Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. was an American diplomat and activist. As the husband of Eunice Kennedy Shriver, he was part of the Kennedy family. Shriver was the driving force behind the creation of the Peace Corps, founded the Job Corps, Head Start, other programs as the "architect" of the 1960s "War on Poverty." He was the Democratic Party's nominee for vice president in the 1972 presidential election. Born in Westminster, Shriver pursued a legal career after graduating from Yale Law School. An opponent of U. S. entry into World War II, he helped establish the America First Committee but volunteered for the United States Navy before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. During the war, he served in the South Pacific. After being discharged from the navy, he worked as an assistant editor for Newsweek and met Eunice Kennedy, marrying her in 1953, he worked on the 1960 presidential campaign of his brother-in-law, John F. Kennedy, helped establish the Peace Corps after Kennedy's victory. After Kennedy's assassination, Shriver served in the administration of Lyndon B. Johnson and helped establish several anti-poverty programs as director of the Office of Economic Opportunity from October 16, 1964 to March 22, 1968.
He served as the United States Ambassador to France from 1968 to 1970. In 1972, Democratic vice presidential nominee Thomas Eagleton resigned from the ticket, Shriver was chosen as his replacement; the Democratic ticket of George McGovern and Shriver lost in a landslide election defeat to Republican President Richard Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew. Shriver sought the 1976 Democratic presidential nomination but dropped out of the race after the first set of primaries. After leaving office, he resumed the practice of law, becoming a partner with Fried, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson, he served as president of the Special Olympics and was a part-owner of the Baltimore Orioles. He was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 2003 and died in Bethesda, Maryland in 2011. Shriver was born in Westminster, the younger son of Robert Sargent Shriver Sr. and his wife Hilda, born with the surname "Shriver". Sarge's elder brother was Thomas Herbert Shriver. Of partial German ancestry, Shriver was a descendant of David Shriver, who signed the Maryland Constitution and Bill of Rights at Maryland's Constitutional Convention of 1776.
He spent his high school years at Canterbury School in New Milford, which he attended on a full scholarship. He was on Canterbury's baseball and football teams, became the editor of the school's newspaper, participated in choral and debating clubs. After he graduated in 1934, Shriver spent the summer in Germany as part of The Experiment in International Living, returning in the fall of 1934 to enter Yale University. An early opponent of American involvement in World War II, Shriver was a founding member of the America First Committee, an organization started in 1940 by a group of Yale Law School students including future President Gerald Ford and future Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart, which tried to keep the US out of the European war. Shriver volunteered for the US Navy before the attack on Pearl Harbor and said he had a duty to serve his country if he disagreed with its policies, he spent five years on active duty in the South Pacific, serving aboard the USS South Dakota, reaching the rank of lieutenant.
He was awarded a Purple Heart for wounds. Shriver's relationship with the Kennedys began when he was working as an assistant editor at Newsweek after his discharge from the Navy, he met Eunice Kennedy at a party in New York, shortly afterwards, family patriarch Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. asked him to look at diary entries written by his eldest son, Joseph P. Kennedy Jr. who had died in a plane crash while he was on a military mission during World War II. Shriver was hired to manage the Merchandise Mart, part of Kennedy's business empire, in Chicago, Illinois. After a seven-year courtship, Shriver married Eunice Kennedy on May 23, 1953, at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York City, she was the third daughter of Joseph Kennedy Rose Kennedy. They had five children: Robert Sargent "Bobby" Shriver III, Maria Owings Shriver, Timothy Perry Shriver, Mark Kennedy Shriver, Anthony Paul Kennedy Shriver; the Shrivers were married for 56 years, worked together on projects. Shriver was admitted to practice law in the District of Columbia and New York, at the US Supreme Court.
A devout Catholic, Shriver attended daily Mass and always carried a rosary of well-worn wooden beads. He was critical of abortion and was a signatory to "A New Compact of Care: Caring about Women, Caring for the Unborn", which appeared in the New York Times in July 1992 and stated that "To establish justice and to promote the general welfare, America does not need the abortion license. What America needs are policies that responsibly protect and advance the interest of mothers and their children, both before and after birth." He was served as president of the Chicago Board of Education. When brother-in-law John F. Kennedy ran for president, Shriver worked as a political and organization coordinator in the Wisconsin and West Virginia primaries. During Kennedy's presidential term, Shriver founded and served as the first director of the Peace Corps from March 22, 1961 to February 28, 1966. After Kennedy's assassination, Shriver continued to serve as Director of the Peace Corps and served as Special Assistant
International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924. IBM produces and sells computer hardware and software, provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is a major research organization, holding the record for most U. S. patents generated by a business for 26 consecutive years. Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, dynamic random-access memory; the IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s. IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets.
This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo, acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting, SPSS, The Weather Company, Red Hat. In 2014, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries. Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, the country with the largest number of IBMers is India. IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology and five National Medals of Science. In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would form the core of International Business Machines. Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885. On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company based in Endicott, New York.
The five companies had offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York. C.. They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr. fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR. Watson joined CTR as General Manager 11 months was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved. Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies, he implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker". His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America and Australia.
Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines". By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM. In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U. S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act, the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich through the German subsidiary Dehomag. In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr. created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations. In 1952, he stepped down after 40 years at the company helm, his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience.
In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped. A year it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York; the latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission. On April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360, it spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the
Graça Machel is a Mozambican politician and humanitarian. She is the widow of both South African President Nelson Mandela and Mozambican President Samora Machel. Machel is an international advocate for women's and children's rights and was made an honorary British Dame by Queen Elizabeth II in 1997 for her humanitarian work. Graça Machel Mandela is a member of the Africa Progress Panel, a group of ten distinguished individuals who advocate at the highest levels for equitable and sustainable development in Africa; as a panel member she facilitates coalition building to leverage and broker knowledge, convenes decision-makers to influence policy for lasting change in Africa. Graça Simbine was born 17 days after her father's death, the youngest of six children, in rural Incadine, Gaza Province, Portuguese East Africa, she attended Methodist mission schools before gaining a scholarship to the University of Lisbon in Portugal, where she studied German and first became involved in independence issues.
Machel speaks French, Italian and English, as well as her native Shangaan language. Simbine returned to Portuguese East Africa in 1973, joining the Mozambican Liberation Front and working as a school teacher. Following Mozambique's independence in 1975, Simbine was appointed Minister for Education and Culture, she married Mozambican first President Samora Machel that same year, changing her last name to Machel. Mozambican Minister for Education and Culture Chairman of National Organization of Children of Mozambique Delegate to 1998 UNICEF conference in Zimbabwe President of National Commission of UNESCO Machel received the 1995 Nansen Medal from the United Nations in recognition of her longstanding humanitarian work on behalf of refugee children. In 1997, Machel was honored with the Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II for her contributions and services in the field of human rights protection. One year Machel was one of the two winners of the North–South Prize awarded by the North-South Centre of the Council of Europe.
Machel has been chancellor of the University of Cape Town since 1999. She was named president of the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London in 2012. In 2016, Machel was named Chancellor of the African Leadership University, a role that she still holds today. In 2009, Machel was appointed to the Commonwealth of Nations' Eminent Persons Group. In July 2017, Machel was elected an Honorary Fellow of the British Academy, the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and social sciences. On 17 July 2018, Machel attended the 16th Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture, located at the Wanderers Stadium, alongside South African President Cyril Ramaphosa and former US President Barack Obama; the event was visited by nearly 15,000 people, commemorating the 100th anniversary of Nelson Mandela's birth. Following her retirement from the Mozambique ministry, Machel was appointed as the expert in charge of producing the groundbreaking United Nations report on the impact of armed conflict on children.
From 2008 until 2009, she was a member of the High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems, co-chaired by Gordon Brown and Robert Zoellick. She serves as the chair of The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health. In January 2016, she was appointed by United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon to the High-level Advisory Group for Every Woman Every Child. On 18 July 2007 in Johannesburg, South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Graça Machel Mandela, Desmond Tutu convened The Elders. Mandela announced its formation in a speech on his 89th birthday; the group works on thematic as well as geographically specific subjects. The Elders' priority issue areas include the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, the Korean Peninsula and South Sudan, sustainable development, equality for girls and women. Machel has been involved in The Elders' work on child marriage, including the founding of Girls Not Brides: The Global Partnership to End Child Marriage. Corporate boards Whatana Investment Group, Chairwoman of the Board of Directors PME African Infrastructure Opportunities, Senior Advisor, Independent Non-Executive Member of the Board of Directors Principle Capital Group, Non-Executive Member of the Board of Directors Non-profit organizations Africa Progress Panel, Member African Child Policy Forum, Chairwoman of the International Board of Trustees ACCORD, Chairwoman of the Board of Trustees Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa, Chair of the Eminent Advisory Board Mo Ibrahim Foundation, Member of the Board Nelson Mandela Children's Hospital, Chairwoman of the Board of Trustees Synergos, Member of the Board of Directors Foundation for Community Development and President VillageReach, Honorary Chairwoman of the Board of Directors International Crisis Group, former Member of the Board of Trustees United Nations Foundation, Member of the Board Forum for African Women Educationalists, Co-Founder and former Member of the Board Simbine married Samora Machel, the first President of Mozambique, in 1975.
Together they had daughter Josina and son Malengane. Samora Machel died in office in 1986 when his presidential aircraft crashed near the Mozambique-South Africa border. Graça Machel Mandela married her second husband, Nelson Mandela, in Johannesburg on 18 July 1998, Mandela's 80th birthday. At the time, Mandela was serving as the first post-aparth
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent, being behind Asia in both categories. At about 30.3 million km2 including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west; the continent includes various archipelagos. It contains 54 recognised sovereign states, nine territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition; the majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa's average population is the youngest amongst all the continents. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, Nigeria is its largest by population. Africa central Eastern Africa, is accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade, as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors as well as ones that have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster—the earliest Homo sapiens, found in Ethiopia, date to circa 200,000 years ago.
Africa encompasses numerous climate areas. Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities and languages. In the late 19th century, European countries colonised all of Africa. African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Union, headquartered in Addis Ababa. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean; this name seems to have referred to a native Libyan tribe, an ancestor of modern Berbers. The name had been connected with the Phoenician word ʿafar meaning "dust", but a 1981 hypothesis has asserted that it stems from the Berber word ifri meaning "cave", in reference to cave dwellers; the same word may be found in the name of the Banu Ifran from Algeria and Tripolitania, a Berber tribe from Yafran in northwestern Libya. Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it named Africa Proconsularis, following its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in 146 BC, which included the coastal part of modern Libya.
The Latin suffix -ica can sometimes be used to denote a land. The Muslim region of Ifriqiya, following its conquest of the Byzantine Empire's Exarchatus Africae preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east. A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy, indicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa; as Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge. Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": The 1st-century Jewish historian Flavius Josephus asserted that it was named for Epher, grandson of Abraham according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, he claimed, had invaded Libya. Isidore of Seville in his 7th-century Etymologiae XIV.5.2. Suggests "Africa comes from the Latin aprica, meaning "sunny".
Massey, in 1881, stated that Africa is derived from the Egyptian af-rui-ka, meaning "to turn toward the opening of the Ka." The Ka is the energetic double of every person and the "opening of the Ka" refers to a womb or birthplace. Africa would be, for the Egyptians, "the birthplace." Michèle Fruyt in 1976 proposed linking the Latin word with africus "south wind", which would be of Umbrian origin and mean "rainy wind". Robert R. Stieglitz of Rutgers University in 1984 proposed: "The name Africa, derived from the Latin *Aphir-ic-a, is cognate to Hebrew Ophir." Ibn Khallikan and some other historians claim that the name of Africa came from a Himyarite king called Afrikin ibn Kais ibn Saifi called "Afrikus son of Abrahah" who subdued Ifriqiya. Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earth, with the human species originating from the continent. During the mid-20th century, anthropologists discovered many fossils and evidence of human occupation as early as 7 million years ago.
Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis (radiometrically dated to 3.9–3.0 million years BP, Paranthropus boisei and Homo ergaster have been discovered. After the evolution of Homo sapiens sapiens 150,000 to 100,000 years BP in Africa, the continent was populated by groups of hunter-gatherers; these first modern humans left Africa and populated the rest of the globe during the Out of Africa II migration dated to 50,000 years BP, exiting the continent eith
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. One of the successor companies of Standard Oil, it is headquartered in San Ramon and active in more than 180 countries. Chevron is engaged in every aspect of the oil, natural gas, geothermal energy industries, including hydrocarbon exploration and production. Chevron is one of the world's largest oil companies, it was one of the Seven Sisters that dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s. Chevron's downstream operations manufacture and sell products such as fuels, lubricants and petrochemicals; the company's most significant areas of operations are the west coast of North America, the U. S. Gulf Coast, Southeast Asia, South Korea and South Africa. In 2010, Chevron sold an average 3.1 million barrels per day of refined products like gasoline and jet fuel. One of Chevron's early predecessors, Star Oil, discovered oil at the Pico Canyon Oilfield in the Santa Susana Mountains north of Los Angeles in 1876.
The 25 barrels of oil per day well marked the discovery of the Newhall Field, is considered by geophysicist Marius Vassiliou as the beginning of the modern oil industry in California. Energy analyst Antonia Juhasz has said that while Star Oil's founders were influential in establishing an oil industry in California, Union Mattole Company discovered oil in the state eleven years prior. In September 1879, Charles N. Felton, Lloyd Tevis, George Loomis and others created the Pacific Coast Oil Company, which acquired the assets of Star Oil with $1 million in funding. Pacific Coast Oil became the largest oil interest in California by the time it was acquired by Standard Oil for $761,000 in 1900. Pacific Coast operated independently and retained its name until 1906, when it was merged with a Standard Oil subsidiary and it became Standard Oil Company or California Standard. Another predecessor, Texas Fuel Company, was founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas as an oil equipment vendor by "Buckskin Joe"; the founder's nickname came from being aggressive.
Texas Fuel worked with Chevron. In 1936 it formed a joint venture with California Standard named Caltex, to drill and produce oil in Saudi Arabia. According to energy analyst and activist shareholder Antonia Juhasz, the Texas Fuel Company and California Standard were referred to as the "terrible twins" for their cutthroat business practices; the Texas Fuel Company was renamed the Texas Company, renamed Texaco. In 1911, the federal government broke Standard Oil into several pieces under the Sherman Antitrust Act. One of those pieces, Standard Oil Co. went on to become Chevron. It became part of the "Seven Sisters", which dominated the world oil industry in the early 20th century. In 1926, the company changed its name to Standard Oil Co. of California. By the terms of the breakup of Standard Oil, at first Standard of California could use the Standard name only within its original geographic area of the Pacific coast states, plus Nevada and Arizona. Today Chevron is the owner of the Standard Oil trademark in 16 states in the western and southeastern U.
S. To maintain ownership of the mark, the company owns and operates one Standard-branded Chevron station in each state of the area, although its status in Kentucky is unclear after Chevron withdrew retail sales from Kentucky in July 2010; the Chevron name came into use for some of its retail products in the 1930s. The name Calso was used from 1946 to 1955 in states outside its native West Coast territory. Standard Oil Company of California ranked 75th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. In 1933, Saudi Arabia granted California Standard a concession to find oil, which led to the discovery of oil in 1938. In 1948, California Standard discovered the world's largest oil field in Ghawar Field. California Standard's subsidiary, California-Arabian Standard Oil Company, grew over the years and became the Arabian American Oil Company in 1944. In 1973, the Saudi government began buying into ARAMCO. By 1980, the company was owned by the Saudis, in 1988, its name was changed to Saudi Arabian Oil Company—Saudi Aramco.
Standard Oil of California and Gulf Oil merged in 1984, the largest merger in history at that time. To comply with U. S. antitrust law, California Standard divested many of Gulf's operating subsidiaries, sold some Gulf stations and a refinery in the eastern United States. Among the assets sold off were Gulf's retail outlets in Gulf's home market of Pittsburgh, where Chevron lacks a retail presence but does retain a regional headquarters there as of 2013 for Marcellus Shale-related drilling; the same year, Standard Oil of California took the opportunity to change its legal name to Chevron Corporation, since it had been using the well-known "Chevron" retail brand name for decades. Chevron would sell the Gulf Oil trademarks for the entire U. S. to Cumberland Farms, the parent company of Gulf Oil LP, in 2010 after Cumberland Farms had a license to the Gulf trademark in the Northeastern United States since 1986. In 1996 Chevron transferred its natural gas gathering and marketing operation to NGC Corporation in exchange for a 25% equity stake in NGC.
In a merger completed February 1, 2000, Illinova Corp. became a wholly owned subsidiary of Dynegy Inc
John T. Walker
John Thomas Walker was Bishop of Washington from 1977 to 1989 in the Episcopal Diocese of Washington. From 1978 to 1989, he served as Dean of Washington National Cathedral, he served as Bishop Coadjutor from 1976 to 1977 and Bishop Suffragan from 1971 to 1976. He was the first African-American Bishop of Washington. Bishop Walker was born in Barnesville and brought up in Detroit, he was the first African American to be admitted as a student to the Virginia Theological Seminary in 1951. Bishop Walker first came to Washington as the Canon of Washington National Cathedral, he was a good friend of Archbishop Desmond Tutu. He was once arrested at a protest rally against apartheid at the South African Embassy. From 1975 until his death in 1989, Bishop Walker served as President of the Board of Directors of Africare; the organization now presents the Bishop John T. Walker Distinguished Humanitarian Service Award each year in his honor. To honor the first African-American Bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Washington and all of his contributions, The Bishop John T. Walker School opened in September 2008 as a tuition-free, kindergarten through sixth grade school for boys in Southeast, Washington, D.
C.. It was founded by the Episcopal Diocese of Washington in response to the serious educational challenges facing African American boys in the low-income communities east of the Anacostia River. Named after Walker is the Bishop John T. Walker Learning Center in Washington, D. C. whose mission is "to support and facilitate life-long learning to all peoples through instruction, exploration, human interactions, exchanges". Bishop Walker died on September 30, 1989 at the age of 64, of heart failure following triple bypass surgery, he is buried in Washington National Cathedral. Biography of John T. Walker The Bishop John T. Walker School for Boys Bishop John T. Walker National Learning Center
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to