Church in Wales
The Church in Wales is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses. It defines itself as "the ancient Church of this land and reformed, it proclaims and holds fast the doctrine and ministry of the one, holy and apostolic Church". In 2017, the Church in Wales reported 210,000 attendees in its membership statistics; the Anglican church is the largest denomination in Wales. As with the primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church, the Archbishop of Wales serves concurrently as one of the six diocesan bishops, a position held by John Davies. Unlike the Church of England, the Church in Wales is not an established church. Disestablishment was effected in 1920 under the Welsh Church Act 1914; as a province of the Anglican Communion, the Church in Wales recognises the Archbishop of Canterbury as a focus of unity but without any formal authority in the Church in Wales. Eighteen cross-border parishes remained in the Church of England and were exempt from disestablishment. A cleric of the Church in Wales can be appointed to posts in the Church of England, including the See of Canterbury.
The Church in Wales adopted its name by accident. The Welsh Church Act 1914 referred throughout to "the Church in Wales", the phrase being used to indicate the part of the Church of England within Wales. In 1920, a convention of the Welsh church considered what name to select and tended to favour "the Church of Wales". However, there were concerns that adopting a name different from that mentioned in the Act might cause legal problems. Given the situation, it seemed sensible to adopt the title "the Church in Wales". Christianity in Wales can be traced back to the Romano-British period and an organised episcopal church has had continuous existence in Wales since that time. Wales became a refuge for other Britons following the pagan Anglo-Saxon invasion of what became England; the Welsh refused to co-operate with Augustine of Canterbury's mission to the Anglo-Saxons. However, a combination of other Celtic dioceses reconciling with the See of Rome and the English conquest of Wales meant that from the Middle Ages, the Welsh dioceses were part of the Province of Canterbury and in communion with the See of Rome until the English Reformation.
Afterward they were part of the Church of England until disestablishment in 1920. From the time of Henry VIII, Wales had been absorbed into England as a legal entity and the established church in Wales was the Church of England. During the 19th century, Nonconformist churches grew in Wales, the majority of Welsh Christians were Nonconformists, although the Church of England remained the largest single denomination. By the mid-19th century the failure to appoint a Welsh-speaking bishop to any Welsh diocese for 150 years caused real resentment. Under the influence of Nonconformist politicians such as David Lloyd George, the Welsh Church Act 1914 was passed by the Liberal Government to separate Anglicanism in Wales from the Church of England; the bill was fiercely resisted by members of the Conservative Party and blocked in the House of Lords, but it was passed under the provisions of the Parliament Act 1911. The opposition to disestablishment was led by the Conservative politician F. E. Smith, who characterised the disestablishment bill as "a Bill which has shocked the conscience of every Christian community in Europe."
In response to this description, the writer G. K. Chesterton penned the satirical poem "Antichrist, or the Reunion of Christendom: An Ode" containing the memorable retort "Chuck It, Smith"; the Act both disestablished and disendowed the "Church in Wales", the term used to define the part of the Church of England, to be separated. Disestablishment meant the end of the church's special legal status, Welsh bishops were no longer entitled to sit in the House of Lords as Lords Spiritual; as the Church in Wales became independent of the state, tithes were no longer available to the church, leaving it without a major source of income. Disendowment, more controversial than disestablishment, meant that the endowments of the Church in Wales were confiscated, redistributed to the University of Wales and local authorities. Endowments before 1662 were to be confiscated; this was justified by the theory that the pre-1662 endowments had been granted to the national church of the whole population, hence belonged to the people as a whole rather than to the Church in Wales.
The date 1662 was that of the Act of Uniformity following the Restoration. Although secularisation of the cathedrals had been suggested, the Church in Wales retained all the ancient church buildings and the privilege of conducting legal marriages without reference to the civil registrar. Due to the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Welsh Church Act 1914 was passed together with the Suspensory Act 1914, meaning that the Welsh Church Act would not be implemented for the duration of the war. Disestablishment came into effect in 1920; the Church in Wales adopted a written constitution and elected a Governing Body which met once a year, but now meets twice annually. The Governing Body has ultimate authority "to a
Hervey le Breton
Hervey le Breton was a Breton cleric who became Bishop of Bangor in Wales and Bishop of Ely in England. Appointed to Bangor by King William II of England, when the Normans were advancing into Wales, Hervey was unable to remain in his diocese when the Welsh began to drive the Normans back from their recent conquests. Hervey's behaviour towards the Welsh seems to have contributed to his expulsion from his see. Although the new king, Henry I wished to translate Hervey to the see of Lisieux in Normandy, it was unsuccessful. In 1109, a new diocese was created in England, at Ely, Hervey was appointed to the bishopric created. While bishop, Hervey ordered the compilation of a house chronicle, which became the Liber Eliensis, he supervised the construction of a causeway between Ely and Exning, which allowed easier access to Ely. Hervey was a native of Brittany, some sources state a chaplain of King William II of England, while others are less certain that he was a chaplain for the king, he was appointed Bishop of Bangor in 1092 by King William.
Bangor at the time was in the Kingdom of Gwynedd, overrun by the Normans, following the killing of Robert of Rhuddlan had been taken over by Hugh d'Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester. The appointment of Hervey was intended to further consolidate the Norman hold on the area. Bangor was under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Canterbury, but Hervey was consecrated by Thomas of Bayeux, the Archbishop of York, since the see of Canterbury was vacant at the time. Relations between Hervey and the Welsh appear to have been bad; the Liber Eliensis described the situation as follows: Since they did not show the respect and reverence due to a bishop, he wielded the sharp two-edged sword to subdue them, constraining them both with repeated excommunications and with the host of his kinsmen and other followers. They resisted him nonetheless and pressed him with such dangers that they killed his brother and intended to deal with him the same way, if they could lay hands on him. Hervey was forced to rely on his own armed bands for protection.
In 1094 a Welsh revolt against Norman rule in Gwynedd began under the leadership of Gruffudd ap Cynan, by the late 1090s Hervey had been driven from his diocese by the Welsh. William of Malmesbury, states that the reason Hervey left Bangor was that the revenues of the see were too low, he remained nominally Bishop of Bangor until 1109. King Henry I of England tried to translate Hervey to the see of Lisieux in 1106, but the attempt was unsuccessful; the main opposition came from Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, the metropolitan of Bangor, refused to allow Hervey to go to a Norman bishopric. Anselm had the ability to decide the issue as Pope Paschal II had turned the decision of whether to translate Hervey to another see over to Anselm in 1102. While in exile, Hervey served as King Henry's confessor. Bangor itself remained vacant until 1120, when David the Scot was appointed. Before his death in 1107, Richard the abbot of Ely had attempted to secure from the papacy the elevation of his abbey into a bishopric.
After Richard's death, Hervey was appointed to oversee the abbey during the vacancy. He convinced the monks of Ely to support Richard's project, which received the conditional approval of Archbishop Anselm, contingent on papal approval. Paschal signalled his approval, in 1109 the monastery became a bishopric. Ely still remained a monastic house, as the abbey itself became the cathedral and the monks of the abbey became the monks of the cathedral chapter. In 1109, the pope approved Hervey's translation to a new see, he was made Bishop of Ely, he was enthroned at Ely in October 1109. While bishop, Hervey ordered the compilation of a history of the refounding of the abbey of Ely, which became incorporated into the Liber Eliensis; this was a Latin reworking of an Old English book of grants compiled by Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester. He was energetic in recovering the feudal rights of the bishopric against knights who had intruded themselves on the lands, but were not rendering knight service to the bishop.
As bishop, he attended a legatine council, or council held by a papal legate, in 1127, a royal council in 1129, but otherwise his administrative actions remain obscure. The causeway between the island of Ely and Exning, which made it easier for pilgrims to visit the shrine of Saint Ethelreda, was built under Hervey's orders. Insight into his activities as bishop is given in the Pipe Roll of 1130, the first surviving Pipe Roll. In that record, Hervey is recorded as owing King Henry 45 pounds to provide an office for a nephew, 100 pounds on an old settlement with the king, another 100 pounds for the settlement of a case dealing with Ramsey Abbey, Bury St. Edmunds Abbey and the bishop, 240 pounds for the right to be rid of a surplus of knights, 1000 pounds for the king to allow the bishop's knights to serve castleguard at Ely instead of Norwich. Hervey died on 30 August 1131, he was buried in Ely Cathedral on 31 August 1131. He was disliked by Archbishop Anselm, he was described as a man of "secular tastes".
His nephew, William Brito, was a royal chaplain and was appointed Archdeacon of Ely by 1110. Another nephew was Richard, who in 1130 is recorded in the Pipe Roll as paying a fine to the king because of land that his uncle had given him. Another of Hervey's relative was Gilbert Universalis, appointed to the see of London in 1128 by Henry I
Bishop of Hereford
The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury. The episcopal see is centred in the City of Hereford where the bishop's seat is in the Cathedral Church of Saint Mary and Saint Ethelbert; the diocese was founded for the minor sub-kingdom of the Magonsæte in 676. It now covers the whole of the county of Herefordshire, southern Shropshire and a few parishes in Worcestershire and Monmouthshire; the arms of the see are gules, three leopard's faces reversed jessant-de-lys or, which were the personal arms of Bishop Thomas de Cantilupe. Until 1534 the Diocese of Hereford was in full communion with the Roman Catholic Church and two of its Bishops were canonised. During the English Reformation the bishops of England and Wales conformed to the independent Church of England under Henry VIII and Edward VI, under Mary I, they adhered to the Roman Catholic Church. Since the accession of Elizabeth I the diocese has again been part of the Church of England and Anglican Communion.
Richard Frith's election was confirmed on 17 October 2014 and he was installed as Bishop of Hereford on 22 November 2014 in Hereford Cathedral. The bishop's residence is Hereford. Note: The chronology prior to 1056 is conjectural
Bishop of Carlisle
The Bishop of Carlisle is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Carlisle in the Province of York. The diocese covers the county of Cumbria except for Alston Moor and the former Sedbergh Rural District; the see is in the city of Carlisle where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity, a collegiate church until elevated to cathedral status in 1133. The diocese was created in 1133 by Henry I out of part of the Diocese of Durham, it was extended in 1856 taking over part of the Diocese of Chester. The residence of the bishop was Rose Castle, until 2009; the current bishop is James Newcome, the 67th Bishop of Carlisle, who signs James Carliol and was enthroned on 10 October 2009. The original territory of the diocese first became a political unit in the reign of King William Rufus, who made it into the Earldom of Carlisle, which covered most of the counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. In 1133, during the reign of his successor, Henry I, a diocese was erected in the territory of the earldom, the territory being subtracted from the Diocese of Durham.
This happened despite there being locally a strong Celtic element that looked to Glasgow for episcopal administration. As the first bishop, the king secured the appointment of his former confessor, Æthelwulf, an Englishman, Prior of the Augustinian Canons, whom he had established at Carlisle in 1102, though at the time of his consecration Æthelwulf seems to have been Prior of the Augustinian house at Nostell in Yorkshire. An efficient administrator, he ruled the diocese until his death in 1156 and succeeded in imparting a certain vigour to diocesan life. Among other initiatives, he built a moderate-sized Norman minster of which the transepts and part of the nave still exist. To serve this cathedral he introduced his own Augustinian brethren, with the result that Carlisle was the only see in England with an Augustinian cathedral chapter, the other monastic cathedral chapters in England consisting of Benedictine monks. There was only one archdeaconry. Of the next bishop, little is known, after his death, in or about 1186, there was a long vacancy, during which the diocese was administered by another Bernard, Archbishop of Ragusa.
During this period Carlisle suffered from the incursions of the Scots, early in the reign of Henry III the king complained to the Pope that Carlisle had revolted in favour of Scotland, that the canons had elected a bishop for themselves. The papal legate, punished this action by exiling the canons and appointing Hugh, Abbot of Beaulieu, a good administrator, as bishop, it was important to the English government to have a reliable prelate at Carlisle, as they looked to the bishop to attend to Scottish affairs, negotiate treaties, play the part of diplomat. The next bishop was Walter Malclerk agent of King John, a prominent figure in the reign of Henry III. Always a patron of the Friars Preachers, he introduced both Dominicans and Franciscans into the city and diocese, he resigned. About this time a new choir was begun and carried to completion, only to be destroyed in the great fire of 1292. A fresh beginning was made by the energetic Bishop John de Halton, a favourite of Edward I, for nearly a hundred years the building of the present choir proceeded, though with many interruptions.
Its chief glory is the great East window, remarkable both for its own beauty and as marking a transition from the earlier style to the perfection of tracery. During this time the see was governed by a line of bishops and useful diplomats in their day, but not remarkable in other respects. Bishop John Kirkby took an active role in Border military actions, defeating a Scottish raid in 1345 and commanding English troops at the battle of Neville's Cross in the following year. Thomas Merke was a close friend of Richard II, tried for high treason under Henry IV and deprived; the subsequent bishops were scholars employed in negotiating truces and treaties with Scotland, several of them were Chancellors of Oxford or of Cambridge University. Among this generation of scholar diplomats was Cardinal Thomas Wolsey's friend, John Kite, who remained faithful to his master, who supported him in the poverty of his latter days; the last of the bishops in communion with Rome was Owen Oglethorpe, a kindly-tempered man, prevailed on to crown Elizabeth when no other bishop could be found to do it.
This was an act. On Christmas Day after the Queen’s accession he disobeyed the note she sent him in the Chapel Royal forbidding him to elevate the Sacred Host in her presence, his refusal to take the Oath of Supremacy led to his being deprived of his title along with the other bishops, he died a prisoner 31 December 1559. Under Owen Ogelthorp Carlisle was a poor diocese, when the Reformers plundered the churches they found little but a chalice in each, of these some were of tin. After Ogelthorp's deprivation and death, Bernard Gilpin was to succeed him in Carlisle but he refused though much pressed to it, the Bishopric was conferred on one John Best, consecrated 2 March 1560. Bishop John Best was the first post-Marian Anglican Bishop at Carlisle. Bishop Best was the 31st Bishop of Carlisle from 2 May 1561 to his death on 22 May 1570; the cathedral dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, received its current dedication at the time of the Reformation. The diocese was extended in 1856 by the addition of part of the Diocese of Chester.
Notes Bibliography Crockford's Clerical Directory - Listings Friends of Rose Castle Website
Bishop of St David's
The Bishop of St David's is the ordinary of the Church in Wales Diocese of St David's. The succession of bishops stretches back to Saint David who in the 6th century established his seat in what is today the city of St David's in Pembrokeshire, founding St David's Cathedral; the current Bishop of St David's is Joanna Penberthy, since the confirmation on 30 November 2016 of her election. The history of the diocese of St David's is traditionally traced to that saint in the latter half of the 6th century Records of the history of the diocese before Norman times are fragmentary, consisting of a few chance references in old chronicles, such as'Annales Cambriae' and'Brut y Tywysogion'. Corresponding with the boundaries of Dyfed, St David's comprised all the country south of the River Dyfi and west of the English border, with the exception of the greater part of Glamorganshire, in all some 3,500 square miles; the early ecclesiastical organisation of the Welsh church is unclear but scanty references reveal that some form of Archbishopric existed, with multiple bishops under the jurisdiction of a senior see.
One of the earliest mentions of the religious community at St David's Cathedral comes in the work of Asser, trained there. In his Life of King Alfred c. 893 Asser describes his kinsman, Nobis of St David's, as Archbishop. In the Annales Cambriae, Elfodd is termed'archbishop of the land of Gwynedd’ in his obit, under the year 809. Rhygyfarch's Life of Saint David c. 1090. States Saint David was anointed as an archbishop by the Patriarch of Jerusalem, a position confirmed at the Synod of Llanddewi Brefi by popular acclaim. Blessed and extolled by the mouth of all, he is with the consent of all the bishops, princes and all grades of the whole Britannic race, made archbishop, his monastery too is declared the metropolis of the whole country, so that whoever ruled it should be accounted archbishop. Rhygyfarch's claim may be dubious history but there can be little doubt he was reflecting a pre-existing tradition, it is unclear when St David's came under the metropolitan jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Canterbury, but about 1115 King Henry I intruded a Norman into the see, Bishop of St David's, who prior to his ordination was confirmed by Canterbury, much to the disgust of the Brut y Tywysogyon which noted that Henry I'made him bishop in Menevia in contempt of the clerics of the Britons’.
Once in place Bernard became convinced. Bernard in the 1120s claimed metropolitan jurisdiction over Wales and presented his suit unsuccessfully before six successive popes. Pope Eugenius III was giving the case serious consideration, the issue was to be put to the synod summoned to meet at Rheims in March 1148, but the death of Bernard meant the case lapsed; the idea of Archbishops in Wales was reflected in the work of Geoffrey of Monmouth. The claim was afterwards revived in the time of Gerald of Wales; the failure of Gerald's campaign saw the claim lapse but it was revived by Owain Glyndŵr's plan for an independent Welsh Church. The idea was revived in the reformation with Bishop Richard Davies in the'Address to the Welsh nation' prefixed to the translation into Welsh of the New Testament by him and William Salesbury referred to'Archbishop David', it was only in 1920. The building of the present St David's Cathedral was begun under Bishop Peter de Leia. In the troubled times of the Reformation the former bishop of St David's, William Barlow, was a consecrator of Archbishop Matthew Parker in 1559.
At the English Reformation the See ceased to be in communion with Rome, but it continued as a See of the Church of England, since disestablishment, of the Church in Wales. Accounts of the early incumbents on the list are conflicting
Pope Gregory XII
Pope Gregory XII, born Angelo Corraro, Corario, or Correr, was Pope from 30 November 1406 to 4 July 1415 when he was forced to resign to end the Western Schism. He succeeded Pope Innocent VII and in turn was succeeded by Pope Martin V. Angelo Corraro was born in Venice of a noble family, about 1326 or 1327, was appointed Bishop of Castello in 1380, succeeding Bishop Nicolò Morosini. On 1 December 1390 he was made titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. On 12 June 1405 he was created cardinal and the Cardinal-Priest of San Marco by Pope Innocent VII, he was Apostolic Administrator of Constantinople from 30 November 1406 to 23 October 1409. Gregory XII was chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals under the express condition that, should Antipope Benedict XIII, the rival papal claimant at Avignon, renounce all claim to the Papacy, he would renounce his, so that a fresh election might be made and the Western Schism ended, he became Supreme Pontiff on 30 November 1406, taking the name Gregory XII.
The two pontiffs opened wary negotiations to meet on neutral turf at Savona in Liguria, but soon began to waver in their resolve. The Corraro relatives of Gregory XII in Venice and King Ladislaus of Naples, a supporter of Gregory XII and his predecessor for political reasons, used all their influence to prevent the meeting, each Pope feared being captured by partisans of the rival Pope; the cardinals of Gregory XII showed their dissatisfaction at this manoeuvring and gave signs of their intention to abandon him. On 4 May 1408, Gregory XII convened his cardinals at Lucca and ordered them not to leave the city under any pretext, he tried to supplement his following by creating four of his Corraro nephews cardinals – including the future Pope Eugene IV, despite his promise in the conclave that he would create no new cardinals. Seven of the cardinals secretly left Lucca and negotiated with the cardinals of Benedict XIII concerning the convocation of a general council by them, at which both pontiffs should be deposed and a new one elected.
They summoned the council to Pisa and invited both pontiffs to be present. Neither Gregory XII nor Benedict XIII appeared. Meanwhile, Gregory XII stayed with his loyal and powerful protector, the condottiero Carlo I Malatesta, who had come to Pisa in person during the process of the council to support Gregory XII. At the fifteenth session, 5 June 1409, the Council of Pisa deposed the two pontiffs as schismatical, heretical and scandalous. Gregory XII, who had meanwhile created ten more cardinals, had convoked a rival council at Cividale del Friuli, near Aquileia. Gregory XII's cardinals pronounced Benedict XIII and Alexander V schismatics and devastators of the Church, but their pronouncement went unheeded; the Council of Constance resolved the situation. Gregory XII appointed Cardinal Giovanni Dominici of Ragusa as his proxies; the cardinal convoked the council and authorized its succeeding acts, thus preserving the formulas of Papal supremacy. Thereupon on 4 July 1415, acting in the name of Gregory XII, pronounced the resignation of the Pope, which the cardinals accepted.
According to prior agreement, they agreed to retain all the cardinals, created by Gregory XII, thus satisfying the Corraro clan, appointed Gregory XII Bishop of Frascati, Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals and perpetual legate at Ancona. The Council set aside Antipope John XXIII, the successor of Alexander V. After the former follower of Benedict XIII appeared, the council declared. A new Roman pontiff, Pope Martin V, was not elected before Gregory XII's death. Therefore, the Papal seat was vacant for two years; the rest of Gregory XII's life was spent in peaceful obscurity in Ancona. He was the last pope to resign until Benedict XVI did so on 28 February 2013 598 years later. Papal resignation This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Ott, Michael. "Pope Gregory XII". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 7. New York: Robert Appleton. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gregory XII". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites is a Roman Catholic mendicant religious order founded in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites. However, historical records about its origin remain uncertain. Berthold of Calabria has traditionally been associated with the founding of the order, but few clear records of early Carmelite history have survived; the charism of the Carmelite Order is contemplation. Carmelites understand contemplation in a broad sense encompassing prayer and service; these three elements are at the heart of the Carmelite charism. The most recent statement about the charism of Carmel was in the 1995 Constitutions of the Order, in which Chapter 2 is devoted to the idea of charism. Carmel understands action to be complementary, not contradictory. What is distinctive of Carmelites is the way that they practice the elements of prayer and service, taking particular inspiration from the prophet Elijah and the Blessed Virgin Mary, patrons of the order.
The order is considered by the Catholic Church to be under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary, thus has a strong Marian devotion to Our Lady of Mount Carmel. As in most of the orders dating to medieval times, the First Order is the friars, the Second Order is the nuns, the Third Order consists of laypeople who continue to live in the world, can be married, but participate in the charism of the order by liturgical prayers and contemplative prayer. There are offshoots such as active Carmelite sisters. Carmelite tradition traces the origin of the order to a community of hermits on Mount Carmel, which succeeded the schools of the prophets in ancient Israel or the Crusader states. There are no certain records of hermits on this mountain before the 1190s. By this date a group of men had gathered at the well of Elijah on Mount Carmel; these men, who had gone to Palestine from Europe either as pilgrims or as crusaders, chose Mount Carmel in part because it was the traditional home of Elijah.
The foundation is believed to have been dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some time between 1206 and 1214 the hermits, about whom little is known, approached Albert of Jerusalem, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem and papal legate, for a rule. Albert created a document, the Rule of St Albert, both juridically terse and replete with Scriptural allusions, thereby grounding the hermits in the life of the universal Church and their own aspirations; the rule consisted of sixteen articles, which enjoined strict obedience to their prior, residence in individual cells, constancy in prayer, the hearing of Mass every morning in the oratory of the community, vows of poverty and toil, daily silence from vespers until terce the next morning, abstinence from all forms of meat except in cases of severe illness, fasting from Holy Cross Day until the Easter of the following year. The Rule of St. Albert addresses a prior whose name is only listed as "B." When required to name their founders, the Brothers referred to both Elijah and the Blessed Virgin as early models of the community.
Under pressure from other European mendicant orders to be more specific, the name "Saint Berthold" was given drawn from the oral tradition of the order. Nothing is known of the Carmelites from 1214, when Albert died, until 1238; the Rule of St. Albert was approved by Pope Honorius III in 1226, again by Pope Gregory IX in 1229, with a modification regarding ownership of property and permission to celebrate divine services; the Carmelites next appear in the historical record, in 1238, when with the increasing cleavage between the West and the East, the Carmelites found it advisable to leave the Near East. Many moved to Sicily. In 1242, the Carmelites migrated west, establishing a settlement at Aylesford, Kent and Hulne, near Alnwick in Northumberland. Two years they established a chapter in southern France. Settlements were established at Losenham and Bradmer, on the north Norfolk coast, before 1247. By 1245 the Carmelites were so numerous in England that they were able to hold their first general chapter at Aylesford, where Simon Stock eighty years old, was chosen general.
During his rule of twenty years the order prospered: foundations were made at London and Cambridge, Cologne, Monpellier, Norwich and Bristol, elsewhere. By 1274, there were 22 Carmelite houses in England, about the same number in France, eleven in Catalonia, three in Scotland, as well as some in Italy and elsewhere. Acknowledging the changed circumstances of life outside the Holy Land, the Carmelites appealed to the papal curia for a modification of the Rule. Pope Innocent IV entrusted the drafting of a modified Rule to two Dominicans, the new Rule was promulgate