click links in text for more info

Bishop in the Catholic Church

In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church. Catholics trace the origins of the office of bishop to the apostles, who it is believed were endowed with a special charism by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost. Catholics believe this special charism has been transmitted through an unbroken succession of bishops by the laying on of hands in the sacrament of holy orders. Diocesan bishops—known as eparchs in the Eastern Catholic Churches—are assigned to govern local regions within the Catholic Church known as dioceses in the Latin Church and eparchies in the Eastern Churches. Bishops are collectively known as the College of Bishops and can hold such additional titles as archbishop, patriarch, or pope; as of 2009 there were 5,100 bishops total in the Latin and Eastern churches of the Catholic Church. Bishops are always men.

In addition, Canon 378 § 1 requires that a candidate for the Latin episcopacy should be: outstanding in solid faith, good morals, zeal for souls, wisdom and human virtues, endowed with other qualities which make him suitable to fulfill the office in question. The traditional role of a bishop is to act as head of a eparchy. Dioceses vary in geographical size and population. A wide variety of dioceses around the Mediterranean Sea which received the Christian faith early are rather compact in size, while those in areas more evangelized, as in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, South America and the Far East, tend to be much larger and more populous. Within his own diocese a Latin Church bishop may use pontifical vestments and regalia, but may not do so in another diocese without, at least, the presumed consent of the appropriate ordinary. See: Appointment of Catholic bishops Article 401.1 of the Latin-Rite Code of Canon Law states that "A diocesan Bishop who has completed his seventy-fifth year of age is requested to offer his resignation from office to the Supreme Pontiff, taking all the circumstances into account, will make provision accordingly".

A motu proprio issued by Pope Francis on 15 February 2018 titled Imparare a congedarsi established a comparable rule for non-cardinal bishops serving in the Roman Curia, required to retire at 75. A "diocesan bishop" is entrusted with the care of a local Church, he is responsible for teaching and sanctifying the faithful of his diocese, sharing these duties with the priests and deacons who serve under him. To "teach and govern" means that he must oversee preaching of the Gospel and Catholic education in all its forms, he serves as the "chief shepherd" of the diocese and has responsibility for the pastoral care of all Catholics living within his ecclesiastical and ritual jurisdiction. He is obliged to celebrate Mass every Sunday and Holy Day of Obligation with the intention of praying for those in his care, assign clergy to their posts in various institutions and oversee finances. A bishop is to have a special concern for priests, listening to them, using them as counsellors, ensuring that they are adequately provided for in every way, defending their rights set forth in the Code of Canon Law.

Latin Catholic bishops must make regular ad limina visits to the Holy See every five years. Because of their function as teachers of the faith, it is customary in some English-speaking countries, to add to the names of bishops the postnominal title of "D. D." and to refer to them with the title "Doctor". Only a bishop has authority to confer the sacrament of holy orders. In the Latin Church the minor orders were abolished after the Second Vatican Council. In Eastern Catholic Churches, a monastic archimandrite may tonsure and institute his subjects to minor orders; the sacrament of Confirmation is administered by a bishop in the Latin Church, but a bishop may delegate the administration to a priest. In the case of receiving an adult into full communion with the Catholic Church the presiding priest will administer Confirmation. In the Eastern Catholic Churches, Confirmation is administered by priests as it is given at the same time as baptism, it is only within the power of the diocesan bishop or eparch to bless churches and altars, although he may delegate another bishop, or a priest, to perform the ceremony.

On Holy Thursday Latin Catholic bishops preside over the Mass of the Chrism. Though Oil of the Sick for the sacrament of Anointing of the Sick is blessed at this Mass, it may be blessed by any priest in case of necessity. Only a bishop may consecrate Chrism. In the Eastern Catholic Churches chrism is consecrated by heads of churches sui juris and diocesan bishops may not do so. Only a bishop or other ordinary may grant imprimaturs for theological books, certifying that they are free from doctrinal or moral error. Prior to the Second Vatican Council, it was the prerogative of the bishop to consecrate the paten and chali

Mi corazón es tuyo

Mi corazón es tuyo is a Mexican telenovela produced by Juan Osorio for Televisa. The telenovela is an adaptation of the Spanish TV series Ana y los 7, it was adapted in Mexico by Alejandro Pohlenz, Marcia del Río, Pablo Ferrer. Silvia Navarro and Jorge Salinas are the protagonists, while Mayrín Villanueva stars as the main antagonist. and Fabiola Campomanes is the co-protagonist. Production of Mi corazón es tuyo started on April 21, 2014. Fernando Lascurain is a wealthy businessman and recent widower, attempting to raise his seven unruly children, he seeks the assistance of a new nanny. He hires and falls in love with Ana Leal, a struggling exotic dancer who tries to hide her double life. Although Ana lacks experience and a refined education, she bonds with the Lascurain children. Ana dreams of being a mother, but when her home is destroyed following an accident, she must borrow money from her ruthless boss at "Chicago", the night club where she is secretly employed; when Fernando falls for Ana and Isabela, an economist and sophisticated woman, trained by her mother to marry a millionaire, he must choose between both women.

The telenovela is an adaptation of the original Spanish television series, "Ana y los 7". Based on the original script by Ana Obregón, who wrote and starred in the original series, the remake was adapted by writers Alejandro Pohlenz, Marcia del Río, Pablo Ferrer. Juan Osorio serves as executive producer; the production of the telenovela started on April 21, 2014, at a shopping mall in Metepec, outside of Mexico City. Although the majority of filming is conducted on soundstages at Televisa San Ángel in Mexico City, additional scenes are filmed throughout the state of Mexico, where its governor, Eruviel Ávila Villegas, met with the cast during one day of filming; some of the cast filmed scenes in Puerto Vallarta and a resort in Riviera Nayarit in late January 2015. Filming concluded in late February 2015. A free concert, serving as the telenovela's final episode, was filmed at La Bombonera stadium in Toluca, Mexico on February 21, 2015; the concert featured performances from Banda El Recodo, Daniela Romo, Kaay, Paulina Goto, Pablo Montero, other special guests.

The telenovela's finale is scheduled to air on March 1, 2015 in Mexico and March 27, 2015 in the US. Following the airing of the final episode on television, ten more additional episodes and three alternative endings will be available to stream on the telenovela's official episode, To promote the telenovela, a special viewing party, which included the presentation of the cast, a trailer of new scenes, was held for the media on June 24, 2014, at Televisa San Ángel; the event was streamed online for fans on Televisa's official website of the telenovela. Many of the cast members, including Carmen Salinas, Juan Pablo Gil, Paulina Goto, Rene Casados, auditioned for the program at the Televisa San Ángel studio in Mexico City on February 13, 2014, their casting in the telenovela was confirmed that same month. On February 6, 2015, producers revealed that a stage version of the telenovela had been commissioned due its popularity in Mexico; the cast rehearsed for the play while filming final episodes for the telenovela.

The play, based on a family friendly version of the show, will include all of the Lascuráin family members and special musical performances from the cast. Productions will be held throughout Mexico; the play debuted on March 2015 in Puebla, Mexico. Additional performances are scheduled for venues in Guadalajara, Tampico, León, Mexico City, other Mexican cities during March and April 2015. Notes Following its premiere on June 30, 2014, the program earned a 22.8 in ratings for its 8 p.m. time slot. It was the second highest rated telenovela of the evening on Canal de las Estrellas, following the telenovela, Lo que la vida me robó. On June 30, 2014, Canal de las Estrellas began broadcasting Mi corazón es tuyo weeknights at 8:25pm, replacing Qué pobres tan ricos; the last episode was broadcast on March 1, 2015, with Amores con trampa replacing it the following day. During its premiere week from July 21 to July 25 on Univision, the telenovela was watched by 8.4 million viewers, earning Univision the #1 spot a broadcast network for viewers aged 18 to 34 in the 8 p.m.time slot.

Univision began broadcasting Mi corazón es tuyo on July 21, 2014, weeknights at 8pm/7c, replacing one hour of De que te quiero, te quiero. The last episode was broadcast on March 27, 2015, with Amores con trampa replacing it on March 30, 2015; some songs from the telenovela are composed by Jorge Eduardo Mauricio Arriaga. The song "Te tengo y no" was performed by Pablo Montero. "Maquina del tiempo" is a song performed by Abraham Batarse who acts in the telenovela. Mi corazón es tuyo on IMDb

Boundary scan

Boundary scan is a method for testing interconnects on printed circuit boards or sub-blocks inside an integrated circuit. Boundary scan is widely used as a debugging method to watch integrated circuit pin states, measure voltage, or analyze sub-blocks inside an integrated circuit; the Joint Test Action Group developed a specification for boundary scan testing, standardized in 1990 as the IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990. In 1994, a supplement that contains a description of the Boundary Scan Description Language was added which describes the boundary-scan logic content of IEEE Std 1149.1 compliant devices. Since this standard has been adopted by electronic device companies all over the world. Boundary scan is now synonymous with JTAG; the boundary scan architecture provides a means to test interconnects without using physical test probes. Each test cell may be programmed via the JTAG scan chain to drive a signal onto a pin and thus across an individual trace on the board. If the trace is shorted to another signal or if the trace is open, the correct signal value does not show up at the destination pin, indicating a fault.

To provide the boundary scan capability, IC vendors add additional logic to each of their devices, including scan cells for each of the external traces. These cells are connected together to form the external boundary scan shift register, combined with JTAG TAP controller support comprising four additional pins plus control circuitry; some TAP controllers support scan chains between on-chip logical design blocks, with JTAG instructions which operate on those internal scan chains instead of the BSR. This can allow those integrated components to be tested. On-chip debugging solutions are heavy users of such internal scan chains; these designs are part of most Verilog or VHDL libraries. Overhead for this additional logic is minimal, is well worth the price to enable efficient testing at the board level. For normal operation, the added boundary scan latch cells are set so that they have no effect on the circuit, are therefore invisible. However, when the circuit is set into a test mode, the latches enable a data stream to be shifted from one latch into the next.

Once a complete data word has been shifted into the circuit under test, it can be latched into place so it drives external signals. Shifting the word generally returns the input values from the signals configured as inputs; as the cells can be used to force data into the board, they can set up test conditions. The relevant states can be fed back into the test system by clocking the data word back so that it can be analyzed. By adopting this technique, it is possible for a test system to gain test access to a board; as most of today's boards are densely populated with components and tracks, it is difficult for test systems to physically access the relevant areas of the board to enable them to test the board. Boundary scan makes access possible without always needing physical probes. In modern chip and board design, Design For Test is a significant issue, one common design artifact is a set of boundary scan test vectors delivered in Serial Vector Format or a similar interchange format. Devices communicate to the world via a set of output pins.

By themselves, these pins provide limited visibility into the workings of the device. However, devices that support boundary scan contain a shift-register cell for each signal pin of the device; these registers are connected in a dedicated path around the device's boundary. The path creates a virtual access capability that circumvents the normal inputs and provides direct control of the device and detailed visibility at its outputs; the contents of the boundary scan are described by the manufacturer using a part-specific BSDL file. Among other things, a BSDL file will describe each digital signal exposed through pin or ball exposed in the boundary scan, as part of its definition of the Boundary Scan Register. A description for two balls might look like this: That shows two balls on a mid-size chip, each of which has three components in the BSR: a control configuring the ball. There are JTAG instructions to SAMPLE the data in that boundary scan register, or PRELOAD it with values. During testing, I/O signals leave the chip through the boundary-scan cells.

Testing involves a number of test vectors, each of which drives some signals and verifies that the responses are as expected. The boundary-scan cells can be configured to support external testing for interconnection between chips or internal testing for logic within the chip. High-end commercial JTAG testing systems allow the import of design'netlists' from CAD/EDA systems plus the BSDL models of boundary scan/JTAG compliant devices to automatically generate test applications. Common types of test include Scan-path'infrastructure' or integrity Boundary-scan device pin to boundary-scan device pin'interconnect' Boundary-scan pin to memory device or device cluster Arbitrary logic cluster testingWhen used during manufacturing


Feuerschutzpolizei was a firefighter unit in Nazi Germany and a branch of Nazi Germany's Ordnungspolizei, formed in 1938 when the German municipal professional fire brigades were transferred to the national police. The red fire vehicles, blue uniforms and fire service ranks were replaced by green fire vehicles, green uniforms and police ranks. In 1941 there were Fire Protection Police units in 86 cities in Germany, in Ostmark and in General Government. Outside these cities, the German fire services consisted of volunteer fire brigades, in cooperation with compulsory fire brigades and industrial fire brigades. In spite of being a branch of the Ordnungspolizei, the Fire Protection Police was a municipal institution. Administratively and operationally the Fire Protection Police were, subordinated to the Ordnungspolizei. During the war, the Feuerschutzpolizei organized six motorized firefighting regiments, their mission was to follow the German army's advance and have the main responsibility for the occupied territories fire protection and civil defense.

Each regiment consisted of some 1000 firefighters. In 1943 the regimental organization was abolished; the fourth regiment was stood down. Each battalion consisted of about 400 fire fighters in three companies. A fourth company of non-citizens, were added. Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 1 Sachsen, 1939–1943 Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 2 Hannover, 1941–1943 Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 3 Ostpreussen, 1941–1943 Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 4 Ukraine, 1941–1943 Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 5 Böhmen-Mähren, 1942–1943 Feuerschutzpolizei-Regiment 6 Niederlande, 1942–1943 Österreichischer Bundesfeuerwehrverband: Handbuch zur Feuerwehrgeschichte

Tara Music

Tara Music has been regarded for many years as one of the leading traditional Irish music recording companies. The label was set up by John Cook in the early 1970s, their first release was the album Prosperous by a young Christy Moore, still unknown at the time. There was quite a gap between anything further being released. In the early eighties, there were two albums from Planxty, two further solo albums from Moore, as well as two albums from Clannad, followed by the first of numerous albums from Stockton's Wing. In the late seventies, Tara recorded Shaun Davey's The Brendan Voyage, a ground-breaking album which featured uilleann piper Liam O'Flynn as a soloist with a full orchestra; the Brendan Voyage launched Davey as a contemporary orchestral composer of international standard and led to further commissions for work in a similar vein, several of which have been released on the Tara label. Most of Davey's works feature O'Flynn and vocalist Rita Connolly, both of whom have recorded numerous solo albums for the Tara label under Davey's supervision as producer.

The Irish phenomenon, Riverdance has musical roots, developing over many years prior to the first performance of Riverdance at Eurovision song contest in 1994. These roots included musical elements introduced by Andy Irvine who, having returned to Ireland from the Balkans, introduced Eastern European music and time signatures to the group Planxty, who proceeded to record a number of these instrumental pieces. Irvine and Davy Spillane recorded the East Wind album, produced by Bill Whelan the first seeds of what became Riverdance. Tara Music released Whelan's first major orchestral work, The Seville Suite and his most recent release: The Connemara Suite. Other albums, such as Spillane's Out of the Air and Pipedreams, as well as The Storm by Moving Hearts, feature some of the musical elements and instruments that are recognizable in their influence on the Riverdance music. In recent years, many releases on the Tara Music label are recordings by self-produced artists, with Tara Music acting as distributor and coordinating press and publicity.

Albums by artists such as: Frankie Gavin & De Dannan, The Voice Squad, Zoë Conway, Máirtín O'Connor and Michelle Lally are available on the Tara Music label. Long, Harry. Waltons Guide to Irish Music. Ireland: Waltons Publishing. ISBN 18-5720-177-9. Harper, Colin. Irish Folk and Blues: A Secret History. London: Cherry Red Books. ISBN 19-0144-740-5

Florida Midland Railway (defunct)

The Florida Midland Railway Company was incorporated under the general incorporation laws of Florida, surveyed a line from Lake Jessup, in Orange County, to Leesburg, in Lake County. The company was reincorporated on February 10, 1885; the new owners were E. W. Henck, S. M. Breuster, Carl Cushing, A. Menser and C. E. Munson of Florida, Edward Page, Charles W. Morris and Cyrus Carpenter of Boston, Massachusetts; the line was extended... beginning at a point on the Indian River and running through the counties of Brevard and Orange to Leesburg, in Sumter county, or to Eustis, in Orange county, or to points or a point of connection with railroads or a railroad running from these places, or from either of them, from a point on the line of said road, in Orange county, to a point on the Gulf of Mexico, running through the counties of Orange, Polk, Hillsborough and Monroe, or such of them as may be necessary to reach the terminal point, which shall be selected on the Gulf of Mexico. Land grants were promised.

Florida state law chapter 3795, approved June 2, 1887, expanded the area from which land grants could be chosen, extended the deadline to June 1, 1888. The line built was rather different, running from Clifton on Lake Jesup west to Apopka, but turning south to Kissimmee; the railroad's track was 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge while it was independent, but when it was taken over by the Plant System in the late 1890s, all track north of the 3 ft narrow gauge section of the Sanford and St. Petersburg Railroad was abandoned and the remaining trackage from Clarcona to Kissimmee was converted to 3 ft narrow gauge; the two narrow gauge lines were run in conjunction with one another, allowing the usage of the same narrow gauge equipment on both lines. The Plant System became part of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad system in 1902. From Clifton to Apopka, the railroad has been abandoned for about 100 years, no traces are left. Parts of the right-of-way were used to construct SR 434. From Apopka to Clarcona, the right-of-way is used for the West Orange Trail.

From Clarcona to Ocoee, the right-of-way is owned by CSX Transportation and run by the Florida Central Railroad. From Ocoee to Kissimmee, the railroad is abandoned, some elements remain; these are listed from north to south. List of Atlantic Coast Line Railroad precursors