Kingdom of Sussex
The Kingdom of the South Saxons, today referred to as the Kingdom of Sussex, was one of the seven traditional kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. On the south coast of the island of Great Britain, it was a sixth century Saxon colony and an independent kingdom; the South Saxons were ruled by the kings of Sussex until the country was annexed by Wessex in 827, in the aftermath of the Battle of Ellandun. The Kingdom of Sussex had its initial focus in a territory based on the former kingdom and Romano-British civitas of the Regnenses and its boundaries coincided in general with those of the county of Sussex. For a brief period in the 7th century, the Kingdom of Sussex controlled the Isle of Wight and the territory of the Meonwara in the Meon Valley in east Hampshire. From the late 8th century, Sussex seems to have absorbed the Kingdom of the Haestingas, after the region was conquered by the Mercian king Offa. A large part of its territory was covered by the forest that took its name from the fort of Anderitum at modern Pevensey, known to the Romano-British as the Forest of Andred and to the Saxons as Andredsleah or Andredsweald, known today as the Weald.
This forest, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was 30 miles deep. It was the largest remaining area of woodland and heath in the territories that became England and was inhabited by wolves and bears, it was so dense. The forested Weald made expansion difficult but provided some protection from invasion by neighbouring kingdoms. Whilst Sussex's isolation from the rest of Anglo-Saxon England has been emphasised, Roman roads must have remained important communication arteries across the forest of the Weald; the Weald was not the only area of Sussex, forested in Saxon times--for example, at the western end of Sussex is the Manhood Peninsula, which in the modern era is deforested, but the name is derived from the Old English maene-wudu meaning "men's wood" or "common wood" indicating that it was once woodland. The coastline would have looked different from today. Much of the alluvium in the river plains had not yet been deposited and the tidal river estuaries extended much further inland, it is estimated.
Before people reclaimed the tidal marshes in the 13th century the coastal plain contained extensive areas of sea water in the form of lagoons, salt marsh, wide inlets and peninsulas. To the South Saxons of the 5th and 6th centuries this coastline must have resembled their original homeland between coastal Friesland, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein; the landscape gave rise to some key regional differences within the kingdom. The rich coastal plain continued to be the base for the large estates, ruled by their thegns, some of whom had their boundaries confirmed by charters; the Downs were more deserted. South Saxon impact was greatest in the Weald. Along the north scarp of the Downs runs a series of parishes with land evenly distributed across the different soils to their northern boundaries. In the early mediaeval period, the rivers of Sussex may have acted locally as a major unifier, linking coastal and riverside communities and providing people in these areas with a sense of identity; the boundaries of the Kingdom of Sussex crystallised around the 6th and 7th centuries.
To the west, Bede describes the boundary with the Kingdom of Wessex as being opposite the Isle of Wight, which fell on the River Ems. It is possible that the Jutish territories of the Isle of Wight and the Meon Valley in modern Hampshire acted as a buffer zone between the Saxon kingdoms of Sussex and Wessex until they were conquered by the Mercian king Wulfhere and passed to King Aethelwealh of Sussex in the 7th century. To the east at Romney Marsh and the River Limen, Sussex shared a border with the Kingdom of Kent. North of the Forest Ridge in the Wealden forest lay the sub-kingdom of Surrey, which became a frontier area disputed by various kingdoms until it became part of Wessex. To the south of Sussex lay the English Channel, beyond which lay Francia, or the Kingdom of the Franks. By the 680s, when Christianity was being introduced, there is no doubt that the district around Selsey and Chichester had become the political centre of the kingdom, though there is little archaeological evidence for a reoccupation of Chichester itself before the 9th century.
The capital of the Kingdom of Sussex was at Chichester, the seat of the kingdom's bishopric was at Selsey. The traditional residence of the South Saxon kings was at Kingsham, once outside the southern walls of Chichester although within its modern boundaries. Ditchling may have been an important regional centre for a large part of central Sussex between the Rivers Adur and Ouse until the founding of Lewes in the 9th century. By the 11th century the towns were developments of the fortified towns founded in the reign of Alfred the Great; the ancient droveways of Sussex linked coastal and downland communities in the south with summer pasture land in the interior of the Weald. The droveways were used throughout the Saxon era by the South Saxons and originated before the Roman occupation of Britain; the droveways formed a road system that suggests that the settlers in the oldest developed parts of Sussex were concerned not so much with east–west connections between neighbouring settlements as with north–south communication between each settlement and its outlying woodland pastur
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man; the Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishop's throne is in York Minster in central York and the official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside York; the incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor:. Six of the early bishops of York and one archbishop were canonised by the Roman Catholic Church, five more recent archbishops achieved the supreme Archbishopric of Canterbury. There was a bishop in Eboracum from early times. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the councils of Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid; these early bishops of York acted as diocesan rather than archdiocesan prelates until the time of Ecgbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury exercised authority, it was not until the Norman Conquest that the archbishops of York asserted their complete independence. At the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland, but the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072. In 1154 the suffragan sees of the Isle of Man and Orkney were transferred to the Norwegian archbishop of Nidaros, in 1188 all the Scottish dioceses except Whithorn were released from subjection to York, so that only the dioceses of Whithorn and Carlisle remained to the archbishops as suffragan sees.
Of these, Durham was independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the 14th century, to compensate for the loss of Whithorn to the Scottish Church. Several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state; as Peter Heylyn wrote: "This see has yielded to the Church eight saints, to the Church of Rome three cardinals, to the realm of England twelve Lord Chancellors and two Lord Treasurers, to the north of England two Lord Presidents." The bishopric's role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. At the time of the English Reformation, York possessed three suffragan sees, Durham and Sodor and Man, to which during the brief space of Queen Mary I's reign may be added the Diocese of Chester, founded by Henry VIII, but subsequently recognised by the Pope; until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome.
This is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall; the Archbishop of York is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu, an ex officio member of the House of Lords; the Province of York includes 10 Anglican dioceses in Northern England: Blackburn, Chester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, as well as 2 other dioceses: Southwell and Nottingham in the Midlands and Sodor and Man covering the Isle of Man. Accord of Winchester Story, Joanna. "Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York". English Historical Review. Cxxvii: 783–818. Doi:10.1093/ehr/ces142.
Æthelwealh of Sussex
Æthelwealh was the first historical king of Sussex. Æthelwealh became the first Christian king of Sussex and was king when Sussex was converted to Christianity in 681. In 661, Æthelwealh received the territories of the Meon Valley in modern-day Hampshire, the Isle of Wight from his godfather, king of Mercia. Æthelwealh was killed in around 685 by Cædwalla, at the time a prince of the Gewisse tribe of modern-day Oxfordshire, operating as bandit in Sussex. All known information about him comes from brief mentions in Eddius's The Life of Bishop Wilfrid, Bede's Ecclesiastical History of England, The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Æthelwealh was the third recorded ruler of the South Saxons in Sussex. A case can be made that Æthelwealh was installed by Penda in 645, when Cenwalh was driven out of his kingdom by Penda for divorcing the latter's sister. Cenwalh had deprived Penda's sister of her queenly status, a just recompense when Penda invaded Wessex would have been for him to have deprived Cenwalh of the kingdom in Sussex.Æthelwealh became a Christian while in Mercia where the King of Mercia, King Wulfhere, sponsored his baptism.
At this time the people of Sussex were pagans. In 661, Wulfhere gave Æthelwealh the Isle of Wight. Æthelwealh's queen was the daughter of Eanfrith, a ruler of the Christian Hwicce people. Wilfrid, the exiled bishop of York, came to Sussex in 681 and converted the people to Christianity with King Æthelwealh's approval. Æthelwealh gave Wilfrid land in Selsey. Wilfrid, however met with Caedwalla a prince of the Gewisse operating as a bandit in Sussex, came to a mutual agreement to advance one another's interests. According to Bede, in 686, Cædwalla killed Æthelwealh. Cædwalla was driven out by two of Æthelwealh's ealdormen and Andhun; when Cædwalla became King of the West Saxons, the following year, he conquered Sussex and appears to have appointed an Ecgwald as a sub-regulus. His name means "noble foreigner". According to tradition, Cædwalla invaded Sussex and was met by Æthelwealh at a point in the South Downs just southeast of Stoughton, close to the border with Hampshire, it was here that Æthelwealh was defeated and slain.
According to the same tradition, Æthelwealh lies buried in the southern barrow of the group that marks the spot. Æthelwalh 1, Eafe 1, Eanfrith 3 at Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England. Retrieved 2007-03-30. Bede. "Book 4". Ecclesiastical History of England. Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved 2007-03-30. "The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle". Translated by Ingram J. H. Project Gutenberg. C. 890. Retrieved 2007-03-30. Bede. "Liber Quartus". Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum; the Latin Library. Retrieved 2007-03-30
Ordinary (church officer)
An ordinary is an officer of a church or civic authority who by reason of office has ordinary power to execute laws. Such officers are found in hierarchically organised churches of Western Christianity which have an ecclesiastical legal system. For example, diocesan bishops are the Church of England. In Eastern Christianity, a corresponding officer is called a hierarch. Within civic governance, notably in the southern United States, the role of the county ordinary involved the discharge of certain legal or related, tasks falling to city or county authorities, such as licensing marriages and adjudicating claims against an authority. In canon law, the power to govern the church is divided into the power to make laws, enforce the laws, to judge based on the law. A person exercises power to govern either because the person holds an office to which the law grants governing power or because someone with governing power has delegated it to the person. Ordinary power is the former; the office with ordinary power could possess the governing power itself or instead it could have the ordinary power of agency, the inherent power to exercise someone else's power.
The law vesting ordinary power could either be ecclesiastical law, i.e. the positive enactments that the church has established for itself, or divine law, i.e. the laws which the church believes were given to it by God. As an example of divinely instituted ordinaries, Catholics in communion with the Holy See believe that when Jesus established the Church, he established the episcopate and the primacy of Peter, endowing the offices with power to govern the Church. Thus, in the Catholic Church, the office of successor of Simon Peter and the office of diocesan bishop possess their ordinary power in the absence of positive enactments from the Church. Many officers possess ordinary power but, due to their lack of ordinary executive power, are not called ordinaries; the best example of this phenomenon is the office of a.k.a. officialis. The judicial vicar only has authority through his office to exercise the diocesan bishop's power to judge cases. Though the vicar has vicarious ordinary judicial power, he is not an ordinary because he lacks ordinary executive power.
A vicar general, has authority through his office to exercise the diocesan bishop's executive power. He is therefore an ordinary because of this vicarious ordinary executive power. Local ordinaries are ordinaries in particular churches; the following clerics are local ordinaries: The Bishop of Rome is ordinary for the whole Catholic Church. In Eastern Catholic churches, major archbishops, metropolitans have ordinary power of governance for the whole territory of their respective autonomous particular churches. Diocesan/eparchial bishops/eparchs Other prelates who head if only temporarily, a particular church or a community equivalent to it. Canon 368 of the Code of Canon Law lists five Latin-rite jurisdictional areas that are considered equivalent to a diocese; these are headed by: A territorial prelature called a prelate nullius dioceseos, in charge of a geographical area that has not yet been raised to the level of diocese A territorial abbey, in charge of an area, which in mission countries can be quite vast, associated with an abbey An apostolic vicar, in charge of an apostolic vicariate in a mission country, not yet ready to be made a diocese An apostolic prefecture, in charge of an apostolic prefecture, not yet ready to be made an apostolic vicariate A permanent apostolic administrator, in charge of a geographical area that for serious reasons cannot be made a diocese.
To these may be added: An apostolic exarch, in charge of an apostolic exarchate—not yet ready to be made an eparchy—for the faithful of an Eastern Catholic Church in an area, situated outside the home territory of that Eastern Church A military ordinariate A personal prelate, in charge of a group of persons without regard to geography: the only personal prelature existing is that of Opus Dei An apostolic administrator of a personal apostolic administration: only one exists, the Personal Apostolic Administration of Saint John Mary Vianney An ordinary of a personal ordinariate for former Anglicans A superior of an autonomous mission Of somewhat similar standing is the Diocesan administrator elected to govern a diocese during a vacancy. Apart from certain limitations of nature and law, he has, on a caretaker basis, the same obligations and powers as a diocesan bishop. An apostolic administrator is appointed by the Holy See to run a vacant diocese, or a diocese whose bishop is incapacitated or otherwise impeded.
Classified as local ordinaries, although they do not head a particular church or equivalent community are: Vicars general and protosyncelli Episcopal vicars and syncelli Major superiors of religious institutes and of societies of apostolic life are ordinaries of their respective memberships, but not local ordinaries. In the Orthodox Church, a hierarch holds uncontested authority within the boundaries of his own diocese; the violation of this rule is called eispēdēsis (Greek: εἰσπήδησις, "trespassing" "j
A cathedra or bishop's throne is the seat of a bishop. It is a symbol of the bishop's teaching authority in the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion churches. Cathedra is the Latin word for a chair with armrests, it appears in early Christian literature in the phrase "cathedrae apostolorum", indicating authority derived directly from the apostles. A church into which a bishop's official cathedra is installed is called a cathedral; the Joint International Commission for Theological Dialogue Between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church makes use of the term cathedral to point out the existence of a bishop in each local church, in the heart of ecclesial apostolicity. The definitive example of a cathedra is that encased within the Triumph of the cathedra Petri designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1657, completed and installed in St Peter's Rome in 1666; as early as the 8th century, an ancient wooden chair overlaid with ivory plaques depicting The Twelve Labours of Heracles and some of the constellations was venerated as the episcopal chair of St. Peter.
It is a Byzantine throne with framed fragments of acacia wood encased in the oak carcass and reinforced with iron bands. It was long believed to have been used by the Apostle Saint Peter, but the Vatican recognises that the chair was a gift from Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Bald to Pope John VIII in 875. Several rings facilitated its transportation during processions. Pope Alexander VII commissioned Bernini to build a monument to display this relic in a triumphant manner. Bernini's gilded bronze throne, richly ornamented with bas-reliefs, encloses the relic. On January 17, 1666 it was solemnly set above the altar of Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Greater than life-sized sculptures of four Doctors of the Church form an honor guard: St. Ambrose and St. Athanasius on the left, St. John Chrysostom and St. Augustine on the right. Celebrated on February 22 in accordance with the calendar of saints, the Feast of Cathedra Petri honours the founding of the church in Rome and gives thanks for the work of Saint Peter.
The Chair of St. Augustine represents one of the most ancient extant cathedrae in use. Named after the first Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Augustine of Canterbury, it is made of Purbeck Marble or Bethesda marble and dates to sometime between the 6th and 12th centuries; those who argue for an older date suggest. Canterbury Cathedral, in which the cathedra is housed, maintains that the chair was once part of the furnishings of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket, since dismantled. Since the Middle Ages, it has always been used in the triple enthronement of an Archbishop of Canterbury, he is seated on the throne in the quire as Diocesan Bishop, in the chapter house as titular abbot, in St. Augustine's chair as Primate of All England; this is the only occasion. A second cathedra is used for other occasions; the term ex cathedra, meaning "from the chair", is used to designate official pronouncements of the pope intended for a world audience. The cathedra symbolizes the bishop's apostolic authority to teach.
In the case of the pope, the expression "ex cathedra" has special canonical meaning within the context of the Roman Catholic Church, which attributes infallible teaching authority over the whole church rather than his local Church of Rome. According to Catholic dogma, the pope's statements ex cathedra are infallible in matters of faith and morals; the traditional position of the cathedra was behind the high altar. It had been the position of the magistrate in the apse of the Roman basilica which provided the model type—and sometimes were adapted as the structures—for early Christian basilicas. In the Middle Ages, as altars came to be placed against the wall of the apse, the practice of placing the cathedra to one side became standard. In the Roman Catholic Church since the Second Vatican Council, the altar is free-standing; the cathedra in cathedrals built or renovated after Vatican II is sometimes placed behind the altar, as in ancient Roman basilicas. In Anglican practice, the cathedra tends to be placed to one side in the choir, although in more contemporary practice, it is placed on the gospel side of the chancel.
Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholic churches have a throne for the bishop in the apse behind the holy table, with seats for the priests arranged to either side. This location is referred to as the "high place" and represents the presence of Christ presiding over the services when the bishop is not present and therefore an icon of Christ is placed above the bishop's throne; the bishop ascends to the high place only at the Trisagion. For this reason, the consecration of a bishop takes place at the Trisagion, so that he may ascend to the high place for the first time as a bishop during the liturgy at which he is consecrated. Another throne is provided for the bishop in the nave of the church: In the Greek Orthodox Church practice, this is located along the southern wall of the church, on the kliros. In this style, it is one of the monastic choir stalls, only more elaborately carved at the top of three steps, with a canopy above it. During the divine liturgy, the deacon ascends to this throne facing west.
In the Russian Orthodox Church practice, the kafedra is a large square platfo
East Sussex is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, to the south by the English Channel. East Sussex is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful in the upland areas; the area's position on the coast has meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes; this situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.
In East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a self-administered unitary authority. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, districts: Lewes. Eastbourne and Hastings are urban areas; the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. From a geological point of view East Sussex is part of southern anticline of the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalk hills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kent by the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of, the Weald itself; the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings. The area contains significant reserves of shale oil, totalling 4.4 billion barrels of oil in the Wealden basin according to a 2014 study, which Business and Energy Minister Michael Fallon said "will bring jobs and business opportunities" and help with UK energy self-sufficiency.
Fracking in the area is required to achieve these objectives, opposed by environmental groups. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an annual average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year; this is much higher than the UK's average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year. The relief of the county reflects the geology; the chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: Cuckmere; the Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk. To the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the clays of the Weald meet the sea. Further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond, the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands; the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet: it is termed a Marilyn.
The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; the High Weald is wooded in contrast to the South Downs. Part of the Weald is the Ashdown Forest; the location of settlements in East Sussex has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, along the coastal strip. Here towns such as Bexhill-on-Sea and Hastings lie. Newhaven and Rye are ports, although the latter is of historical importance. Peacehaven and Seaford are more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham and Uckfield. Lewes, the County town of East Sussex; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of East Sussex at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
The Seven Sisters Park is part of the South Downs National Park. Beachy Head is one of the most famed local attractions, along with the flats along Normans Bay. Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam, Herstmonceux and Pevensey. Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings.
The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century, the direct ancestors of the majority of the modern British people. They comprise people from Germanic tribes who migrated to the island from continental Europe, their descendants, indigenous British groups who adopted many aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture and language; the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their initial settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including regional government of shires and hundreds. During this period, Christianity was established and there was a flowering of literature and language. Charters and law were established; the term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language, spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England and eastern Scotland between at least the mid-5th century and the mid-12th century. In scholarly use, it is more called Old English.
The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity. It developed from divergent groups in association with the people's adoption of Christianity, was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and military occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established; the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods. Behind the symbolic nature of these cultural emblems, there are strong elements of tribal and lordship ties; the elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms. Above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed, "local and extended kin groups remained...the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period." The effects persist in the 21st century as, according to a study published in March 2015, the genetic makeup of British populations today shows divisions of the tribal political units of the early Anglo-Saxon period.
Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the same meaning in all the sources. This term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish "Germanic" groups in Britain from those on the continent. Catherine Hills summarised the views of many modern scholars in her observation that attitudes towards Anglo-Saxons, hence the interpretation of their culture and history, have been "more contingent on contemporary political and religious theology as on any kind of evidence." The Old English ethnonym "Angul-Seaxan" comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum and Gildas calls Saxones. Anglo-Saxon is a term, used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more a local or tribal name such as Mierce, Gewisse, Westseaxe, or Norþanhymbre. The use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest in 1066.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders,'Saxones' who attacked the shores of Britain and Gaul in the 3rd century AD. Procopius states that Britain was settled by three races: the Angiloi and Britons; the term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in continental writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean "English" Saxons; the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people; the first use of the term Anglo-Saxon amongst the insular sources is in the titles for Athelstan: Angelsaxonum Denorumque gloriosissimus rex and rex Angulsexna and Norþhymbra imperator paganorum gubernator Brittanorumque propugnator. At other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex; the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred. King Cnut in 1021 was the first to refer to the land and not the people with this term: ealles Englalandes cyningc.
These titles express the sense that the Anglo-Saxons were a Christian people with a king anointed by God. The indigenous Common Brittonic speakers referred to Anglo-Saxons as Saxones or Saeson. Catherine Hills suggests that it is no accident, "that the English call themselves by the name sanctified by the Church, as that of a people chosen by God, whereas their enemies use the name applied to piratical raiders"; the early Anglo-Saxon period covers the history of medieval Britain that starts from the end of Roman rul