Roman Catholic Diocese of Riez

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Interior of Riez Cathedral

The former French Catholic diocese of Riez existed at least from fifth century Gaul to the French Revolution, its see was at Riez, in the modern department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence.

History[edit]

According to an unsupported tradition, the establishment of the Church in this diocese is attributed to the first century and to Eusebius of Eudochius, companion of Lazarus, who had been raised from the dead by Christ himself.[1] A certain Prosper of Reggio of Reggio in Emilia (at the beginning of the fifth century) figures in the history of Riez and was perhaps its bishop.[2]

The first certainly known bishop of Riez is Maximus (433-60), who succeeded Honoratus as Abbot of Lérins and who, in November 439, held a synod at Riez with a view to regularizing the situation of the churches of Southern Gaul, particularly the competing ambitions of the metropolitans of Embrun and Arles, the synod was presided over by Archbishop Hilary of Arles.[3]

His successor, Faustus of Riez (461-93), also Abbot of Lérins, was noted for his writings against Predestinationists; it was to him that Sidonius Apollinaris dedicated his "Carmen Eucharisticum" in gratitude for hospitality received at Riez.[4]

Robert Ceneau, the pulpit orator (1530–32), afterwards Bishop of Avranches, and Cardinal Guido Bentivoglio (1622–25), who was nuncio in France and defender of French interests at Rome, were bishops there.[5]

In 1693 the number of residents in Riez was approximately 6,000, many of whom were Protestants, they were all subjects of the temporal power of the Bishop of Riez.[6] The entire diocese contained 52 named localities, and 60 parishes (including 5 rural priories);[7] in 1751, 3,000 faithful Christians (Catholics) are reported, and the diocese contained 54 parishes.[8]

Bishops[edit]

To 1000[edit]

[Didymus (510?)][11]

1000-1300[edit]

1300-1500[edit]

Gaillard de Preissac (1318) (Gaillard de Preyssac)[45]

1500-suppression[edit]

Sede Vacante (1568–1572)[61]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Duchesne, Fastes episcopaux I, pp. 321-340. The story belongs to the eleventh century and later.
  2. ^ This was the opinion of Denis de Saint-Marthe in Gallia christiana, I (Paris 1716), pp. 388-390, based on the statement in the "Homily of Bishop Faustus" that Riez was 'widowed of its pastor' (sancto orbata pastore populi praesentis Ecclesiae) when Maximus became bishop. Vincenzo Barrali Salerna (1613). Chronologia sanctorum & aliorum virorum illustrium, ac abbatum sacrae insulae Lerinensis (in Latin). pars II. Lyon: sumptibus Petri Rigaud. p. 117.  The idea was dropped by J. Albanès in the newer edition, Gallia christiana novissima, Tome I: Aix, Apt, Fréjus Gap Riez Sisteron (Montbéliard 1899), pp. 559-562; 565-566. The idea is positively rejected by Duchesne, p. 283 note 6.
  3. ^ C. Munier, Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 61-72. Charles Joseph Hefele (1883). A History of the Councils of the Church: From the Original Documents. Vol. III. Edinburgh: Clark. pp. 157–159.  Maximus subscribes next-to-last of fourteen bishops.
  4. ^ Sidonius Apollinaris, Poems and letters,, Volume I, With an English translation, introd., and notes by W.B. Anderson (Cambridge: Harvard 1937) pp. 240-242.
  5. ^ Georges Goyau, "Digne," The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908); retrieved: 2017-06-17.
  6. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 331, note 1.
  7. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 559-560.
  8. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 355, note 1.
  9. ^ Maximus: Duchesne, I, p. 283-284, no. 1. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 565-569.
  10. ^ Faustus had succeeded Maximus as Abbot of Lerins. He was in exile from Riez from 477 to 485. Duchesne, p. 284 no. 2. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 569-573.
  11. ^ Duchesne, p. 284, note 4: "Albanès insère ici, sans la moindre raison, un évêque Didyme." Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 573.
  12. ^ Contumeliosus was already bishop in 518. He participated in the Councils of Arles (June 524), of Carpentras (November 527) and of Vaison (November 529), he was deposed by the Council of Marseille in May 533, on a charge of adultery, and sent to a monastery to do penance. On 7 April 534, Pope John II ordered Contumeliosus deposed and appointed Bishop Caesarius of Arles as an Apostolic Visitor appointed until a new bishop could be provided. Duchesne, p. 284 no. 3. Carolus De Clercq, Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 45, 49, 80, 84-87.
  13. ^ Faustus was represented at the Council of Orléans in 549 by the Deacon Claudianus. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 574-575. Duchesne, p. 284 no. 4. De Clercq, p. 160.
  14. ^ Emeterius was represented at the Council of Arles 554 by the Archdeacon Liberius and by the Deacon Claudianus. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 575. Duchesne, p. 284 no. 5. De Clercq, p. 173.
  15. ^ Claudianus: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 575-576.
  16. ^ Urbicus was present at the Council of Valence in 584, and the Council of Mâcon in 585 (not 589). Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 576-577. Duchesne, pp. 284-285 no. 7. Du Clercq, pp. 236, 249. He is mentioned by Gregory of Tours, Historia Francorum Book IX, chapter 41, ca. 589.
  17. ^ Claudius: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 577-578. Duchesne, p. 285 no. 8. Claudius was allegedly present at a synod which is said to have been held at Reims in 625, his name does appear in any acts of a council, but only in Flodoard's Historia ecclesiae Remensis. (Flodoard, Historia ecclesiae Remensis, Book II, chapter 5. Patrologiæ cursus completus. Series latina (in Latin). Tomus CXXXV. Paris: Apud Garnieri Fratres, editores et J.-P. Migne successores. 1853. p. 102. ). This synod is not dated, and its acts quoted by Flodoard, do not appear in collections of church councils and synods. Louis Duchesne has noticed that the acts quoted by Flodoard are actually borrowed from the Council of Clichy in 627. De Clercq, p. 298, remarks, "Hic ergo omittendum videtur." ('It seems this (synod) should be omitted')
  18. ^ Archinric: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 578-579. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  19. ^ Absalon: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 579. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  20. ^ Anthimius: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 579-580. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  21. ^ Riculfe: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 580-581. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  22. ^ Rostan: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 581. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  23. ^ Bernaire: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 581-582. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  24. ^ Rudolfus: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 582. Known only from an old catalogue from Riez. Omitted by Duchesne.
  25. ^ Edoldus was present at the assembly of Mantaille in 879. Jacques Sirmond (1629). Concilia antiqua Galliae (in Latin). Tomus III. Paris: Cramoisy. p. 497.  Duchesne, I, p. 285, no. 9.
  26. ^ In 936, Bishop Gerard accompanied Abbot Odo of Cluny on a visit to Rome. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 583-584.
  27. ^ Almerade was frequently involved in the business of the abbey of Cluny (1005, 1011, 1016). Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 584-585.
  28. ^ Bertrand: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 585-586.
  29. ^ Agelric: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 586.
  30. ^ Henri: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 586-587.
  31. ^ Augier: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 587-589.
  32. ^ Fulques: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 589.
  33. ^ Pierre Giraud: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 589-590.
  34. ^ Henri (II): Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 590-591.
  35. ^ Aldebert de Gaubert: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 591.
  36. ^ Garcin: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 592.
  37. ^ Imbert: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 592-593.
  38. ^ Hugues Raimond: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 593-595.
  39. ^ Rostan de Sabran: Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 595-596.
  40. ^ Fouques was elected before the end of 1240. He was a friend of Raymond Berenguier V, Count of Provence, and then of Charles d'Anjou, who became King of Naples; in 1255 he founded the abbey of Saint-Catherine de Sorp, along with a college of Canons and a hospital for the poor. He died on 27 July 1273. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 596-598. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  41. ^ Matthew was already elected and confirmed by 16 September 1273, when he received oaths of fealty from some vassals. He was still alive on 13 June 1288. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 598-599. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  42. ^ Pierre de Négrel had been a Canon of Saint-Saveur in Aix (1276), an official of the Archbishop of Aix (1281), and Precentor of the Cathedral Chapter (1286). On 1 November 1288, as Bishop-Elect he received the hommage of his vassals, he died on 5 June 1306. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 599-600. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  43. ^ Gantelmi' bulls were issued on 13 July 1306. He died on 13 March 1317. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 600-602. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  44. ^ Saumate was appointed (provided) by Pope John XXII on 14 March 1317. He was transferred to the diocese of Maguelonne on 12 November 1317, and then to Arles, he died in Arles in 1323. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 602. Eubel, I, pp. 320, 417. Moellat (ed.) Jean XXII. Lettres Communes Tome 1 (Paris 1904), p. 286, no. 3116.
  45. ^ When the diocese of Toulouse was raised to the status of an Archdiocese by Pope John XXII in 1317, he removed Gaillard, the nephew of Pope Clement V, who had been Bishop of Tours for eleven years, not wishing him to be the new archbishop. Gaillard refused the transfer to Riez, and therefore on 31 March 1318, John XIII named another bishop, Pierre des Prés. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 602-603.
  46. ^ Pierre was appointed Bishop of Riez on 31 March 1318 by Pope John XXII, and transferred to the diocese of Aix-en-Provence on 11 September 1318. He was named a cardinal in December 1320. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 603-604. Eubel, I, pp. 15 no 12; 96; 417.
  47. ^ Jean Joffrevi was a Doctor of Law (Toulouse, 1339). He was subsequently Bishop of Valence-et-Die (2 March 1352), then Luçon (May–November 1352), and then Elne (21 November 1354). Finally, on 27 February 1357, he was named Bishop of Le Puy, he was named Auditor of the Sacred Palace on 5 March 1362. Etienne Baluze (1693). Vitae Paparum Avenionensium (in Latin). Tomus primus. Paris: apud Franciscum Muguet.  Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 608-610. Eubel, I, pp. 91, 315, 417, 513.
  48. ^ The bishopric was vacant for seven months after the transfer of Jean Joffrevi. On 5 October 1352, Fabri, who held the office of Precentor in the Cathedral Chapter of Orléans, was appointed bishop of Riez by Pope Clement VI, he died in December 1369. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 610. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  49. ^ Maillac had previously been Gaurdialferia (1348–1350) and Bishop of Gubbio (1350–1370). He was named to the diocese of Riez on 27 March 1370 by Pope Urban V. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 610-612. Eubel, I, pp. 242, 269, 417.
  50. ^ Guillaume Fabri was appointed by Pope Benedict XIII (Avignon Obedience) on 22 December 1396. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  51. ^ Pierre Fabri was appointed by Pope John XXIII on 13 December 1413. Eubel, I, p. 417.
  52. ^ Only Bishop Robert's name is known. He was elected after the death of Bishop Michel Bouliers on 11 February 1450, and was already dead on 16 March 1450, when Pope Nicholas V preconised (approved) the election of Jean Fassi, he cannot have been Bishop-elect for more than a few days. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 617-618.
  53. ^ Fassi was approved on 16 March 1450. Eubel, II, p. 222.
  54. ^ Lascaris was Provost of the monastery of S. Maria de Vezolano (diocese of Vercelli), he was approved on 18 April 1463. He resigned in favor of his nephew. Eubel, II, p. 222.
  55. ^ Antonio Lascaris was seventeen years of age when his uncle, Bishop Barc Lascaris, arrranged to resign the diocese of Riez in favor of his son. The arrangement was approved by Pope Clement VIII on 4 June 1490, though Antoine remained Bishop-elect for more than ten years, and the diocese continued to be administered by his uncle as Vicar General in Spiritualities and Temporalities. Antoine Lascaris was transferred to the diocese of Beauvais on 12 January 1523, and to the diocese of Limoges on 10 January 1530, he was transferred back to Riez on 17 April 1532. He died on 25 July 1546. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 621-622. Eubel, II, p. 222; III, pp. 131, 222, 284.
  56. ^ Thomas Lascaris had been Provost of Riez. He was the illegitimate brother of Bishop Antoine Lascaris, though King Francis I obtained a dispensation super defectu natalis for him, he was appointed to the bishopric on 12 January 1523, at the age of fifty-seven, succeeding his brother, who was appointed Bishop of Beauvais. He died on 10 April 1526. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 622-623. Eubel, III, p. 284.
  57. ^ Numai (Cardinal of Aracoeli) was appointed bishop of Riez on 27 April 1526, in violation of the Concordat of Bologna of 1516; King Francis I of France protested, and Numai resigned on 18 March 1527. He never visited Riez, and was never installed; he never received the temporalities. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 623-625. Eubel, III, pp. 16 no. 29; 284.
  58. ^ Dinteville the Younger was a licenciate in Canon Law, a Protonotary Apostolic, and a Canon of Auxerre. He was granted his bulls at the age of twenty-eight on 18 March 1527, he was transferred to the diocese of Auxerre on 27 April 1530. He died on 27 September 1556. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 625-626. Eubel, III, pp. 125, 284.
  59. ^ Cénalis' transfer from the diocese of Vence (1522–1530) was approved by Pope Clement VII on 20 June 1530. He was transferred to the diocese of Avranches on 17 April 1532. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 626-627. Eubel, III, pp. 91, 284, 328.
  60. ^ Bouliers was the son of Louis de Bouliers, seigneur de Cental, and Mérite Trivulzio of Milan. He was twenty-three at the time of his appointment as Coadjutor to Bishop Lascaris on 20 October 1535, he died at the beginning of August 1550, without ever having been consecrated a bishop. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 628-629. Eubel, III, p. 284. J. J. M. Féraud (1997). Histoire de la ville de Riez (in French). Paris: Livre d'histoire. p. 143. ISBN 978-2-84178-120-1. 
  61. ^ Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, p. 631.
  62. ^ André d'Ormson was the son of Antoine, Vicomte de Cadenet, and Marthe de Foix. He was a professional soldier, and commanded a troop of veterans for King Henri III. Henri appointed him Bishop of Riez in order to secure a town which was already half-Huguenot, he was below the canonical age for consecration as a bishop, and, as long as Pope Pius V lived he was not granted his bulls. Finally, on 19 September 1572, Pope Gregory XIII granted him his bulls, in which he is called Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law) and sub-deacon, he was never consecrated however. In 1575 he was revealed to be a Huguenot himself, though he managed to hold on to the diocese until he handed it over to Elzéar de Rastel. D'Ormson married in 1583, he died on 24 June 1596, having repented his heresy. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 631-633. Eubel, III, p. 284.
  63. ^ Rastel was Abbot of Sénanque and Ferté-sur-Grosne. He died on 28 October 1597. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 633-634. Eubel, III, p. 284. Gauchat, IV, p. 294.
  64. ^ Saint-Sixte was the nephew of his predecessor, Bishop Elzéar de Rastel. He held the degree of Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law), he was confirmed in Consistory by Pope Clement VIII on 29 March 1599. On 28 August he received letters patent from Henri II granting him possession of the temporalities of the diocese of Riez, he was consecrated in Paris on 3 October 1599 by Cardinal Pierre de Gondi. He died on 13 April 1613, poisoned by a disgruntled servant. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 634-636. Gauchat, IV, p. 294 with note 2.
  65. ^ Aleaume was a cleric of the diocese of Paris and a Doctor in utroque iure (Civil and Canon Law). He was a councilor of the Parliament of Paris, he was nominated by King Louis XIII (actually by the Queen-Regent) to the diocese of Riez at the age of twenty-eight, and preconised (approved) by Pope Paul V on 18 May 1615. On 14 March 1622 he was named bishop of Lisieux by Pope Gregory XV, he died in Paris in August 1634 at the age of 49. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 636-637. Gauchat, IV, p. 294 with note 3.
  66. ^ Bentivoglio was Nuncio to France until named a cardinal on 11 January 1621. He received his bulls from the newly elected Pope Gregory XV on 11 July 1622, on 18 September 1622 he took his oath to King Louis XIII and received the temporalities of the diocese. He resigned the diocese on 28 April 1625 in favor of François de la Fare, the transfer was approved by Pope Urban VIII on 15 September 1625. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 637-638; and Instrumenta, pp. 429-430. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 294 with note 4.
  67. ^ D'Attichy was nominated by King Louis XIII on 5 October 1628, and approved (preconised) by Pope Urban VIII on 8 October 1629. He was transferred to the Diocese of Autun on 23 September 1652. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 639-640. Gauchat, IV, pp. 70, 294.
  68. ^ Valavoire: Jean, p. 25.
  69. ^ Desmarets was a nephew of Colbert, and brother of Vincent-François Desmarets, Bishop of St.-Mâlo. He was a doctor of the Sorbonne, and took part in the Assembly of the Clergy of 1682, he was named Bishop of Riez by King Louis XIV in 1685, but did not receive his bulls until 1693, due to the rupture in diplomatic relations between France and the Pope under Pope Innocent XI and Pope Alexander VIII. Desmarets was consecrated in Paris on 24 January 1694 by his cousin, Jacques-Nicolas Colbert, Archbishop of Rouen, he resigned the diocese of Retz on 20 September 1713, and was transferred to the diocese of Auch on 26 February 1714. He died on 27 November 1725. Jean, p. 25-26. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 642-643. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 108, 331 with note 2.
  70. ^ Balthasar Phelipeaux was Marquis de Châteauneuf, de Tansé, and de Thoré. He was Aumônier of King Louis XIV, Abbé de l'Abésie, and Abbé de Quincy. Phelipeaux was named bishop of Riez by the King on 15 August 1713, and received his bulls on 27 November 1713, he was consecrated in Paris by Cardinal de Noailles on 31 December 1713. He arrived in Riez in August 1714, he opened a collège in Riez. He died on 31 August 1751. Jean, p. 27. Albanès, Gallia christiana novissima, pp. 643-644. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 331 with note 3.
  71. ^ La Tour du Pin: Jean, p. 27. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 355 with note 2.
  72. ^ Clugny fled his diocese in 1791, eventually settling in Lausanne. He resigned his diocese in 1801 into the hands of the Bishop of Digne. Jean-Joseph-Maxime Feraud (1879). Souvenirs religieux des églises de la Haute-Provence (in French). Digne: Vial. pp. 224–225.  Jean, p. 27. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 355 with note 3.

Bibliography[edit]

Sources[edit]

Studies[edit]

Coordinates: 43°49′N 6°05′E / 43.82°N 6.09°E / 43.82; 6.09