Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Georgetown is a home rule-class city in Scott County, Kentucky, in the United States. The 2017 population was 33,660 per the United States Census Bureau, it is the 7th-largest city by population in the U. S. state of Kentucky. It is the seat of its county, it was called Lebanon when founded by Rev. Elijah Craig and was renamed in 1790 in honor of President George Washington, it is the home of a private liberal arts college. Georgetown is part of KY Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city's growth began in the mid-1980s, when Toyota built Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky, its first wholly owned United States plant, in the city. The plant, which builds the Camry, Camry Hybrid and Lexus ES automobiles, opened in 1988, it is the largest building in terms of acres covered under one building in the United States, with over 200 acres occupied. The city served as the training camp home for the NFL's Cincinnati Bengals. Native peoples have lived along the banks of Elkhorn Creek in what is now Scott County for at least 15,000 years.
European exploration can be dated to a June 1774 surveying expedition from Fincastle County, led by Colonel John Floyd. For his military service, he was granted a claim of 1,000 acres in the area by the state of Virginia, he did not settle it. John McClellan was the first to settle the area and established McClellan's Station there in 1775, but the compound was abandoned following an Indian attack on December 29, 1776. In 1782, the Baptist preacher Elijah Craig led his congregation to the site and established a new settlement which he called Lebanon; this was incorporated by the Virginia legislature in 1784. Craig established some of the first mills west of the Appalachian Mountains along the Royal Spring Branch, manufacturing cloth and paper, he founded a distillery in 1789, as well as a school called the Rittenhouse Academy. This grew into Georgetown College; the city's name was changed to George Town in honor of President George Washington in 1790. When Kentucky became the 15th U. S. state in 1792 and formed Scott County, George Town became its seat of government.
The name was formally changed to Georgetown in 1846. During the Civil War, Georgetown was raided by Confederate Gen. John Hunt Morgan twice, once on July 15, 1862, the second time on July 10, 1864. Following the war, the town became a railroad hub, connected to the Cincinnati Southern, the Louisville Southern, the Frankfort & Cincinnati; the last was brought much of the region's bourbon to market. From 1896 to 1987, the Cardome Centre site was the location of a girl's academy founded by the Sisters of Visitation, it now serves as a community center for the city of Georgetown. Throughout the 20th century, Georgetown has been in transition from an economy based on agriculture, to a diversified one mixing manufacturing, small business, the family farm. During the 1960s, the construction of Interstate 75 placed the city on one of the busiest highways in America; the selection of Georgetown as the site of Toyota Motor Manufacturing Kentucky in 1985 has resulted in the greatest period of growth in the city's history.
The historic Ward Hall, now the home of The Ward Hall Preservation Foundation, is located just outside Georgetown. Ward Hall was the summer home of Junius Ward; the home represents the height of the Greek Revival period of architecture in Kentucky. The Georgetown business section has a historic district known as the Oxford Historic District. Georgetown is located at 38°12′52″N 84°33′20″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.85 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 Census, there were 29,098 people 10,733 households, 7,452 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,836.4 per square mile. There were 11,957 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 87.5% White, 7.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.2% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 4.3% of the population. According to the 2010 census, Georgetown is Kentucky's ninth largest city. There were 10,733 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families.
24.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.09. The age distribution was 27.9 % under 8.3 % who were 65 or older. The median age was 31.7 years. The median income for a household in the city was $51,692; the per capita income for the city was $24,376. About 13.9% of the population was below the poverty line. Georgetown College is a private liberal arts college located in the downtown area of Georgetown. Baptist Seminary of Kentucky is a seminary in Georgetown. Public education in Georgetown and Scott County consists of a preschool center serving special needs and economically at-risk students aged 3–5, eight elementary schools, three middle schools and one high school; these schools are all part of the Scott County School system. Plans have been in progress for an additional high school and middle school within the city limits for several years due to the expanding population, construction began on a new high school and a new elementary school in 2017.
Scott County High School houses a separate wing for students in the ninth grade, called the Ninth Grade Center, developed to ease the transition for studen
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Handbook of Texas
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association. The original Handbook was the brainchild of TSHA President Walter Prescott Webb of The University of Texas history department, it was published as a two-volume set in 1952, with a supplemental volume published in 1976. In 1996, the New Handbook of Texas was published, expanding the encyclopedia to six volumes and over 23,000 articles. In 1999, the Handbook of Texas Online went live with the complete text of the print edition, all corrections incorporated into the handbook's second printing, about 400 articles not included in the print edition due to space limitations; the handbook continues to be updated online, contains over 25,000 articles. The online version includes entries on general topics, such as "Texas since World War II", biographies such as notable Texans Samuel Houston and W. D. Twichell, ranches such as the Matador, geographical entries such as "Waco, Texas".
Many Texas scholars and professors, such as Robert A. Calvert and Art Martinez de Vara, have contributed to the Handbook. Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas 1952 2 volume edition at HathiTrust
European Americans are Americans of European ancestry. This term includes people who are descended from the first European settlers in America as well as people who are descended from more recent European arrivals. European Americans are the largest panethnic group in the United States, both and at present; the Spaniards are thought to be the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the contiguous United States, with Martín de Argüelles in St. Augustine a part of Spanish Florida. Virginia Dare, born August 18, 1587, was the first English child to be born in the Americas, she was born in Roanoke Colony, located in present-day North Carolina, the first attempt, made by Queen Elizabeth I, to establish a permanent English settlement in North America. In the 2016 American Community Survey, German Americans, Irish Americans, English Americans, Italian Americans, Polish Americans were the five largest self-reported European ancestry groups in the United States forming over a third of the total population.
However, the English Americans and British Americans demography is considered by some to be under-counted, as the people in that demographic tend to identify themselves as Americans. In the 2000 census over 56 million or 19.9% of the United States population ignored the ancestry question and classified as "unspecified" and "not reported". In 1995, as part of a review of the Office of Management and Budget's Statistical Policy Directive No. 15, a survey was conducted of census recipients to determine their preferred terminology for the racial/ethnic groups defined in the Directive. For the White group, European American came third, preferred by 2.35% of panel interviewees. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with Caucasian American, White American, Anglo American in many places around the United States. However, the terms Caucasian and White are purely racial terms, not geographic, include some populations whose origin is outside of Europe; the term is used by some to emphasize the European cultural and geographical ancestral origins of Americans, in the same way as is done for African Americans and Asian Americans.
A European American awareness is still notable because 90% of the respondents classified as white in the U. S. Census knew their European ancestry; the concept of an American originated in the United States as a person of European ancestry, thus excluding African Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans. As a linguistic concern, the term is sometimes meant to discourage a dichotomous view of the racial landscape between the white category and everyone else. Margo Adair suggests that the recognition of specific European American ancestries allows certain Americans to become aware that they come from a variety of different cultures. Since 1607, some 57 million immigrants have come to the United States from other lands. 10 million passed through on their way to some other place or returned to their original homelands, leaving a net gain of some 47 million people. Between 1607 and 1776 most European settlements were British. Colonial stock of English, Scotch-Irish, Cornish or Welsh descent, may be found throughout the country but is dominant in New England and the South.
Some people of colonial stock in the Mid-Atlantic states, are of Dutch and Flemish descent. The vast majority of these are Protestants; the Pennsylvania Dutch population gave the state of Pennsylvania a high German cultural character. French descent, which can be found throughout the country, is most concentrated in Louisiana, while Spanish descent is dominant in the Southwest and Florida; these are Roman Catholic and were assimilated with the Louisiana Purchase and the aftermath of the Mexican–American War and Adams–Onís Treaty, respectively. The first large wave of European migration after the Revolutionary War came from Northern and Central-Western Europe between about 1820 and 1890. Most of these immigrants were from Ireland, Sweden and Britain, with large numbers of Irish and German Catholics immigrating, Roman Catholicism became an important minority religion. Polish Americans used to come as German or Austrian citizens, since Poland lost its independence in the period between 1772 and 1795.
Descendants of the first wave are dominant in the Midwest and West, although German descent is common in Pennsylvania, Irish descent is common in urban centers in the Northeast. The Irish and Germans held onto their ethnic identity throughout the 19th and early half of the 20th centuries, as well as other European ethnic groups. Most people of Polish origin live in the Midwest; the second wave of European Americans arrived from the mid-1890s to the 1920s from Southern and Eastern Europe, as well as Ireland. This wave included Irish, Greeks, Portuguese, Ukrainians, Russians and other Slavs. With large numbers of immigrants from Spain, Spanish Caribbean, South and Central America, White Hispanics have increased to 8% of the US population, Texas, New York, Florida are important centers for them. Before 1881, the vast majority of immigrants 86% of the total, arrived from northwest Europe, principally Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; the years between 1881 and 1893 the pattern shifted, in the