Bisexuality is romantic attraction, sexual attraction, or sexual behavior toward both males and females, or to more than one sex or gender. It may be defined as romantic or sexual attraction to people of any sex or gender identity, known as pansexuality; the term bisexuality is used in the context of human attraction to denote romantic or sexual feelings toward both men and women, the concept is one of the three main classifications of sexual orientation along with heterosexuality and homosexuality, all of which exist on the heterosexual–homosexual continuum. A bisexual identity does not equate to equal sexual attraction to both sexes. Scientists do not know the exact cause of sexual orientation, but they theorize that it is caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental influences, do not view it as a choice. Although no single theory on the cause of sexual orientation has yet gained widespread support, scientists favor biologically-based theories. There is more evidence supporting nonsocial, biological causes of sexual orientation than social ones for males.
Bisexuality has been observed in various human societies and elsewhere in the animal kingdom throughout recorded history. The term bisexuality, like the terms hetero- and homosexuality, was coined in the 19th century. Bisexuality is sexual attraction to both males and females; the American Psychological Association states. In other words, someone does not have to be homosexual or heterosexual, but can feel varying degrees of both. Sexual orientation develops across a person's lifetime–different people realize at different points in their lives that they are heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual."Sexual attraction and identity may be incongruent, as sexual attraction or behavior may not be consistent with identity. Some individuals identify themselves as heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual without having had any sexual experience. Others have had homosexual experiences but do not consider themselves to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual. Self-identified gay or lesbian individuals may sexually interact with members of the opposite sex but do not identify as bisexual.
The terms queer, heteroflexible, men who have sex with men and women who have sex with women may be used to describe sexual identity or identify sexual behavior. Some sources state that bisexuality encompasses romantic or sexual attraction to all gender identities or that it is romantic or sexual attraction to a person irrespective of that person's biological sex or gender, equating it to or rendering it interchangeable with pansexuality; the concept of pansexuality deliberately rejects the gender binary, the "notion of two genders and indeed of specific sexual orientations", as pansexual people are open to relationships with people who do not identify as men or women. Sometimes the phrase "bisexual umbrella" is used to describe any nonmonosexual behaviors and identities for purposes of collective action and challenging monosexist cultural assumptions; the bisexual activist Robyn Ochs defines bisexuality as "the potential to be attracted—romantically and/or sexually—to people of more than one sex and/or gender, not at the same time, not in the same way, not to the same degree."
According to Rosario, Hunter, Braun:...the development of a lesbian, gay, or bisexual sexual identity is a complex and difficult process. Unlike members of other minority groups, most LGB individuals are not raised in a community of similar others from whom they learn about their identity and who reinforce and support that identity. Rather, LGB individuals are raised in communities that are either ignorant of or hostile toward homosexuality. Bisexuality as a transitional identity has been examined. In a longitudinal study about sexual identity development among lesbian and bisexual youths, Rosario et al. "found evidence of both considerable consistency and change in LGB sexual identity over time". Youths who had identified as both gay/lesbian and bisexual prior to baseline were three times more to identify as gay/lesbian than as bisexual at subsequent assessments. Of youths who had identified only as bisexual at earlier assessments, 60 to 70 percent continued to thus identify, while 30 to 40 percent assumed a gay/lesbian identity over time.
Rosario et al. suggested that "although there were youths who self-identified as bisexual throughout the study, for other youths, a bisexual identity served as a transitional identity to a subsequent gay/lesbian identity."By contrast, a longitudinal study by Lisa M. Diamond, which followed women identifying as lesbian, bisexual, or unlabeled, found that "more women adopted bisexual/unlabeled identities than relinquished these identities," over a ten-year period; the study found that "bisexual/unlabeled women had stable overall distributions of same-sex/other-sex attractions." Diamond has studied male bisexuality, noting that survey research found "almost as many men transitioned at some point from a gay identity to a bisexual, queer or unlabeled one, as did from a bisexual identity to a gay identity." In the 1940s, the zoologist Alfred Kinsey created a scale to measure the continuum of sexual orientation from heterosexuality to homosexuality. Kinsey studied human sexuality and argued that people have the capability of being hetero- or homosexual if this
"Parklife" is the title track from Blur's 1994 album Parklife. When released as the album's third single, "Parklife" reached number 10 on the UK Singles Chart and number 30 in Ireland; the song is noted for containing elements of spoken word in the verses, narrated by actor Phil Daniels, who appears in the song's music video. The choruses are sung by lead singer Damon Albarn; the song won British Single of the Year and British Video of the Year at the 1995 Brit Awards and was performed at the 2012 Brit Awards. The Massed Bands of the Household Division performed Parklife at the London 2012 Olympics closing ceremony; the song is one of the defining tracks of Britpop, features on the 2003 compilation album Live Forever: The Rise and Fall of Brit Pop. A number of newspaper articles about the young middle classes' adoption of Estuary English appeared during the single's chart run, including one in The Sunday Times on the day the song entered the singles chart; the song played a part in Blur's supposed feud with fellow Britpop band Oasis at the 1996 Brit Awards when the Gallagher brothers and Noel, taunted Blur by singing a drunk rendition of "Parklife" when the members of Oasis were collecting the "Best British Album" award, which both bands had been nominated for.
Despite what is believed, the song does not refer to Castle Park in Colchester, the town where the band hail from. According to Damon Albarn when introducing the song during their July 2009 Hyde Park performance, "I came up with the idea for this song in this park. I was living on Kensington Church Street, I used to come into the park at the other end, I used to, you know, watch people, pigeons...", at which moment Phil Daniels appears onstage. Daniels performed a rendition of the song at the band's headline slot at Glastonbury Festival 2009 and at the band's second Hyde Park concert in August 2012, at the 2012 Brit Awards. Daniels had been approached to recite a poem for "The Debt Collector". However, Albarn could not find a poem he liked, Daniels was asked to sing lead vocals on "Parklife" instead. Daniels reinvigorated the band; the song's music video filmed next to The Pilot pub on the Greenwich Peninsula features Phil Daniels as a smarmy double glazing salesman, with Albarn as his assistant.
Other band members appear as various characters from the song, including Dave Rowntree and Alex James as a couple, with the latter in drag. At one point, Albarn is impressed to see a man carrying a placard reading "Modern Life Is Rubbish", the title of Blur's previous album; the car used by Daniels and Albarn is a bronze-coloured Ford Granada Coupe Mk1. In one part of the video, the Granada pulls up next to an Audi Cabriolet convertible and Daniels says "It's got nothing to do with your'Vorsprung durch Technik' yer know"; the driver played by Alex James, grimaces back at him. Both cars pull away at speed to reveal'Parklife' written on the tarmac; the video was reviewed on a 1995 episode of Butt-Head. The characters stated; the song started to be played at football matches in the mid-1990s becoming a "football anthem" and featuring on albums like The Best Footie Anthems in the World... Ever! and The Beautiful Game, the Official Album of Euro 1996. Thus, Nike aired; the advertisement featured the song and many famous Premier League footballers, including Eric Cantona, Ian Wright and Robbie Fowler.
The advert received acclaim and was rated the 14th best advert of all time by ITV in 2005, as the 15th best by Channel 4 in 2000. The song is played before the home matches of Chelsea F. C. at Stamford Bridge. The song's narrator Phil Daniels and Blur frontman Damon Albarn are both fans of Chelsea; this song is sung at Carrow Road, the home of Norwich City F. C. with the words "All the Germans, so many Germans, they all go hand in hand, hand in hand through their Farkelife... FARKELIFE!" This is due to the fact. Billboard wrote: "Blur continues to explore its newfound interest in shameless pop, first exploited on the giddy,'New- Romantic'-sounding'Girls & Boys.' This follow-up is pure fun, as the British act pounces through bouncy melodies, woven through playful guitars and spoken-word vocals." In May 2007, NME magazine placed "Parklife" at number 41 in its list of the 50 Greatest Indie Anthems Ever."Parklife" is the best-selling single from the album, with 190,000 copies sold. All music composed by Albarn, Coxon and Rowntree.
All lyrics composed by Albarn. Note: the 7" vinyl edition was pressed for use on jukeboxes and was not issued commercially. Blur provided the single with a selection of strikingly contrasting B-sides, all pastiches of other genres of music. One of a number of occasional Blur songs written in waltz time and built on an arrangement of harpsichord and string synths, Theme from an Imaginary Film was planned but rejected for the film Decadence. Supa Shoppa was an instrumental in the style of acid jazz, recorded with percussion, synth flute and Hammond organ parts. Drowned in Sound, reviewing Blur's career, noted that it had been a "perfect live opener for the Parklife tour when cranked up." Beard parodied jazz music, was named based on the stereotype of jazz fans wearing them. An additional alternative version of To the End was added. (At the time, to boost singles' chart placings it was
Sternburg is a brand of German beer and bottled by Radeberger Group. Their best selling product is "Sternburg Export". In 2006 it had 9.5% of the market share in Eastern Germany. The history of Sternburg goes back to 1278, to the brewery of a Rittergut, which lies between Elster and Mühlteich; the location was purchased by Wilhelm von Mechfritz in 1405. In 1822, Leipzig wool merchant Maximilian Speck von Sternburg bought the estate of Lützschena, which included the brewery, as grazing ground for his sheep. Whilst on a trip to Bavaria, Speck recruited a brewmaster from St. Vitus' Abbey to brew his beer; when Speck entered the gentry, he asked to add the name of "von Sternburg" to his title. However, he was not allowed to sell the beer at its current location in Leipzig and so he moved production to the cellar of a castle in Leipzig, in April 1823 he received a permit from the Leipzig city council. From that point onward he sold an average of 300,000 liters of beer per year. In 1948 the ownership of the brewery was made public as was common under the government of the newly formed state of East Germany, in 1968 it was absorbed into the state-run Volkseigener Betrieb drink management organization in Leipzig.
After re-unification in 1990, it once again became an independent venture, "Sternburg Brauerei GmbH," in cooperation with Stuttgarter Hofbräu. Demand for exportation fell to 600,000 liters per year, so Sachsenbräu AG bought the business and closed the brewery at Lützschena, continuing production instead at the Reudnitzer Brewery. In 1992 the brands "Sternburg Export" and "Sternburg Pilsner" became discount brands. In 1997 "Sternburg Schwarzbier" and "Sternburg Export" received the seal of approval from the quality-management bureau "CMA-Gütesiegel," and one year "Sternburg Pilsner" received this designation, followed by "Sternburg Schwarzbier" in 1999. In 2002 Sternburg Export was 48% of Germany's beer exports and the variety "Sternburg Radler" was introduced. "Sternburg Diesel" followed in 2003 and "Sternburg Doppelkaramel" in 2004. The last addition was in 2005 with the introduction of "Sternburg Hefeweizen." The brand Sternburg has its own fan magazine. "Sterni" magazine is published as a PDF-document online at the homepage of the brewery.
Inside are stories from fans of the brand, bands that have written songs about the beer. Reader-interactivity plays a large role. 1883: Alexander Freiherr Speck von Sternburg'sche Dampfbrauerei 1912: Freiherrlich von Sternburg'sche Brauerei 1948: Brauerei Sternburg GmbH 1949: VVB Venag, VEB Brauerei Sternburg 1952: VVB d. Brau- und Malzindustrie, VEB Brauerei Sternburg 1958: VEB Brauerei Sternburg Lützschena 1964: VEB Brau- und Malzkombinat Sternburg Lützschena, Werk I 1969: VEB Brau- und Malzkombinat Sternburg Lützschena, Werk I 1990: VEB Exportbierbrauerei Sternburg im VEB Getränkekombinat Leipzig 1991: Sternburg Brauerei Lützschena GmbH Official Website Facebook Fanpage