Overijssel is a province of the Netherlands located in the eastern part of the country. The province's name translates to "across the IJssel", from the perspective of the Episcopal principality of Utrecht by which it was held until 1528; the capital city of Overijssel is Zwolle and the largest city is Enschede. The province had a population of 1,142,360 in 2015. Overijssel is bordered by Germany to the east, the Achterhoek region of Gelderland to the south, the Veluwe region of Gelderland and Flevoland to the west, Friesland and the former moors of Drenthe to the north. Overijssel comprises three regions: Kop van Overijssel in the northwest, Salland in the centre of the province, Twente in the east. Besides the capital Zwolle, other major cities are Almelo, Deventer and Hengelo. To the southeast, the province's surface is sandy, interspersed with small rivers such as the Regge and Dinkel and other brooks. In the northwest, the geology is dominated by sediments from clay; the northern parts were once covered by veen which separated the dryer and more arable south from Drenthe and which have been exploited as fuel to a large degree.
Only small patches survive today (Engbertsdijksvenen near Tubbergen and the Aamsveen. The extreme northwest is dominated by a system of lakes formed by former peat-mining and protected under the De Weerribben-Wieden National Park status, a valuable wetland; the highest point in Overijssel is the summit of the Tankenberg, a hill in the municipality of Losser, at 85 metres. The lowest point is in the Mastenbroek Polder near Kampen at 2 metres below sea level. Overijssel enjoys an oceanic climate. However, winters tend to be less mild than the rest of the Netherlands, because of its distance from the coast. Overijssel was known as Oversticht and included most of the modern-day province of Drenthe. In 1336, it was made part of Guelders, though it was ceded to the Bishopric of Utrecht in 1347; the Bishops ceded the Oversticht to the Emperor Charles V in 1528, who styled himself Lord of Overijssel, after the Latin name of Oversticht, known since 1233: Transysla or Transisalania, or Over-IJssel, i.e. the other side of the river IJssel.
The people joined with the other Dutch and rebelled against Charles' heir Philip II. Overijssel became governed by the most powerful mayors and lords in the province, including by the luitenant-governor Nicolaas Schmelzing. After a brief occupation by the forces of the Bishop of Münster, Overijssel received a new form of government which granted the stadtholders more power. Widespread resistance against the increased power throughout the provinces led to the formation of the Batavian Republic in 1795. A centralist government arose and the Netherlands was organised into a series of départements, based on those used by revolutionary France. At first organised into its own département, it was merged with Drenthe in 1798 to form Ouden IJssel, renamed Overijssel in 1801; the French annexed the Batavian Republic in 1810, Overijssel was organised into the new French département of Bouches-de-l'Yssel. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, the kingdom of the Netherlands and the former province of Overijssel were recreated.
Overijssel was occupied by Nazi Germany during World War II from May 1940 until its liberation in April 1945. The Noordoostpolder, a reclaimed territory, laid dry in 1942, was part of Overijssel from 1962 until 1986, when it became part of the newly created province of Flevoland; the King's Commissioner of Overijssel is a vacant position as previous title holder Ank Bijleveld was appointed to be Minister of defence on 26 October 2017. The King's Commissioner is the chairman of the Provincial-Executive and the States-Provincial of the province. There are three main motorways in Overijssel, the A1, A28, the A35; the A32 runs through the province, but just for a few kilometers near Steenwijk. The main railway station in Overijssel is the Zwolle railway station, located in the city of Zwolle which serves as hub between the northern provinces and the rest of The Netherlands; the main airport in Overijssel is the Enschede Airport Twente, located outside of Enschede. The airport does not offer any international flights, though it has historically.
Overisel Township, Michigan, US was named after Overijssel Tanfana Official website Participation platform of Overijssel Overijssel travel guide from Wikivoyage
County of Holland
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. The territory of the County of Holland corresponds with the current provinces of North Holland and South Holland in the Netherlands; the oldest sources refer to the not defined county as Frisia, west of the Vlie. Before 1101, sources talk about Frisian counts, but in this year Floris II, Count of Holland is mentioned as Florentius comes de Hollant. Holland is Old Dutch for holt lant "wood land," The counts of Holland kept to this single title until 1291, when Floris V, Count of Holland decided to call himself Count of Holland and Zeeland, lord of Friesland; this title was used after Holland was united with Hainault, Bavaria-Straubing, the Duchy of Burgundy. The titles lost their importance, the last count, Philip II of Spain, only mentioned them halfway through his long list of titles.
Around 800, under Charlemagne, the Frankish Empire covered much of Europe. In much of this empire, an important unit of regional administration was pagus. A comes ruled one or more gaue; because of the low volume of trade, the negative trade balance with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim states and the disappearance of currency, the economy was more-or-less reduced to barter. The king's vassals could only be rewarded with usufruct. From this, feudalism developed; the vassals, who were appointed by the king, strove for a system of inheritance. This became more and more the rule, in 877 it was legalised in the Capitulary of Quierzy. Upon the death of a king, the Frankish kingdom was divided among his heirs; this partible inheritance caused internal strife, which made centralized government problematic. The Viking raids further undermined centralized government. At the end of the reign of Emperor Louis the Pious, royal power had weakened because of the flood of 838 and infighting between the king's sons.
After Louis died in 840 his son, Emperor Lothair I, rewarded the Danish brothers Rorik and Harald with Frisia — present-day Holland — in an attempt to resist Viking attacks. When Lothair died in 855, the northern part of Middle Francia was awarded to his second son Lothair II and was called Lotharingia; the 880 Treaty of Ribemont added the Kingdom of Lotharingia to East Francia, which attempted to integrate it. However, there were no connections like those between the four German stem duchies of east Francia: Franconia, the Saxony, the Bavaria and the Swabia. Lotharingia had considerable self-determination. Although the stem duchies flocked to Duke Conrad I of Franconia, Lotharingia chose Carolingian king of West Francia Charles the Simple. In Frisia, the situation was complex. Power was in the hands of Rorik's successor, who became embroiled in the politics of the Frankish empire and was allied with the children of Lothair II. Danish rule ended in 885 with the murder of Godfrid at Herispijk, all Danes east of the coastal areas of West Frisia were killed or driven out in must have been a complex, successful conspiracy led by Henry of Franconia in which a coalition of Babenberg Franks, Hamaland Saxons and Teisterbant Frisians outsmarted Godfrid and the Danes.
The chief conspirator in the murder was count of Hamaland. One of those who profited most from the power vacuum was the Frisian Gerolf, comes Fresonum, from Westergo in the present-day province of Friesland. Gerolf, Godfrid's former envoy to the emperor, demanded lands in the Moselle valley from the emperor to provoke a war. After the elimination of a large portion of the Danish population, Gerulf controlled a large Frisian part of the county of Holland; this fait accompli was recognised when Gerolf was given lands in full ownership on 4 August 889 by the East Frankish king Arnulf of Carinthia, who needed strong warlords in the delta region to keep the Danes and other Vikings out. The lands in question included an area outside Gerulf's county, in Teisterbant, which included Tiel and Asch, it involved a forest and field between the mouth of the Old Rhine, the border between the former Frankish counties of Rijnland and Kennemerland. King Charles the Simple gave the church in Egmond and its possessions to Count Dirk I of Holland in 922 in gratitude for Dirk's support in the Battle of Soissons to suppress a rebellion of his West Frankish vassals.
The West Frankish king was able to do this because the lands and churches he granted to Dirk were outside his jurisdiction. He founded Egmond Abbey, Holland oldest monastery; when Charles the Simple was deposed in 923, King Henry the Fowler of East Francia allied with Count Gilbert of Hainaut and re-conquered Lotharingia. By 925, the Lotharingian nobles accepted Lotharingia became a fifth German stem duchy. Henry's power was limited by his vassal, whose power was limited to his own counties; the rising status of the House of Holland was shown when in 938 Count Dirk II the grandson of Count Dirk I, married at the age
The Salian Franks called the Salians, were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century. They lived at the mouth of the Rhine river in what was the Roman Empire and today Netherlands and Belgium. Like the other Franks in this period, the Salian Franks were a Germanic people living near the river Rhine, which had long been a militarized border; the Salians, unlike other Franks, first appear living inside the Roman Empire, living in the Rhine delta in the modern Netherlands. In modern works they are contrasted with their neighbours to the east, known as the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, who held the Roman city of Cologne, in modern Germany. How the Franks in these areas were politically connected or separated, how many groups there were, is unknown until the time when they all fell under the reign of Clovis I. A much author, Gregory of Tours, said that in old records he found it seemed the Franks had once had kinglets in each city they held.
Although treated as a tribe it has been argued by Matthias Springer that this might represent a misunderstanding. All of the classical mentions of them seem to derive from one mention by Ammianus Marcellinus of "Franks, those namely whom custom calls the Salii". Ammianus, who served in the Roman military, reported that the Salii were pushed from their home in Batavia, into Toxandria, by the non-Roman Chamavi; the first historian to say that the Salians had been pushed into the empire from outside was Zosimus, but his description of events seems to be confused and derived from others. The account of Zosimus, that the Salians had been pushed into the empire as a single tribe, is still accepted. In this case, their homeland may have been between the Rhine and the IJssel in the modern day Dutch region of the Veluwe and they may have given their name to the region of Salland, it has been proposed that the Salii might have been one of the peoples making up the large nation of the Chauci during the Roman empire, most of whom became Saxons.
In 358, the Salians came to some form of agreement with the Romans, which allowed them to keep settlements south of the delta in Toxandria, between the rivers Scheldt and Demer the area of the current Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, adjacent parts of the two bordering Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Belgian Limburg, the so-called "Kempen". The Merovingian kings responsible for the conquest of Gaul are thought to have had Salian ancestry, because they applied so-called Salian law in their Roman-populated territories between the Loire and Silva Carbonaria, although they clearly had connections with the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks before they conquered them; the Lex Ripuaria originated about 630 and has been described as a development of the Frankish laws known from Lex Salica. On the other hand, following the interpretation of Springer the Lex Salica may have meant something like "Common Law". Various etymologies are proposed; the ethnonym is unrelated to the name for the dancing priests of Mars, who were called Salii.
In line with theories that the Salians existed as a tribe outside the Roman empire, the name may have derived from the name of the IJssel river called Hisloa or Hisla, in ancient times, which may be the Salians' original residence. Today this area is called Salland. Alternatively, the name may derive from a proposed Germanic word *saljon meaning friend or comrade, indicating that the term implied an alliance. In that case, the name may have originated in the empire itself, or the river and/or region might be named after the inhabitants. Apart from some isolated fragments, there is no record of the Salian Frankish language but it is presumed to be ancestral to the modern family of Low Franconian dialects, which are represented today by Dutch and Flemish dialects, Afrikaans. Before the Merovingian takeover, the Salian tribes constituted a loose confederacy that only banded together, for example to negotiate with Roman authority; each tribe consisted of extended family groups centered on a renowned or noble family.
The importance of the family bond was made clear by the Salic Law, which ordained that an individual had no right to protection if not part of a family. While the Goths or the Vandals had been at least converted to Christianity since the mid-4th century, polytheistic beliefs are thought to have flourished among the Salian Franks until the conversion of Clovis to Catholicism shortly before or after 500, after which paganism diminished gradually. On the other hand it is possible many Salians in Gaul were Arian Christians, like contemporary Germanic kingdoms. Within the Roman empire, Germanic tribes had lived in the river deltas now in the Netherlands long before the names "Frank" or "Salii" appeared; the most important are known to history as the Batavi, a name based on the older name of the island they lived on, where we first find the Salians living. They were reported by Tacitus to be immigrants from the Chatti; the first mention of Franks in the area was about 286 AD, during the reign of emperor Probus, when Carausius was put in charge of defending the coasts of the Straits of Dover against Saxon and Frankish pirates.
In the time of Probus there is record of a large group who decided to hijack some Roman ships and return with them from the Black Sea – reaching the Atlantic after causing chaos through Greece and Gibraltar. It has been proposed that the
County of Flanders
The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries. From 862 onwards the Counts of Flanders were one of the original twelve peers of the Kingdom of France. For centuries their estates around the cities of Ghent and Ypres formed one of the most affluent regions in Europe. Up to 1477, the area under French suzerainty was located west of the Scheldt River and was called "Royal Flanders". Aside from this the Counts of Flanders from the 11th century on held land east of the river as a fief of the Holy Roman Empire, an area called "Imperial Flanders". Part of the Burgundian Netherlands from 1384, the county was removed from French to Imperial control after the Peace of Madrid in 1526 and the Peace of Ladies in 1529. In 1795 the remaining territory within the Austrian Netherlands was incorporated by the French First Republic and passed to the newly established United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815; the former County of Flanders, except for French Flanders, is the only part of the medieval French kingdom, not part of modern-day France.
Flanders and Flemish are derived from the Frisian *flāndra and *flāmisk, the roots of which are Germanic *flaumaz meaning "overflow, flooding". The coastal area of Flanders was flooded twice per day from the 3rd century to the 8th century by the North Sea at the time when the coast was visited by Frisian traders and largely inhabited by Frisians; the Flemish people are first mentioned in the biography of the Vita sancti Eligii. This work was written before 684, but only known since 725; this work mentions the "Flanderenses", who lived in "Flandris." The geography of the historic County of Flanders only overlaps with present-day region of Flanders in Belgium, though there it extends beyond West Flanders and East Flanders. Some of the historic county is now part of France and the Netherlands; the land covered by the county is spread out over: Belgium: two of the five Flemish provinces: West-Flanders and East-Flanders part of the Flemish province of Antwerp: the land of Bornem part of the Walloon province of Hainaut: Tournaisis and the region around Moeskroen France: French Flanders the French westcorner: the region around Dunkirk and Bailleul, an area where Flemish used to be the main language Walloon Flanders, where the Picard language related to French, was spoken.
Artois: removed from Flanders in 1191 and created as independent county in 1237 Netherlands: Zeelandic Flanders, a region between Belgium and the Western Scheldt in the southern part of the modern province of Zeeland, which from 1581 formed part of the Generality Lands under control of the Dutch Republic. The arms of the County of Flanders were created by Philip of Alsace, count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. In the story about the Battle of the Golden Spurs, the arms and its corresponding battlecry Vlaendr'n den leeuw plays a crucial role in the forming of a Flemish consciousness, popularised in recent times by the book De Leeuw van Vlaanderen by Hendrik Conscience; as a result, the arms of the county live on as arms of the Flemish Community. It is said that Philip of Alsace brought the lion flag with him from the Holy Land, where in 1177 he conquered it from a Saracen knight, but this is a myth; the simple fact that the lion appeared on his personal seal since 1163, when he had not yet set one step in the Levant, disproves it.
In reality Philip was following a West-European trend. In the same period lions appeared in the arms of Brabant, Holland and other territories, it is curious that the lion as a heraldic symbol was used in border territories and neighbouring countries of the Holy Roman Empire. It was in all likelihood a way of showing independence from the emperor, who used an eagle in his personal arms. In Europe the lion had been a well-known figure since Roman times, through works such as the fables of Aesop; the future county of Flanders had been inhabited since prehistory. During the Iron Age the Kemmelberg formed an important Celtic settlement. During the times of Julius Caesar, the inhabitants were part of the Belgae, a collective name for all Celtic and Germanic tribes in the north of Gallia. For Flanders in specific these were the Morini, the Nervii and the Atrebates. Julius Caesar conquered the area around 54 BC and the population was romanised from the 1st to the 3rd century; the Roman road that connected Cologne with Boulogne-sur-Mer was used as a defense perimeter.
In the south the Gallo-Romanic population was able to maintain itself, while the north became a no-mans land that suffered from regular floods from the North Sea. In the coastal and Scheldt areas Saxon tribes appeared. For the Romans, Saxon was a general term, included Angles, Saxons and Erules; the coastal defense around Boulogne and Oudenburg, the Litus Saxonicum, remained functional until about 420. These forts were manned by Saxon soldiers. From their base land Toxandria the Salian Franks further expanded into the Roman empire; the first incursion into the lands of the Atrebates was turned away in 448 at Vicus Helena. But after the murder of the Roman general Flavius Aëtius in 454 and Roman emperor Valentinianus III in 455, the Salic Franks encounterd hardly any resistance. From Duisburg, king Chlodio conquered Cambrai and Tournai, he reached the Somme. After his death two Salic kingdoms
The Investiture Controversy or Investiture Contest was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to appoint local church officials through investiture. By undercutting imperial power, the controversy led to nearly 50 years of civil war in Germany. According to historian Norman Cantor, the investiture controversy was "the turning-point in medieval civilization", marking the end of the Early Middle Ages with the Germanic peoples' "final and decisive" acceptance of Christianity. More it set the stage for the religious and political system of the High Middle Ages, it began as a power struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in 1076. There was a brief but significant investiture struggle between Pope Paschal II and King Henry I of England from 1103 to 1107; the conflict ended in 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed on the Concordat of Worms, which differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops.
The outcome was a papal victory, but the Emperor still retained considerable power. In the 11th and 12th centuries, a series of popes challenged the authority of European monarchies about who had the authority to appoint local church officials such as bishops of cities and abbots of monasteries. After the decline of the Western Roman Empire, investiture was performed by members of the ruling nobility despite theoretically being a task of the church. Many bishops and abbots were themselves part of the ruling nobility. Given that most members of the European nobility practiced primogeniture, willed their titles of nobility to the eldest surviving male heir, surplus male siblings sought careers in the upper levels of the church hierarchy; this was true where the family may have established a proprietary church or abbey on their estate. Since Otto the Great the bishops had been princes of the empire, had secured many privileges, had become to a great extent feudal lords over great districts of the imperial territory.
The control of these great units of economic and military power was for the king a question of primary importance due to its effect on imperial authority. It was essential for a nobleman to appoint someone who would remain loyal. Since a substantial amount of wealth and land was associated with the office of a bishop or abbot, the sale of church offices—a practice known as "simony"—was an important source of income for leaders among the nobility, who themselves owned the land and by charity allowed the building of churches; the crisis began when supporters of the Gregorian Reform decided to rebel against simony by forcefully taking the power of investiture from the ruling secular power, the Holy Roman Emperor, placing that power wholly within control of the church. The Gregorian reformers knew this would not be possible so long as the emperor maintained the ability to appoint the pope, so their first step was to forcibly gain the papacy from the control of the emperor; when Emperor Henry IV became a six-year-old German king in 1056, the reformers seized the papacy while the king was still a child.
In 1059, a church council in Rome declared, with In Nomine Domini, that leaders of the nobility would have no part in the selection of popes and created the College of Cardinals as a body of electors made up of church officials. Having regained control of the election of the pope, the church was now ready to tackle investiture and simony. In 1075, Pope Gregory VII composed the Dictatus Papae. One clause asserted, it declared that the Roman church was founded by God alone – that the papal power was the sole universal power. By this time, Henry IV was no longer a child, he continued to appoint his own bishops, he reacted to this declaration by sending Gregory VII a letter in which he withdrew his imperial support of Gregory as pope in no uncertain terms: the letter was headed "Henry, king not through usurpation but through the holy ordination of God, to Hildebrand, at present not pope but false monk". It called for the election of a new pope, his letter ends, "I, king by the grace of God, with all of my Bishops, say to you, come down, come down!", is quoted with "and to be damned throughout the ages", a addition.
The situation was made more dire when Henry IV installed his chaplain, Tedald, a Milanese priest, as Bishop of Milan, when another priest of Milan, had been chosen in Rome by the pope for candidacy. In 1076 Gregory responded by excommunicating Henry, deposed him as German king, releasing all Christians from their oath of allegiance. Enforcing these declarations was a different matter, but the advantage came to be on the side of Gregory VII. German princes and the aristocracy were happy to hear of the king's deposition, they used religious reasons to continue the rebellion started at the First Battle of Langensalza in 1075, for seizure of royal holdings. Aristocrats claimed local lordships over peasants and property, built forts, outlawed, built up localized fiefdoms to secure their autonomy from the empire. Thus, because of these combining factors, Henry IV had no choice but to back down, needing time to marshal his forces to fight the rebellion. In 1077, he traveled to Canossa in northern Italy to apologize in person.
As penance for his sins, echoing his own punishment of the Saxons after the First Battle of Langensalza, he wore a hair sh
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Middle Francia was a short-lived Frankish kingdom, created in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun after an intermittent civil war between the grandsons of Charlemagne resulted in division of the united empire. Middle Francia was allocated to emperor Lothair I, the eldest son and successor of emperor Louis the Pious, his realm contained the imperial cities of Aachen, the residence of Charlemagne, as well as Pavia but lacked any geographic or ethnic cohesion which prevented it from surviving and forming a nucleus of a larger state, as was the case with West Francia and East Francia. Middle Francia was situated between the realms of East and West Francia, comprised the Frankish territory between the rivers Rhine and Scheldt, the Frisian coast of the North Sea, the former Kingdom of Burgundy and Provence, as well as parts of northern Italy. Following the 855 partition, Middle Francia became only a geographic term and the bulk of its territory was reorganized as Lotharingia, named after Lothair I's namesake son.
In 855, on his deathbed at Prüm Abbey, Emperor Lothair I with the Treaty of Prüm divided Middle Francia among his three sons. The lands in northern Italy, which extended as far south as Rome and Spoleto, were left to the eldest son Louis II the Younger, crowned co-Emperor in 850 and sole Emperor from 855; this became the Kingdom of Italy. Most of the lands north of the Alps, comprising the Low Countries, the western Rhineland, the lands today on the border between France and Germany, what is now western Switzerland, passed to Lothair II and were called Lotharingia, after its ruler. Charles received Kingdom of Burgundy and Provence, which became the Kingdom of Arles, after Charles' capital. Charles died early and without sons in 863. According to Frankish custom, his brothers Louis II and Lothair II divided his realm. Lothair II received the western Lower Burgundian parts which were bordering his western Upper Burgundy which were incorporated into Lotharingia; when Lothair II died in 869, his only son Hugh by his mistress Waldrada, was declared illegitimate, so his only legal heir was his brother, Louis II.
If Louis II had inherited Lotharingia, Middle Francia would have been reunited. However, as Louis II was at that time campaigning against the Emirate of Bari, Lotharingia was partitioned between his uncles Charles the Bald and Louis the German by the Treaty of Meerssen in 870. Louis the German took Upper Burgundy, territory north of the Jura mountains, while the rest went to Charles the Bald. In 875 the last of Lothair I's children Louis II died without sons and named as his successor in Italy his cousin Carloman of Bavaria, eldest son of Louis the German. However, Pope John VIII, dealing with the constant threat of raiders from the Emirate of Sicily, sided with Charles the Bald. After much confusion and conflict, Charles the Bald took Louis' realm in Italy. Carloman was crowned King of Bavaria in 876 and invaded Italy in 877 to claim the Kingdom of Italy, but on his death in 880 without any legitimate heirs, his kingdom went to his younger brother, King Charles the Fat. Charles was crowned Emperor by Pope John VIII in 881 and thus he reunited the entire Carolingian Empire in 884, although it lasted only until Charles' overthrow in 887.
John M. Riddle: A History of the Middle Ages: 300–1500. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008. ISBN 978-0742554092. Timothy Reuter: The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 3: c. 900–c. 1024. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. ISBN 9780521364478. Engreen, Fred E.. "Pope John the Eighth and the Arabs". Speculum. 20: 318–30. Doi:10.2307/2854614