Gatwick Airport known as London Gatwick, is a major international airport near Crawley in West Sussex, southeast England, 29.5 miles south of Central London. It is the second-busiest airport by total passenger traffic in the United Kingdom, after Heathrow Airport. Gatwick is the eighth-busiest airport in Europe; until 2017, it was the busiest single-use runway airport in the world, covering a total area of 674 hectares. Gatwick opened as an aerodrome in the late 1920s; the airport has two terminals, the North Terminal and the South Terminal, which cover areas of 98,000 m2 and 160,000 m2 respectively. It operates as a single-runway airport. A secondary runway is available but, due to its proximity to the main runway, can only be used if, out of use. In 2018, 46.1 million passengers passed through the airport, a 1.1% increase compared with 2017. As of 2019, Gatwick is the second busiest airport in the world to only operate one runway with a passenger use of 46 million in 2018; the land on which Gatwick Airport stands was first developed as an aerodrome in the late 1920s.
The Air Ministry approved commercial flights from the site in 1933, the first terminal, "The Beehive", was built in 1935. Scheduled air services from the new terminal began the following year. Major development work at the airport took place during the 1950s; the airport buildings were designed by Yorke Rosenberg Mardall between 1955 and 1988. In the 1960s, British United Airways and Dan-Air were two of the largest British independent airlines at Gatwick, with the former establishing itself as the dominant scheduled operator at the airport as well as providing a significant number of the airport's non-scheduled services and the latter becoming its leading provider of inclusive tour charter services. Further rapid growth of charter flights at Gatwick was encouraged by the Ministry of Aviation, which instructed airlines to move regular charter flights from Heathrow. Following the takeover of BUA by Caledonian Airways at the beginning of the following decade, the resulting airline, British Caledonian, became Gatwick's dominant scheduled airline during the 1970s.
While continuing to dominate scheduled operations at Gatwick for most of the 1980s, BCal was one of the airport's major charter airlines until the end of the 1970s. As a result of conditions imposed by Britain's Monopolies and Mergers Commission on the takeover of BCal by the newly privatised British Airways at the end of the 1980s, Dan-Air and Air Europe assumed BCal's former role as Gatwick's dominant scheduled short-haul operator while BA continued in BCal's erstwhile role as the airport's most important scheduled long-haul operator. Following the demise of Air Europe and Dan-Air in the early 1990s, BA began building up Gatwick into a secondary hub; these moves resulted in BA becoming Gatwick's dominant airline by the turn of the millennium. BA's subsequent decision to de-hub Gatwick provided the space for EasyJet to establish its biggest base at the airport and to become its dominant airline. BAA Limited and its predecessors, BAA plc and the British Airports Authority and operated Gatwick from 1 April 1966 to 2 December 2009.
From 1978 to 2008, many flights to and from the United States used Gatwick because of restrictions on the use of Heathrow implemented in the Bermuda II agreement between the UK and the US. US Airways, Gatwick's last remaining US carrier, ended service from Gatwick on 30 March 2013; this left Gatwick without a scheduled US airline for the first time in 35 years. On 17 September 2008, BAA announced it would sell Gatwick after the Competition Commission published a report about BAA's market dominance in London and the South East. On 21 October 2009 it was announced that an agreement had been reached to sell Gatwick to a consortium led by Global Infrastructure Partners, who have a controlling interest in Edinburgh airport, for £1.51 billion. The sale was completed on 3 December. In February 2010, GIP sold minority stakes in the airport of 12% and 15% to the South Korean National Pension Service and the Abu Dhabi Investment Authority for £100 million and £125 million, respectively; the sales were part of GIP's strategy to syndicate the equity portion of the original acquisition by issuing bonds to refinance bank debt.
Although this entails bringing additional investors into the airport, GIP aims to retain management control. The Californian state pension fund CalPERS acquired a 12.7% stake in Gatwick Airport for about $155 million in June 2010. On 21 December 2010, the A$69 billion Future Fund, a sovereign wealth fund established by the Australian government in 2006, agreed to purchase a 17.2% stake in Gatwick Airport from GIP for £145 million. This transaction completed GIP's syndication process for the airport, reducing its stake to 42%; the airport is owned and operated by Gatwick Airport Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ivy Holdco Limited, owned by Global Infrastructure Partners, among others. In December 2018, Vinci announced that it would acquire 50.01% majority stake for £2.9bn, with GIP owning the remaining 49.9%. The sale is expected to be completed by the middle of 2019. On 31 May 2008, Virgin Holidays opened t
David Hamid is an Anglican bishop with British and Canadian citizenship. He has been the Suffragan Bishop in Europe since 2002. Hamid was born on 18 June 1955 to Scottish and Burmese parents, he holds dual Canadian citizenship. He was educated at Nelson High School in Burlington, Canada, he studied at McMaster University, graduating with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1978. He matriculated into Trinity College and graduated from the Toronto School of Theology with a Master of Divinity degree in 1981. Hamid was ordained in the Anglican Church of Canada as a deacon in June 1981 and as a priest in 1982. After ordination he was curate at St Christopher’s, Burlington and rector of St John’s in the same city. Following this he was mission co-ordinator for Latin America and the Caribbean for the Anglican Church of Canada and the Director of Ecumenical Affairs and Studies of the Anglican Communion. On 17 October 2002, at Southwark Cathedral, he was one of the last three people to be ordained and consecrated a bishop by George Carey before his retirement as Archbishop of Canterbury.
Hamid has been married since 1978 and they have two children. The Reverend David Hamid The Reverend Canon David Hamid The Right Reverend David Hamid Eurobishop: David Hamid's blog
The Cambridge Apostles is an intellectual society at the University of Cambridge founded in 1820 by George Tomlinson, a Cambridge student who went on to become the first Bishop of Gibraltar. The origin of the Apostles' nickname dates from twelve, of their founders. Membership consists of undergraduates, though there have been graduate student members, members who hold university and college posts; the society traditionally drew most of its members from Christ's, St John's, Jesus and King's Colleges. The society is a discussion group. Meetings are held once a week, traditionally on Saturday evenings, during which one member gives a prepared talk on a topic, thrown open for discussion; the usual procedure was for members to meet at the rooms of those whose turn it was to present the topic. The host would provide refreshments consisting of coffee and sardines on toast, called "whales". Women first gained acceptance into the society in the 1970s; the Apostles retain a leather diary of their membership stretching back to its founder, which includes handwritten notes about the topics on which each member has spoken.
It is included in the so-called "Ark", a cedar chest containing collection of papers with some handwritten notes from the group's early days, about the topics members have spoken on, the results of the division in which those present voted on the debate. It was a point of honour that the question voted on should bear only a tangential relationship to the matter debated; the members referred to as the "Apostles" are the active undergraduate members. Undergraduates apply to become angels after being awarded a fellowship; every few years, amid great secrecy, all the angels are invited to an Apostles' dinner at a Cambridge college. There used to be an annual dinner held in London. Undergraduates being considered for membership are called "embryos" and are invited to "embryo parties", where members judge whether the student should be invited to join; the "embryos" attend these parties without knowing. Becoming an Apostle involves taking an oath of secrecy and listening to the reading of a curse written by Apostle Fenton John Anthony Hort, the theologian, in or around 1851.
Former members have spoken of the lifelong bond. Henry Sidgwick, the philosopher, wrote of the Apostles in his memoirs that "the tie of attachment to this society is much the strongest corporate bond which I have known in my life." Eleven former members of the Apostles are buried in the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge: Henry Jackson, classicist. These eleven members were from Christ's, St. Johns College and Trinity. A twelfth member Benjamin Hall Kennedy is buried in Cambridge. Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore joined as students, as did John Maynard Keynes, who invited Ludwig Wittgenstein to join. However, Wittgenstein attended infrequently. Russell had been worried that Wittgenstein would not appreciate the group's unseriousness and style of humour, he was admitted in 1912 but resigned immediately because he could not tolerate the level of the discussion on the Hearth Rug. The Apostles became well known outside Cambridge in the years before the First World War with the rise to eminence of the group of intellectuals known as the Bloomsbury Group.
John Maynard Keynes, Leonard Woolf, Lytton Strachey and his brother James, G. E. Moore, E. M. Forster and Rupert Brooke were all Apostles. Keynes and Lytton Strachey subsequently gained prominence as members of Bloomsbury; the Apostles came to public attention again following the exposure of the Cambridge spy ring in 1951. Three Cambridge graduates with access to the top levels of government in Britain, one of them a former Apostle, were found to have passed information to the KGB; the three known agents were Apostle Guy Burgess, an MI6 officer and secretary to the deputy foreign minister. In 1963, American writer Michael Straight an Apostle, publisher of The New Republic magazine, admitted to a covert relationship with the Soviets, he named Anthony Blunt, MI5 officer, director of the Courtauld Institute, art adviser to the Queen as his recruiter and a Soviet spy. Confronted with Straight's confession, Blunt acknowledged his own treason and revealed that he had drawn into espionage his fellow Apostle Leonard "Leo" Long.
Straight told investigators that the Apostle John Peter Astbury had been recruited for Soviet intelligence by either Blunt or Burgess. Leo Long confessed to delivering classified information to the Soviets from 1940 until 1952. Writers have accused several other Apostles of being witting Soviet agents. Roland Perry in his book, The Fifth Man makes a circumstantial case against Victor Rothschild, 3rd Baron Rothschild, a friend to both Burgess and Blunt; the espionage historian John Costello in The Mask of Treachery points a finger at the mathematician Alister Watson
Bishop of Chichester
The Bishop of Chichester is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the counties of West Sussex; the see is based in the City of Chichester where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity. On 3 May 2012 the appointment was announced of Martin Warner, Bishop of Whitby, as the next Bishop of Chichester, his enthronement took place on 25 November 2012 in Chichester Cathedral. The bishop's residence is Chichester. Since 2015, Warner has fulfilled the diocesan-wide role of alternative episcopal oversight, following the decision by Mark Sowerby, Bishop of Horsham, to recognise the orders of priests and bishops who are women. From 1984 to 2013, the Bishop, in addition to being the diocesan had specific oversight of the Chichester Episcopal Area, which covered the coastal region of West Sussex along with Brighton and Hove; the episcopal see at Selsey was founded by Saint Wilfrid Bishop of the Northumbrians, for the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Sussex in the late 7th century.
He was granted land by Æthelwealh of Sussex to build a cathedral at Selsey. However, shortly afterwards Cædwalla of Wessex conquered the Kingdom of Sussex, but he confirmed the grant to Wilfrid; the bishop's seat was located at Selsey Abbey. Nine years after the Norman conquest, in 1075, the Council of London enacted that episcopal sees should be removed to cities or larger towns. Accordingly, the see at Selsey; some sources claim that Stigand, the last Bishop of Selsey, continued to use the title Bishop of Selsey until 1082, before adopting the new title Bishop of Chichester, indicating that the transfer took several years to complete. Archdeacon of Chichester Archdeacon of Hastings Archdeacon of Brighton and Lewes Heylyn, Peter. A Help to English History...etc.. London: Paul Wright. Kelly, S. E. 1998. Charters of Selsey. Anglo-Saxon Charters 6
George Tomlinson (bishop)
Right Rev. George Tomlinson was an English cleric, the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar from 1842 to 1863. Tomlinson was born in the son of John Tomlinson, he was first educated at St Saviour's Grammar School and entered St John's College, Cambridge in 1818, matriculating in 1819. He graduated B. A. in 1823, M. A. in 1826, D. D. in 1842. He was founder of the Cambridge Apostles. Ordained in 1822, Tomlinson became chaplain to William Howley, the Bishop of London, was employed as a tutor by Sir Robert Peel. In 1825 he became secretary to the City of London Infant School Society, a High Church alternative around Howley and Charles James Blomfield to the Infant School Society of Samuel Wilderspin. From 1831 to 1842 Tomlinson was secretary to the SPCK. There he wrote for the Saturday Magazine, founded the Clergy List and Ecclesiastical Gazette. In 1840 he undertook an ecumenical mission in the Levant, wrote a report on it. Tomlinson arrived in Gibraltar in 1842 with the new governor, on HMS Warspite, he died there on 9 February 1863, at age 62.
Tomlinson married twice. His first wife was Louisa, daughter of Gen. Sir Patrick Stuart, his second wife was Eleanor Jane, daughter of Colonel Charles Mackenzie Fraser, 10th Laird of Inverallochy and 6th of Castle Fraser. WorldCat page
Church of England
The Church of England is the established church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor; the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It traces its history to the Christian church recorded as existing in the Roman province of Britain by the third century, to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury; the English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII failed to secure an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon in 1534. The English Reformation accelerated under Edward VI's regents, before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip; the Act of Supremacy 1558 renewed the breach, the Elizabethan Settlement charted a course enabling the English church to describe itself as both catholic and reformed: catholic in that it views itself as a part of the universal church of Jesus Christ in unbroken continuity with the early apostolic church.
This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles', Athanasian creeds. Reformed in that it has been shaped by some of the doctrinal principles of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation, in particular in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion and the Book of Common Prayer. In the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs; the phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants. In the 17th century, the Puritan and Presbyterian factions continued to challenge the leadership of the Church which under the Stuarts veered towards a more catholic interpretation of the Elizabethan Settlement under Archbishop Laud and the rise of the concept of Anglicanism as the via media. After the victory of the Parliamentarians the Prayer Book was abolished and the Presbyterian and Independent factions dominated; the Episcopacy was abolished. The Restoration restored the Church of England and the Prayer Book.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to greater religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English; the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality; the church includes both liberal and conservative members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop. Within each diocese are local parishes; the General Synod of the Church of England is the legislative body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy and laity. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament. According to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire; the earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian and Origen in the first years of the 3rd century.
Three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314. Others attended the Council of Serdica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, a number of references to the church in Roman Britain are found in the writings of 4th century Christian fathers. Britain was the home of Pelagius. While Christianity was long established as the religion of the Britons at the time of the Anglo-Saxon invasion, Christian Britons made little progress in converting the newcomers from their native paganism. In 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrew's from Rome to evangelise the Angles; this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England marks as the beginning of its formal history. With the help of Christians residing in Kent, Augustine established his church at Canterbury, the capital of the Kingdom of Kent, became the first in the series of Archbishops of Canterbury in 598. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England.
The Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, the Church of England considers itself to be the same church, more formally organised by Augustine. While some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. Queen Bertha of Kent was among the Christians in England who recognised papal authority before Augustine arrived, Celtic Christians were carrying out missionary work with papal approval long before the Synod of Whitby; the Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in England. This meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hilda's double monastery of Streonshalh called Whitby Abbey, it was presided over by King Oswiu, who made the final ruling.
The final ruling was decided in favor of Roman tradition because St. Peter holds the keys to the gate of Heaven. In 1534, King Henry VIII separated the English Church from Rome. A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an a