However of the four major free-love periodicals following the U. S. civil war, half had female editors. Mary Gove Nichols was the leading-female advocate and the woman most looked up to in the free-love movement, her autobiography became the first argument against marriage written from a woman's point of view. To proponents of free love, the act of sex was not just about reproduction.
Access to birth control was considered a means to women's independence, leading birth-control activists embraced free love. Sexual radicals remained focused on their attempts to uphold a woman's right to control her body and to discuss issues such as contraception, marital-sex abuse, sexual education; these people believed. To help achieve this goal, such radical thinkers relied on the written word, books and periodicals, by these means the movement was sustained for over fifty years, spreading the message of free love all over the United States. A number of utopian social movements throughout history have shared a vision of free love; the all-male Essenes, who lived in the Middle East from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD shunned sex and slavery. They renounced wealth, lived communally, were pacifist vegetarians. An Early Christian sect known as the Adamites existed in North Africa in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th centuries and rejected marriage, they believed themselves to be without original sin.
In the 6th century, adherents of Mazdakism in pre-Muslim Persia supported a kind of free love in the place of marriage, like many other free-love movements favored
The Rocky Horror Picture Show
The Rocky Horror Picture Show is a 1975 musical horror comedy film by 20th Century Fox produced by Lou Adler and Michael White and directed by Jim Sharman. The screenplay was written by Sharman and actor Richard O'Brien, a member of the cast; the film is based on the 1973 musical stage production The Rocky Horror Show, with music and lyrics by O'Brien. The production is a parody tribute to the science fiction and horror B movies of the 1930s through to the early 1960s. Along with O'Brien, the film stars Tim Curry, Susan Sarandon, Barry Bostwick and is narrated by Charles Gray with cast members from the original Royal Court Theatre, Roxy Theatre, Belasco Theatre productions including Nell Campbell and Patricia Quinn; the story centres on a young engaged couple whose car breaks down in the rain near a castle where they seek a telephone to call for help. The castle or country home is occupied by strangers in elaborate costumes celebrating an annual convention, they discover the head of the house is Dr. Frank N. Furter, an apparent mad scientist, an alien transvestite who creates a living muscle man in his laboratory.
The couple are seduced separately by the mad scientist and released by the servants who take control. The film was shot in the United Kingdom at Bray Studios and on location at an old country estate named Oakley Court, best known for its earlier use by Hammer Film Productions. A number of props and set pieces were reused from the Hammer horror films. Although the film is both a parody of and tribute to many of kitsch science fiction and horror films, costume designer Sue Blane conducted no research for her designs. Blane stated that costumes from the film have directly affected the development of punk rock fashion trends such as ripped fishnets and dyed hair. Although critically panned on initial release, it soon became known as a midnight movie when audiences began participating with the film at the Waverly Theater in New York City in 1976. Audience members returned to the cinemas and talked back to the screen and began dressing as the characters, spawning similar performance groups across the United States.
At the same time, fans in costume at the King's Court Theater in Pittsburgh began performing alongside the film. This "shadow cast" mimed the actions on screen above and behind them, while lip-synching their character's lines. Still in limited release four decades after its premiere, it is the longest-running theatrical release in film history, it is shown close to Halloween. Today, the film has a large international cult following, it was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress in 2005. A criminologist narrates the tale of the newly engaged couple, Brad Majors and Janet Weiss, who find themselves lost and with a flat tire on a cold and rainy late November evening, somewhere near Denton In 1974. Seeking a telephone, the couple walk to a nearby castle where they discover a group of strange and outlandish people who are holding an Annual Transylvanian Convention, they are soon swept into the world of Dr. Frank-N-Furter, a self-proclaimed "sweet transvestite from Transsexual, Transylvania."
The ensemble of convention attendees includes servants Riff Raff, his sister Magenta, a groupie named Columbia. In his lab, Frank claims to have discovered the "secret to life itself", his creation, Rocky, is brought to life. The ensuing celebration is soon interrupted by Eddie. Eddie proceeds to seduce Columbia, get the Transylvanians dancing and singing and intrigue Brad and Janet; when Rocky starts dancing and enjoying the performance, a jealous Frank kills Eddie with an ice pick. Columbia screams in horror, devastated by Eddie's death. Frank justifies killing Eddie as a "mercy killing" to Rocky and they depart to the bridal suite. Brad and Janet are shown to separate bedrooms, where each is visited and seduced by Frank, who poses as Brad and as Janet. Janet and emotional, wanders off to look for Brad, who she discovers, via a television monitor, is in bed with Frank, she discovers Rocky, cowering in his birth tank, hiding from Riff Raff, tormenting him. While tending to his wounds, Janet becomes intimate with Rocky, as Magenta and Columbia watch from their bedroom monitor.
After discovering that his creation is missing, Frank returns to the lab with Brad and Riff Raff, where Frank learns that an intruder has entered the building. Brad and Janet's old high school science teacher, Dr. Everett Scott, has come looking for his nephew, Eddie. Frank suspects. Upon learning of Brad and Janet's connection to Dr. Scott, Frank suspects them of working for him. Frank, Dr. Scott and Riff Raff discover Janet and Rocky together under the sheets in Rocky's birth tank, upsetting Frank and Brad. Magenta interrupts the reunion by stating that dinner is prepared. Rocky and the guests share an uncomfortable dinner, which they soon realize has been prepared from Eddie's mutilated remains. Janet runs provoking Frank to chase her through the halls. Janet, Brad, Dr. Scott and Columbia all meet in Frank's lab, where Frank captures them with the Medusa Transducer, transforming them into nude statues. After dressing them in cabaret costume, Frank "unfreezes" them, they perform a live cabaret floor show, complete with an RKO tower and a swimming pool, with Frank as the leader.
Riff Raff and Magenta interrupt the per
Bisexual Resource Center
The Bisexual Resource Center is a 501 non-profit educational organization headquartered in Boston, that has served the Bisexual community since 1985. Known as The East Coast Bisexual Network, it incorporated in 1989 as a 501 nonprofit and changed its name to the Bisexual Resource Center in 1993. Describing itself as one of the oldest nationally focused bisexual organizations in the U. S. the BRC's current president is Jessica Silverman. It provides support for bisexual people; the organization, the most active American bisexual advocacy and resource group sponsors bi-positive programming, holds a support group, promotes visibility at Pride events and provides speakers about bisexuality. It has a "long-standing role as a clearinghouse for bisexual information, " and has a lending library with 200 books about bisexuality and some movies. In 1987 The East Coast Bisexual Network established the first Bisexual History Archives with Robyn Ochs's initial collection; the BRC publishes the biannual Bisexual Resource Guide, a comprehensive listing of bisexual and bi-inclusive organizations, bi-related books and films, web sites, academic articles.
The first edition was published in the mid-1980s. The BRC produces Getting Bi: Voices of Bisexuals Around the World, now in its second edition; the anthology is edited by Ochs and Sarah E. Rowley and has 220 entries from people from 42 countries. Topics include coming out, politics and more; the book addresses the intersection of bisexuality with race, ethnicity, gender identity and national identity. The BRC had its first float at the Boston LBGT Pride parade in 2010. In 2014, the BRC declared March of that year as the first "Bisexual Health Awareness Month", with the theme "Bi the Way, Our Health Matters Too!". Bisexual American history Bisexual community Biphobia Bisexual erasure Creating Change Conference BiNet USA Bisexual Resource Center — official website The Bisexual Resource Center records, 1983–2002 are located in the Northeastern University Libraries and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA
Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living during the time of Queen Victoria's reign, the Victorian era, of the moral climate of Great Britain in the mid-19th century in general. The British sought to bring these values to the British Empire. Historian Harold Perkin writes: Between 1780 and 1850 the English ceased to be one of the most aggressive, rowdy, riotous and bloodthirsty nations in the world and became one of the most inhibited, orderly, tender-minded and hypocritical; the transformation diminished cruelty to animals, criminals and children. Victorian values reached all facets of Victorian living; the values of the period—which can be classed as religion, Evangelicalism, industrial work ethic, personal improvement—took root in Victorian morality. Current plays and all literature—including old classics like Shakespeare—were cleansed of naughtiness, or "bowdlerized." Contemporary historians have come to regard the Victorian era as a time of many conflicts, such as the widespread cultivation of an outward appearance of dignity and restraint, together with serious debates about how the new morality should be implemented.
The international slave trade was abolished, this ban was enforced by the Royal Navy. Slavery was ended in all the British colonies, child labour was ended in British factories, a long debate ensued regarding whether prostitution should be abolished or regulated. Homosexuality remained illegal; as of the turn of the 21st century, the term "Victorian morality" can describe any set of values that espouse sexual restraint, low tolerance of crime and a strict social code of conduct. Opposition to slavery was the main evangelical cause from the late 18th century, led by William Wilberforce; the cause organized thoroughly, developed propaganda campaigns that made readers cringe at the horrors of slavery. The same moral fervor and organizational skills carried over into most of the other reform movements. Victoria ascended to the throne in 1837, only four years after the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire; the anti-slavery movement had campaigned for years to achieve the ban, succeeding with a partial abolition in 1807 and the full ban on slave trade, but not slave ownership, which only happened in 1833.
It took so long because the anti-slavery morality was pitted against powerful economic interests which claimed their businesses would be destroyed if they were not permitted to exploit slave labour. Plantation owners in the Caribbean received £20 million in cash compensation, which reflected the average market price of slaves. William E. Gladstone a famous reformer, handled the large payments to his father for their hundreds of slaves; the Royal Navy patrolled the Atlantic Ocean, stopping any ships that it suspected of trading African slaves to the Americas and freeing any slaves found. The British had set up a Crown Colony in West Africa—Sierra Leone—and transported freed slaves there. Freed slaves from Nova Scotia founded and named the capital of Sierra Leone "Freetown". William Wilberforce, Thomas Fowell Buxton and Richard Martin introduced the first legislation to prevent cruelty to animals, the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822. In the Metropolitan Police Act 1839 "fighting or baiting Lions, Badgers, Dogs, or other Animals" was made a criminal offence.
The law laid numerous restrictions on how and where animals could be used. It prohibited owners from letting mad dogs run loose and gave police the right to destroy any dog suspected of being rabid, it prohibited the use of dogs for drawing carts. The law was extended to the rest of England and Wales in 1854. Dog-pulled carts were used by poor self-employed men as a cheap means to deliver milk, human foods, animal foods, for collecting refuse; the dogs were susceptible to rabies. They bothered the horses, which were economically much more vital to the city. Evangelicals and utilitarians in the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals persuaded Parliament it was cruel and should be illegal; the owners had no more use for their dogs, killed them. Cart dogs were replaced by people with handcarts. Evangelical religious forces took the lead in identifying the evils of child labor, legislating against them, they were angered at the contradiction between the conditions on the ground for children of the poor and the middle-class notion of childhood as a time of innocence led to the first campaigns for the imposition of legal protection for children.
Reformers attacked child labor from the 1830s onward. The campaign that led to the Factory Acts was spearheaded by rich philanthropists of the era Lord Shaftesbury, who introduced bills in Parliament to mitigate the exploitation of children at the workplace. In 1833 he introduced the Ten Hours Act 1833, which provided that children working in the cotton and woollen mills must be aged nine or above; the Factory Act of
Cabaret (1972 film)
Cabaret is a 1972 American musical drama film directed by Bob Fosse, starring Liza Minnelli, Michael York, Joel Grey. Situated in Berlin during the Weimar Republic in 1931, under the presence of the growing Nazi Party, the film is loosely based on the 1966 Broadway musical Cabaret by Kander and Ebb, adapted from the novel The Berlin Stories / Goodbye to Berlin by Christopher Isherwood and the 1951 play I Am a Camera adapted from the same book. Only a few numbers from the stage score were used for the film. In the traditional manner of musical theater, called an "integrated musical", every significant character in the stage version sings to express his or her own emotion and to advance the plot. In the film version, the musical numbers are diegetic, taking place inside the club, with one exception, "Tomorrow Belongs to Me", the only song sung neither by Grey's character of the Kit Kat Klub's Master of Ceremonies nor by Minnelli's character of Sally Bowles. In the sexually charged "Two Ladies", about a ménage à trois, the Master of Ceremonies is joined by two of the Kit Kat girls.
After the box office failure of his film version of Sweet Charity in 1969, Bob Fosse bounced back with Cabaret in 1972, a year that made him the most honored director in the movie business. The film brought Liza Minnelli, the daughter of Judy Garland and Vincente Minnelli, her own first chance to sing on screen, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress. With Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor, Best Cinematography, Best Art Direction, Best Sound, Best Original Song Score and Adaptation, Best Film Editing, Cabaret holds the record for most Oscars earned by a film not honored for Best Picture, it is listed as number 367 on Empire’s 500 greatest films of all time. Cabaret opened to glowing reviews and strong box office taking in more than $20 million. In addition to its eight Oscars, it won Best Picture citations from the National Board of Review and the Hollywood Foreign Press Association, took Best Supporting Actor honors for Grey from the National Board of Review, the Hollywood Foreign Press, the National Society of Film Critics.
In 1931 Berlin, young American Sally Bowles performs at the Kit Kat Klub. A new British arrival in the city, Brian Roberts, moves into the boarding house. A reserved academic and writer, Brian gives English lessons to earn a living, while completing his doctorate. Sally tries seducing Brian, suspects he may be gay. Brian tells Sally that on three previous occasions he has tried to have sexual relationships with women, all of which failed, they become friends, Brian witnesses Sally's anarchic, bohemian life in the last days of the Weimar Republic. Sally and Brian become lovers, despite their earlier reservations. Sally befriends Maximilian von Heune, a rich playboy baron who takes her and Brian to his country estate. After a sexual experience with Brian, Max loses interest in the two, departs for Argentina. During an argument, when Sally tells Brian that she has been having sex with Max, Brian reveals that he has as well. Brian and Sally reconcile, Sally reveals that Max left them money and mockingly compares the sum with what a professional prostitute gets.
Sally learns that she is unsure of the father. Brian offers to take her back to his university life in Cambridge. At first, they celebrate their resolution to start this new life together, but after a picnic between Sally and Brian, in which Brian acts distant and uninterested, Sally becomes disheartened by the vision of herself as a bored faculty wife washing dirty diapers, she has an abortion, without informing Brian in advance. When he confronts her, she shares her fears, the two reach an understanding. Brian departs for England, Sally continues her life in Berlin, embedding herself in the Kit Kat Club. A subplot concerns Fritz Wendel, a German Jew passing as a Christian, in love with Natalia Landauer, a wealthy German Jewish heiress, who holds him in contempt and suspects his motives; the worldly Sally gives him advice, which enables Fritz to win her love. However, in order to get her parents' consent for their marriage, Fritz must reveal his true religious and ethnic background – a dangerous act, considering what is in store for Jews under the coming Nazi regime.
Although the Nazis are not yet in power, some of them kill Natalia's beloved dog one night. The Nazis' violent rise is a ever-present undercurrent in the film, their progress can be tracked through the characters' changing attitudes. While in the beginning of the film, Nazis are sometimes harassed and kicked out of the Kit Kat Klub, the final shot of the film shows the cabaret's audience is dominated by uniformed Nazi Party members; the rise of the Nazis is dramatically demonstrated in the rural beer garden scene. In a sunlit outdoor setting, a boy – only his face seen – sings to a relaxed audience of all ages what at first seem mild lyrics about the beauties of nature and youth; the camera shifts to show. As the gentle a capella ballad transforms into a harsh and militant Nazi anthem, one by one, nearly all the adults and young people watching rise and join in the singing; the song culminates with the singer donning his Hitler Youth cap and lifting his hand in the Nazi salute. Max and Brian return to their car after witnessing this show of growing support for the Nation