Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases and solids including topics such as vibration, sound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer; the application of acoustics is present in all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries. Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, architecture, industrial production and more. Animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay's'Wheel of Acoustics' is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
The word "acoustic" is derived from the Greek word ἀκουστικός, meaning "of or for hearing, ready to hear" and that from ἀκουστός, "heard, audible", which in turn derives from the verb ἀκούω, "I hear". The Latin synonym is "sonic", after which the term sonics used to be a synonym for acoustics and a branch of acoustics. Frequencies above and below the audible range are called "ultrasonic" and "infrasonic", respectively. In the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek philosopher Pythagoras wanted to know why some combinations of musical sounds seemed more beautiful than others, he found answers in terms of numerical ratios representing the harmonic overtone series on a string, he is reputed to have observed that when the lengths of vibrating strings are expressible as ratios of integers, the tones produced will be harmonious, the smaller the integers the more harmonious the sounds. If, for example, a string of a certain length would sound harmonious with a string of twice the length. In modern parlance, if a string sounds the note C when plucked, a string twice as long will sound a C an octave lower.
In one system of musical tuning, the tones in between are given by 16:9 for D, 8:5 for E, 3:2 for F, 4:3 for G, 6:5 for A, 16:15 for B, in ascending order. Aristotle understood that sound consisted of compressions and rarefactions of air which "falls upon and strikes the air, next to it...", a good expression of the nature of wave motion. In about 20 BC, the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius wrote a treatise on the acoustic properties of theaters including discussion of interference and reverberation—the beginnings of architectural acoustics. In Book V of his De architectura Vitruvius describes sound as a wave comparable to a water wave extended to three dimensions, when interrupted by obstructions, would flow back and break up following waves, he described the ascending seats in ancient theaters as designed to prevent this deterioration of sound and recommended bronze vessels of appropriate sizes be placed in theaters to resonate with the fourth, fifth and so on, up to the double octave, in order to resonate with the more desirable, harmonious notes.
During the Islamic golden age, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī is believed to postulated that the speed of sound was much slower than the speed of light. The physical understanding of acoustical processes advanced during and after the Scientific Revolution. Galileo Galilei but Marin Mersenne, discovered the complete laws of vibrating strings. Galileo wrote "Waves are produced by the vibrations of a sonorous body, which spread through the air, bringing to the tympanum of the ear a stimulus which the mind interprets as sound", a remarkable statement that points to the beginnings of physiological and psychological acoustics. Experimental measurements of the speed of sound in air were carried out between 1630 and 1680 by a number of investigators, prominently Mersenne. Meanwhile, Newton derived the relationship for wave velocity in solids, a cornerstone of physical acoustics; the eighteenth century saw major advances in acoustics as mathematicians applied the new techniques of calculus to elaborate theories of sound wave propagation.
In the nineteenth century the major figures of mathematical acoustics were Helmholtz in Germany, who consolidated the field of physiological acoustics, Lord Rayleigh in England, who combined the previous knowledge with his own copious contributions to the field in his monumental work The Theory of Sound. In the 19th century, Wheatstone and Henry developed the analogy between electricity and acoustics; the twentieth century saw a burgeoning of technological applications of the large body of scientific knowledge, by in place. The first such application was Sabine’s groundbreaking work in architectural acoustics, many others followed. Underwater acoustics was used for detecting submarines in the first World War. Sound recording and the telephone played important roles in a global transformation of society. Sound measurement and analysis reached new levels of accuracy and sophistication through the use of electronics and computing; the ultrasonic frequency range enabled wholly new kinds of application in industry.
New kinds of transducers were put to use. Acoustics is defined by ANSI/
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science is a public institute for research and higher education in science, engineering and management. It is a premier scientific research institute in India and has been ranked first in the'university' and'overall' category for the last three consecutive years in the NIRF rankings, it is located in Bangalore and was established in 1909 with active support from Jamsetji Tata and Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. It is locally known as the "Tata Institute", it was granted the Deemed University status in 1958. After an accidental meeting between Jamsetji Tata and Swami Vivekananda, on a ship in 1893 where they discussed Tata's plan of bringing the steel industry to India, Tata wrote to Vivekananda five years later: "I trust, you remember me as a fellow-traveller on your voyage from Japan to Chicago. I much recall at this moment your views on the growth of the ascetic spirit in India... I recall these ideas in connection with my scheme of Research Institute of Science for India, of which you have doubtless heard or read."Impressed by Vivekananda's views on science and leadership abilities, Tata wanted him to guide his campaign.
Vivekananda endorsed the project with enthusiasm, Tata, with the aim of advancing the scientific capabilities of the country, constituted a Provisional Committee to prepare a plan for setting up of an Institute of research and higher education. The committee presented a draft proposal to Lord Curzon on 31 December 1898. Subsequently, Sir William Ramsay, a Nobel Laureate, was called on to propose a suitable place for such an institution who suggested Bangalore as the best location. Mir Osman Ali Khan made the biggest contribution in terms of money which amounted to 3 lakh Rupees over a period of 31 years; the land and other facilities for the institution were donated by on behalf of the state of Mysore by Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, Tata himself. The Karnataka donated about 371 acres of land.. Tata gave several buildings towards the creation of IISc. State of Karnataka contributed Rs 500000 towards capitol expenditure and Rs 50000 for annual expense; the constitution of the Institute was approved by the Viceroy, Lord Minto, the necessary Vesting Order to enable it to function was signed on 27 May 1909.
Early in 1911, the Maharaja of Mysore laid the foundation stone of the Institute, on 24 July, the first batch of students were admitted to the Departments of General and Applied Chemistry under Norman Rudolf and Electro-Technology under Alferd Hay. Within two months, the Department of Organic Chemistry was opened. In 1958 the institute was granted the deemed university status by the UGC. At the time of the inception of IISc in 1909, Morris Travers, Sir William Ramsay's co-worker in the discovery of the noble gases, became its first Director. For Travers, this was a natural continuation of his work on the Institute, since he had played a role in its founding; the first Indian Director was the Nobel Laureate Sir C. V. Raman. Raman was the Indian Science-based Nobel Laureate; the current Director is Anurag Kumar. The Institute was the first to introduce Masters programs in Engineering, it has started integrated doctoral programs in Biological, Chemical and Mathematical Sciences for natural science graduates.
The IISc campus is located in the north of Bengaluru, about 4 kilometers from Bangalore City Railway Station and Kempegowda Bus Station, on the way to Yeshwantpur. The Institute is about 35 kilometers from Kempegowda International Airport. A number of other research institutes, Raman Research Institute, Indian Space Research Organisation, Wood Research Institute and Central Power Research Institute, are close to IISc. Most of these institutes are connected to IISc by a regular shuttle bus service; the campus houses more than 40 departments marked by routes such as the Gulmohar Marg, the Mahogany Marg, the Badami Marg, the Tala Marg, the Ashoka Marg, the Nilgiri Marg, the Silver Oak Marg, the Amra Marg and the Arjuna Marg. The Institute is residential and is spread over 400 acres of land in the heart of Bengaluru city; the campus features six canteens, a gymkhana, a football ground and a cricket ground, four dining messes, one multi cuisine restaurant, nine men's and five women's hostels, an air strip, a library, two shopping centers and residences of the faculty members and other staff, besides other amenities.
The IISc campus harbors both exotic and indigenous plant species with about 110 species of woody plants. The roads on the campus are named after the dominant avenue tree species; the architecture of the main building, which today houses the administration and the prestigious Faculty Hall, is classical in style, fronted by a grey, handsome tower. In front of it stands the work of Gilbert Bayes, a noble monument erected in the memory of J. N. Tata. At its feet is an inscription that serves to remind future generations of the generosity of Jamsetji Tata and the persistence with which he worked for the welfare of India; the building, as one of the prominent landmarks of Bengaluru, was designed by C. F. Stevens and Company of Bombay in 1912–13; the buildings for the metallurgy and aerospace departments were designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1940. A second campus is in Challakere, on 1,500 acres lot of land, it holds the Talent Development Centre, established in 2011. IISc was ranked 251–300 in the world by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings of 2018, the top institute in India, as well as 21 in Asian the 2018 ranking and 14 among BRICS & Emerging Economies University Rankings in 2017.
The QS World University Rankings of 2019 ranke
University of Lucknow
University Of Lucknow or Lucknow University is a government owned Indian research university based in Lucknow. LU's old campus is located at Badshah Bagh, University Road area of the city with a new campus at Jankipuram. Founded in 1867, LU is one of the oldest government owned institutions of Indian higher education. LU is a teaching and affiliating University, organised into more than 146 colleges, institutes, located throughout the city and other surrounding areas, it is affiliated to University Grants Commission. Other accreditations include Accreditation Council, it was affiliated to UGC in the year 1921. The idea of establishing a university at Lucknow was conceived by Raja Sir Mohammad Ali Mohammad Khan, Khan Bahadur, K. C. I. E. of Mahmudabad. He contributed an article in popular newspaper, The Pioneer, urging the foundation of a University at Lucknow. Sir Harcourt Butler was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the United Provinces, was made Mohammad Khan's well-known interest in all matters, specially in educational matters.
The first step to bring the University into being was taken when a General Committee of educationists and persons interested in university education appointed for the purpose, met in conference at Government House, Lucknow, on 10 November 1919. At this meeting Sir Harcourt Butler, being the chairman of the committee, outlined the proposed scheme for the new university. After an elaborate discussion, it was decided that Lucknow University should be a unitary and residential University as recommended by the Calcutta University Mission, 1919, should consist of Faculties of Arts, including Oriental Studies, Medicine, etc. Six sub-committees were formed, five of them to consider questions connected with the University and one to consider the arrangements for providing Intermediate Education; these sub-committees met during the months of November and December, 1919, January, 1920. The question of incorporation of the Medical College in the University, was for the time being left open for further discussion.
At the close of the Conference, Rs. one lakh each from the Raja of Mahmudabad and Jahangirabad were announced as the capital funds. The resolutions of the first Conference together with the recommendations of the sub-committees as confirmed at the second Conference were laid before a meeting of the Allahabad University on 12 March 1920, it was decided to appoint a sub-committee to consider them and report to the Senate; the report of the sub-committee was considered at an extraordinary meeting of the Senate on 7 August 1920, at which the Chancellor presided, the scheme was approved. In the meantime, the difficulty of incorporating the Medical College in the University had been removed. During April 1920, Mr. C. F. de la Fosse, the Director of Public Instruction of the United Provinces, drew up a draft Bill for the establishment of the Lucknow University, introduced in the Legislative Council on 12 August 1920. It was referred to a Select Committee which suggested a number of amendments, the most important being the liberalizing of the constitution of the various University bodies and the inclusion of a Faculty of Commerce.
This bill, in an amended form, was passed by the Council on 8 October 1920. The Lucknow University Act, No. V of 1920, received the assent of the Lieutenant-Governor on 1 November, of the Governor-General on 25 November 1920; the Court of the University was constituted in March, 1921 with the first meeting being held on 21 March 1921, at which the Chancellor presided. The other University authorities such as the Executive Council, the Academic Council, Faculties came into existence in August and September, 1921. Other Committees and Boards, both statutory and otherwise, were constituted in course of time. On 17 July 1921, the University undertook teaching -- both informal. Teaching in the Faculties of Arts, Science and Law was being done in the Canning College and teaching in the Faculty of Medicine in the King George's Medical College and Hospital; the Canning College was handed over to the University on 1 July 1922, although previous to this date the buildings, staff, etc. belonging to the Canning College had been ungrudgingly placed at the disposal of the University for the purposes of teaching and residence.
The King George's Medical College and the King George's Hospital were transferred by the Government to the University on the 1 March 1921. The King George's Medical College, The Canning College,The Isabella Thoburn College provided structural as well as educational and administrational help for the establishment of the university. In the early days, the Canning College had no building of its own, the scene of its activity periodically changed as one or other building proved unsuitable or insufficient. During the first twelve years, the College was shifted from its original location, the Aminuddaulah Palace, to a number of places, one after another, including the Lal Baradari. At last, it was housed in its own building at Kaisar Bagh; the foundation stone of this new building was laid by the Viceroy, Sir John Lawrence, as far back as 13 November 1867, but the work of construction was not completed until 1878. On 15 November of that year
Manfred R. Schroeder
Manfred Robert Schroeder was a German physicist, most known for his contributions to acoustics and computer graphics. He published over 150 articles in his field. Born in Ahlen, he studied at the University of Göttingen, earning a vordiplom in mathematics and Dr. rer. nat. in physics. His thesis showed, he joined the technical staff at Bell Labs in New Jersey researching speech and graphics, securing forty-five patents. With Bishnu Atal he was a promoter of linear predictive coding. Still affiliated with Bell, he rejoined University of Göttingen as Universitätsprofessor Physik becoming professor emeritus, he was a visiting professor at University of Tokyo. With B. S. Atal he developed code excited linear prediction. With Ning Xiang he was a promoter of a synchronous dual channel measurement method using reciprocal maximum-length sequences, he led a famed study of 22 concert halls worldwide, leading to a comparison method requiring no travel. Number Theory in Science and Communication: With Applications in Cryptography, Biology, Digital Information, Computing.
Fractals, Power Laws: Minutes from an Infinite Paradise Computer speech recognition, synthesis. With H. Quast and H. W. Strube Hundert Jahre Friedrich Hund: Ein Rückblick auf das Wirken eines bedeutenden Physikers 1969 First Prize at the International Computer Art Competition for his application of concepts from mathematics and physics to the creation of artistic works. Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America IEEE Fellow. Audio Engineering Society fellow and Gold medalist Member of the United States National Academy of Engineering, for "founding the statistical theory of wave propagation in multi-mode media and contributions to speech coding and acoustics". Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Helmholtz Medal of the German Acoustical Society 1975 Max Planck Society appointed foreign scientific member New York Academy of Sciences member 1978 Rayleigh Medal 1984 and 1987 Gold Medal from the Acoustical Society of America, for "theoretical and practical contributions to human communication through innovative application of mathematics to speech and concert hall acoustics".
ISCA Medal for Scientific Achievement from the International Speech Communication Association. Technology Award from the German Eduard Rhein Foundation
New York University Tandon School of Engineering
The New York University Tandon School of Engineering is the engineering and applied sciences school of New York University. Tandon is the second oldest private technology school in the United States; the school dates back to 1854 when its predecessor institutions, the University of the City of New York School of Civil Engineering and Architecture and the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, were founded. The school was renamed in 2015 in honor of NYU Trustees Chandrika and Ranjan Tandon following their donation of $100 million to the school; the school's main campus is in Brooklyn's MetroTech Center, an urban academic-industrial research park. It is one of several engineering schools that were founded based on a European polytechnic university model in the 1800s, in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, it has been a key center of research in the development of microwave, radar, electronics in general, industrial engineering and operations research and the US space program.
On May 17, 1853, a group of Brooklyn businessmen wrote a charter to establish a school for young men. Named Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute, the school moved into its first home at 99 Livingston Street in Brooklyn; the first class, admitted in 1855, consisted of 265 young men ages nine to 17. The school conferred its first bachelor's degrees in 1871. Graduate programs began in 1901 and the school awarded its first doctoral degree in 1921. From 1889 to 1973 the school became known as Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. In 1917, the preparatory program separated from the Institute and became the Polytechnic Preparatory Country Day School. Poly Prep is now located in the Dyker Heights section of Brooklyn. Polytechnic Institute moved to its present location in 1957, the former site of the American Safety Razor Company factory, where it became a co-educational institution. In 1854, the University of the City of New York, now New York University, founded the School of Civil Engineering and Architecture at a time when specialized schools of engineering were uncommon in America.
Classes began in 1855 and the school awarded its first undergraduate degree in 1857. As the industrial revolution took shape, the school formalized its engineering curriculum and the school's first dean, Charles H. Snow, changed the name of the school to the School of Applied Science. During this time the engineering school separated from the university's arts and science school called University College. In 1894 the University of the City of New York moved its engineering school to a new campus in the Bronx; the new campus gave the university space to build larger science laboratories that could not be constructed at its Washington Square site. With the addition of the new campus, under the leadership of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken, the University of the City of New York renamed itself New York University; the neighborhood surrounding the Bronx campus became known as University Heights. By 1920 separate electrical and chemical engineering departments were created and the school changed its name to the College of Engineering.
Enrollment at New York University expanded from the early 1900s into the postwar decades. However, by the early 1970s this growth ceased due to rising crime and financial troubles in New York City. New York University faced financial hardships leading it to sell its University Heights campus that housed its engineering school to City University of New York, which in turn renamed the campus Bronx Community College. During that period from 1969 to 1975, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn was forced to rely on subsidies provided by New York state to keep the school afloat; the state supported Polytechnic on the basis that closing the school would create economic hardship locally. With both Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn and New York University facing financial difficulties, the state brokered a merger with New York University's engineering school. Polytechnic Institute acquired the faculty and students of New York University's engineering school to form Polytechnic Institute of New York. Polytechnic Institute of New York gained university status in 1985 and changed its name to Polytechnic University.
By 1986 Polytechnic University in Brooklyn was the largest technological university in the New York metropolitan area and the second-largest in graduate enrollment in the nation after the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Of the 300 engineering schools in the United States, Polytechnic had the second-largest graduate enrollment and was among the most successful institutions in the country as a producer of science and engineering graduates who went on to doctoral studies. An average of 7.2 percent of Polytechnic graduates went on to achieve a Ph. D. compared with two other schools with large engineering programs: Carnegie Mellon, with an average of 6 percent, Princeton, with 4.5 percent. Polytechnic University became well known for its research centers in electrophysics and polymer blends. Discussions about a merger with Polytechnic University and New York University began in 2004. Four years Polytechnic University and New York University agreed to take steps toward a merger beginning with a formal affiliation between the two schools.
This affiliation resulted in the school changing its name to Polytechnic Institute of New York University. The schools merged in 2014 when the New York State Regents approved the change of charter making NYU the sole member of Polytechnic University. Since the merger, applications to the school and incoming SAT scores have increased substantially; the school has experienced an influx of students coming from outside of New York state. Fundraising and faculty research awards have increased since
Nokia Bell Labs is an industrial research and scientific development company owned by Finnish company Nokia. Its headquarters are located in New Jersey. Other laboratories are located around the world. Bell Labs has its origins in the complex past of the Bell System. In the late 19th century, the laboratory began as the Western Electric Engineering Department and was located at 463 West Street in New York City. In 1925, after years of conducting research and development under Western Electric, the Engineering Department was reformed into Bell Telephone Laboratories and under the shared ownership of American Telephone & Telegraph Company and Western Electric. Researchers working at Bell Labs are credited with the development of radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, the photovoltaic cell, the charge-coupled device, information theory, the Unix operating system, the programming languages C, C++, S. Nine Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work completed at Bell Laboratories. In 1880, when the French government awarded Alexander Graham Bell the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000 at that time for the invention of the telephone, he used the award to fund the Volta Laboratory in Washington, D.
C. in collaboration with Sumner Tainter and Bell's cousin Chichester Bell. The laboratory was variously known as the Volta Bureau, the Bell Carriage House, the Bell Laboratory and the Volta Laboratory, it focused on the analysis and transmission of sound. Bell used his considerable profits from the laboratory for further research and education to permit the " diffusion of knowledge relating to the deaf": resulting in the founding of the Volta Bureau, located at Bell's father's house at 1527 35th Street N. W. in Washington, D. C, its carriage house became their headquarters in 1889. In 1893, Bell constructed a new building close by at 1537 35th Street N. W. to house the lab. This building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1972. After the invention of the telephone, Bell maintained a distant role with the Bell System as a whole, but continued to pursue his own personal research interests; the Bell Patent Association was formed by Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Sanders, Gardiner Hubbard when filing the first patents for the telephone in 1876.
Bell Telephone Company, the first telephone company, was formed a year later. It became a part of the American Bell Telephone Company. American Telephone & Telegraph Company and its own subsidiary company, took control of American Bell and the Bell System by 1889. American Bell held a controlling interest in Western Electric whereas AT&T was doing research into the service providers. In 1884, the American Bell Telephone Company created the Mechanical Department from the Electrical and Patent Department formed a year earlier. In 1896, Western Electric bought property at 463 West Street to station their manufacturers and engineers, supplying AT&T with their product; this included everything from telephones, telephone exchange switches, transmission equipment. In 1925, Bell Laboratories was developed to better consolidate the research activities of the Bell System. Ownership was evenly split between Western Electric and AT&T. Throughout the next decade the AT&T Research and Development branch moved into West Street.
Bell Labs carried out consulting work for the Bell Telephone Company, U. S. government work, a few workers were assigned to basic research. The first president of research at Bell Labs was Frank B. Jewett who stayed there until 1940. By the early 1940s, Bell Labs engineers and scientists had begun to move to other locations away from the congestion and environmental distractions of New York City, in 1967 Bell Laboratories headquarters was relocated to Murray Hill, New Jersey. Among the Bell Laboratories locations in New Jersey were Holmdel, Crawford Hill, the Deal Test Site, Lincroft, Long Branch, Neptune, Piscataway, Red Bank and Whippany. Of these, Murray Hill and Crawford Hill remain in existence; the largest grouping of people in the company was in Illinois, at Naperville-Lisle, in the Chicago area, which had the largest concentration of employees prior to 2001. There were groups of employees in Indianapolis, Indiana. Since 2001, many of the former locations closed; the Holmdel site, a 1.9 million square foot structure set on 473 acres, was closed in 2007.
The mirrored-glass building was designed by Eero Saarinen. In August 2013, Somerset Development bought the building, intending to redevelop it into a mixed commercial and residential project. A 2012 article expressed doubt on the success of the newly named Bell Works site however several large tenants had announced plans to move in through 2016 and 2017 Bell Laboratories was, is, regarded by many as the premier research facility of its type, developing a wide range of revolutionary technologies, including radio astronomy, the transistor, the laser, information theory, the operating system Unix, the programming languages C and C++, solar cells, the CCD, floating-gate MOSFET, a whole host of optical and wired communications