Duchy of Bar
The County of Bar was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire encompassing the pays de Barrois and centred on the city of Bar-le-Duc. It was held by the House of Montbéliard from the 11th century. Part of the county, the so-called Barrois mouvant, became a fief of the Kingdom of France in 1301 and was elevated to the Duchy of Bar in 1354; the Barrois non-mouvant remained a part of the Empire. From 1480, it was united to the imperial Duchy of Lorraine. Both imperial Bar and Lorraine were ceded to France in 1735, which ceded Bar to the deposed king of Poland, Stanislaus Leszczynski. According to the Treaty of Vienna, the duchy would pass to the French crown upon Stanislaus' death, which occurred in 1766; the county of Bar originated in the frontier fortress of Bar that Duke Frederick I of Upper Lorraine built on the bank of the river Ornain around 960. The fortress was directed at the counts of Champagne, who had made incursions into Frederick's allodial lands. Frederick confiscated some lands from the nearby Abbey of Saint-Mihiel and settled his knights on it.
The original Barrois was thus a mixture of the duke's allodial lands and confiscated church lands enfeoffed to knights. On the death of Duke Frederick III in 1033, these lands passed to his sister, the first person to associate the comital title with Bar, styling herself "Countess of Bar". Sophia's descendants, of the House of Montbéliard, expanded Bar "by usurpation, conquest and marriage" into a de facto autonomous state perched between France and Germany, its population was francophone and culturally French, the counts were involved in French politics. Count Reginald II married a sister of the queen of France, Adele, his son, Henry I, died on the Third Crusade in 1190. From 1214 to 1291 Bar was ruled by Henry II and Theobald II, who secured the western frontier with Champagne by granting fiefs to French nobles and buying their homage. In 1297 King Philip IV of France invaded the Barrois because Count Henry III had given aid to his father-in-law, Edward I of England, when the latter intervened against France in the Franco-Flemish War.
In the Treaty of Bruges of 1301 Henry was forced to recognise all of his county west of the river Meuse as a fief of France. This was the origin of the Barrois mouvant: a territory, turned into a fief was said to have "moved" and entered the mouvance of its suzerain, it was subject to the Parliament of Paris. The Treaty of Bruges did not represent any expansion of French territory; the territory to the west of the Meuse was French since the Treaty of Verdun of 843, but in 1301 it became a direct fief of the crown, including its allodial parts. In 1354 the Count of Bar was thereafter recognised as a Peer of France. Père Anselme believed that Count Robert had been created a duke by King John II of France in preparation for the count's marriage to John's daughter, Mary; the rulers of Bar were not created dukes by imperial appointment. The only title Count Robert received by imperial grant in 1354 was that of Margrave of Pont-à-Mousson; this margraviate was bestowed by the Dukes of Bar on their heirs apparent.
In that same year the emperor raised the County of Luxembourg into a duchy and Bar fell between two duchies and Upper Lorraine. The ducal title was accepted by the emperors and the imperial tax register of 1532 records the "Duchy on the Meuse" as a voting member of the Reichstag. In 1430 the last duke of the male line of the ruling house, died. Bar passed to his great-nephew, René I, married to Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine. In 1431 the couple inherited Lorraine. On René's death in 1480, Bar passed to his daughter Yolanda and her son, René II, Duke of Lorraine. In 1482 he conquered the prévôté of Virton, a part of the Duchy of Luxembourg, annexed it to Bar. In 1484 Peter II, Duke of Bourbon, regent for King Charles VIII of France, formally installed him in the Duchy of Bar. In his final testament published in 1506, René decreed that the two duchies of Bar and Lorraine should never be separated; the two duchies remained joined in personal union permanently. On 2 October 1735 the preliminary Treaty of Vienna between France and the Empire ending the War of the Polish Succession granted Bar and Lorraine to the deposed king of Poland, Stanislaus Leszczynski.
It was agreed that he should receive Bar but for Lorraine he had to wait until the death of Grand Duke Gian Gastone of Tuscany, so that the deposed duke of Lorraine could inherit Tuscany. In January 1736, Stanislaus formally renounced his claim to the Polish throne. In August and the Empire finalized their agreement concerning the exchange of territories; the emperor renounced his suzerainty over Lorraine. On 30 September 1736, Stanislaus signed a convention, known as the Declaration of Meudon, whereby the French king would appoint the governor of Lorraine. On 8 February 1737, Stanislaus took possession on 21 March of Lorraine. On 18 November 1738, the final Treaty of Vienna was signed. Stanislaus turned over the incomes from Bar and Lorraine to the French crown in exchange for a generous pension, which he used to fund construction projects in the duchies. On his death on 23 February 1766 the duchies passed to the royal domain of France as per the treaty. All the dates are regnal dates. All rulers before Sophia ruled Bar, but did not use the title "Count of Bar".
House of ArdennesFrederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine Theodoric I, Duke of Upper Lorraine Frederick II, Duke of Upper Lorraine Frederick III, Duke of Upper Lorraine
Paulus of Verdun
Saint Paulus of Verdun was a bishop of Verdun in the Lorraine region of France from 630 until his death in 647 or 648. Paulus was the son of a wealthy family – his name suggests that he was part of the old Gallo-Roman aristocracy. According to St Augustine Abbey's Book of Saints, Paulus is said to have been the brother of Saint Germanus of Paris, he became a hermit and spent time on Paulsberg across the Moselle from Trier, in the Vosges mountains. He joined the monastery at Tholey in what is now Saarland. There he is said to have become the second abbot, his tenure as abbot continued from 626 to 643/647. He was named the bishop of Verdun about 630 by King Dagobert I. According to his biography he was made bishop against his will due to the influence of one of his students, Adalgisel Grimo, he found the diocese in a poor financial state and was aided by gifts from Adalgisel and the Frankish King of Austrasia. After his death Paulus was buried in the church of St. Saturninus in Verdun, which he had built and, renamed St. Paul's after him.
Paulus's remains were translated to a new monastery, founded by Bishop Viefrid from 970-973 and was dedicated to him. The Abbey of Saint-Paul de Verdun was occupied by Benedictines, but in 1135 by Premonstratensians, was destroyed in 1552, his feast day is February 8 in the Roman Orthodox Churches. According to a legend related by Bertarius of Verdun, one day Paulus was working in the bakery in the Abbey of Tholey when the oven malfunctioned, he feared that the bread would not be ready in time for meals, so he climbed into the burning oven in full habit, cleaned it with his hood, arranged the loaves to be baked, emerged from the oven with the baked loaves. Because of this legend, Paulus became the patron saint of bakers and pastry chefs of Verdun. On his feast day the "bread of Saint Paul" was distributed annually on the streets of Verdun; the Roman Martyrology states. The Abbey of Saint-Paul de Verdun, founded by Bishop Viefrid from 970-973 was dedicated to him. In addition, the "Paul-Cross" was erected in stone a few kilometers from Verdun, at a place called "Le Rozelier".
The bishop represented there was recognizable as Saint Paulus from the bread rolls that he is holding. The plaque on this monuments reads: "Les moines de Tholey emportèrent dans leur abbaye sarroise le corps de saint Paul, évêque de Verdun, ancien moine de Tholey, afin de le soustraire à l'invasion normande. Ici ils furent arrêtés par une force mystérieuse. Une croix fut élevée en ce lieu, dit dès lors Pale Croix ou Paul Croix. L'abbaye Saint-Vanne de Verdun y établit un prieuré au xiie siècle. La croix actuelle et l'autel, qui renferme une relique de saint Paul, ont été bénis par Mgr Petit, évêque de Verdun, le 14 août 1963." He is depicted on a stained glass window in Saint Martin's Church in Les Éparges, a commune in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France. The church was built in 1852, destroyed during the First World War, rebuilt again in 1929. Upon entering the church, the venerable Saint is seen depicted on the third window in the nave, on the right side, holding three bread rolls placed on top of the Gospel
Charles de Lorraine de Vaudémont
Charles de Lorraine de Vaudémont was a French Roman Catholic cardinal. Charles de Lorraine de Vaudémont was born in Nomeny on 20 April 1561, the son of Nicolas, Duke of Mercœur and his wife Margaret of Egmont, he was the younger brother of Louise of Lorraine and the uncle of Cardinal Charles de Lorraine-Vaudémont. He studied Christian theology at the Jesuit University of Pont-à-Mousson; when his sister married Henry III of France on 13 February 1575, he was called to court, but soon returned to Pont-à-Mousson to resume his studies. He was the commendatory abbot of Moissac Abbey from 1571 to 1580. Pope Gregory XIII made him a cardinal deacon in the consistory of 21 February 1578. On 9 March 1580 he became administrator of the Diocese of Toul, with the understanding that he would become its bishop upon reaching the canonical age of 27, he administered the diocese until his death at age 26. In 1583, he became a Commander of the Order of the Holy Spirit, he was elected Bishop of Verdun on 7 January 1585.
He did not participate in the papal conclave of 1585 that elected Pope Sixtus V. Following the papal conclave, on 24 June 1585, he received the red hat and the deaconry of Santa Maria in Domnica. On 25 November 1586 he was ordained as a priest in Verdun Cathedral, he opted for the order of cardinal priests on 20 April 1587, taking the titular church of Trinità dei Monti. He died, he died in Paris on 30 October 1587. He was buried in the Franciscan monastery in Nancy, France
Early modern France
The Kingdom of France in the early modern period, from the Renaissance to the Revolution, was a monarchy ruled by the House of Bourbon. This corresponds to the so-called Ancien Régime; the territory of France during this period increased until it included the extent of the modern country, it included the territories of the first French colonial empire overseas. The period is dominated by the figure of the "Sun King", Louis XIV, who managed to eliminate the remnants of medieval feudalism and established a centralized state under an absolute monarch, a system that would endure until the French Revolution and beyond. In the mid 15th century, France was smaller than it is today, numerous border provinces were autonomous or foreign-held. In addition, certain provinces within France were ostensibly personal fiefdoms of noble families; the late 15th, 16th and 17th centuries would see France undergo a massive territorial expansion and an attempt to better integrate its provinces into an administrative whole.
During this period, France expanded to nearly its modern territorial extent through the acquisition of Picardy, Anjou, Provence, Franche-Comté, French Flanders, Roussillon, the Duchy of Lorraine and Corsica. French acquisitions from 1461–1789: under Louis XI – Provence, Dauphiné under Henry II – Calais, Trois-Évêchés under Henry IV – County of Foix under Louis XIII – Béarn and Navarre under Louis XIV Treaty of Westphalia – Alsace Treaty of the Pyrenees – Artois, Northern Catalonia Treaty of Nijmegen – Franche-Comté, Flanders under Louis XV – Lorraine, Corsica Only the Duchy of Savoy, the city of Nice and some other small papal and foreign possessions would be acquired later.. France embarked on exploration and mercantile exchanges with the Americas, the Indian Ocean, the Far East, a few African trading posts. Although Paris was the capital of France, the Valois kings abandoned the city as their primary residence, preferring instead various châteaux of the Loire Valley and Parisian countryside.
Henry IV made Paris his primary residence, but Louis XIV once again withdrew from the city in the last decades of his reign and Versailles became the primary seat of the French monarchy for much of the following century. The administrative and legal system in France in this period is called the Ancien Régime; the Black Death had killed an estimated one-third of the population of France from its appearance in 1348. The concurrent Hundred Years' War slowed recovery, it would be the early 16th century. With an estimated population of 11 million in 1400, 20 million in the 17th century, 28 million in 1789, until 1795 France was the most populated country in Europe and the third most populous country in the world, behind only China and India; these demographic changes led to a massive increase in urban populations, although on the whole France remained a profoundly rural country. Paris was one of the most populated cities in Europe. Other major French cities include Lyon, Bordeaux and Marseille; these centuries saw several periods of epidemics and crop failures due to climatic change.
Between 1693 and 1694, France lost 6% of its population. In the harsh winter of 1709, France lost 3.5% of its population. In the past 300 years, no period has been so proportionally deadly for the French, both World Wars included. Linguistically, the differences in France were extreme. Before the Renaissance, the language spoken in the north of France was a collection of different dialects called Oïl languages whereas the written and administrative language remained Latin. By the 16th century, there had developed a standardised form of French which would be the basis of the standardised "modern" French of the 17th and 18th century which in turn became the lingua franca of the European continent. In 1790, only half of the population spoke or understood standard French; the southern half of the country continued to speak Occitan languages, other inhabitants spoke Breton, Basque and Franco-Provençal. In the north of France, regional dialects of the various langues d'oïl continued to be spoken in rural communities.
During the French revolution, the teaching of French was promoted in all the schools. Th
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet. Rulers of these Estates were able to exercise significant rights and privileges and were "immediate", meaning that the only authority above them was the Holy Roman Emperor, they were thus able to rule their territories with a considerable degree of autonomy. The system of imperial states replaced the more regular division of Germany into stem duchies in the early medieval period; the old Carolingian stem duchies were retained as the major divisions of Germany under the Salian dynasty, but they became obsolete during the early high medieval period under the Hohenstaufen, they were abolished in 1180 by Frederick Barbarossa in favour of more numerous territorial divisions. From 1489, the imperial Estates represented in the Diet were divided into three chambers, the college of prince-electors, the college of imperial princes and the college of imperial cities.
Counts and nobles were not directly represented in the Diet in spite of their immediate status, but were grouped into "benches" with a single vote each. Imperial Knights were not represented in the Diet. Imperial Estates could be either secular; the ecclesiastical Estates were led by: the three clerical Prince-electors: the Archbishops of Cologne and Trier. The secular Estates, most notably: the four Prince-Electors of the County Palatine of the Rhine, Saxony and Bohemia also Bavaria and Hanover. Imperial Princes including Grand Dukes, Counts Palatine and Landgraves; until 1582 the votes of the Free and Imperial Cities were only advisory. None of the rulers below the Holy Roman Emperor ranked as kings, with the exception of the Kings of Bohemia; the status of Estate was attached to a particular territory within the Empire, but there were some reichsständische Personalisten, or "persons with imperial statehood". The Emperor alone could grant that status, but in 1653, several restrictions on the Emperor's power were introduced.
The creation of a new Estate required the assent of the College of Electors and of the College of Princes. The ruler was required to agree to accept military obligations. Furthermore, the Estate was required to obtain admittance into one of the Imperial Circles. Theoretically, personalist Estates were forbidden after 1653, but exceptions were made. Once a territory attained the status of an Estate, it could lose that status under few circumstances. A territory ceded to a foreign power ceased to be an Estate. From 1648 onwards, inheritance of the Estate was limited to one family. A territory could cease to be an imperial Estate by being subjected to the Imperial ban. In the German mediatization between 1803 and 1806, the vast majority of the Estates of the Holy Roman Empire were mediatised, they became part of other Estates. The number of Estates was reduced from about three hundred to about thirty. Mediatisation went along with secularisation: the abolition of most of the ecclesiastical Estates; this dissolution of the constitution of the structure of the empire was soon followed by the dissolution of the empire itself, in 1806.
Rulers of Imperial States enjoyed precedence over other subjects in the Empire. Electors were styled Durchlaucht, princes Hochgeboren and counts Hoch- und Wohlgeboren. In the eighteenth century, the electors were upgraded to Durchläuchtigste, princes to Durchlaucht and counts to Erlaucht. Imperial States enjoyed several privileges. Rulers had autonomy inasmuch, they were permitted to make treaties and enter into alliances with other Imperial States as well as with foreign nations. The electors, but not the other rulers, were permitted to exercise certain regalian powers, including the power to mint money, the power to collect tolls and a monopoly over gold and silver mines. From 1489 onwards, the Imperial Diet was divided into three collegia: the Council of Electors, the Council of Princes and the Council of Cities. Electoral states belonged to the first of the aforementioned councils. Votes were held in right of the states, rather than personally. An individual ruling several states held multiple votes.
These rules were not formalized until 1582. Votes were either individual or collective. Princes and senior clerics held individual votes. Prelates without individual vo
Italian War of 1551–1559
The Italian War of 1551–1559, sometimes known as the Habsburg–Valois War and the Last Italian War, began when Henry II of France, who had succeeded Francis I to the throne, declared war against Holy Roman Emperor Charles V with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. The war was the last of a series of wars between the same parties since 1521. Historians have emphasized the importance of gunpowder technology, new styles of fortification to resist cannon fire, the increased professionalization of the soldiers. Henry II sealed a treaty with Suleiman the Magnificent in order to cooperate against the Habsburgs in the Mediterranean; this was triggered by the conquest of Mahdiya by the Genoese Admiral Andrea Doria on 8 September 1550, for the account of Charles V. The alliance allowed Henry II to push for French conquests towards the Rhine, while a Franco-Ottoman fleet defended southern France; the 1551 Ottoman Siege of Tripoli was the first step of the all-out Italian War of 1551–59 in the European theater, in the Mediterranean the French galleys of Marseille were ordered to join the Ottoman fleet.
In 1552, when Henry II attacked Charles V, the Ottomans sent 100 galleys to the Western Mediterranean, which were accompanied by three French galleys under Gabriel de Luetz d'Aramon in their raids along the coast of Calabria in Southern Italy, capturing the city of Reggio. In the Battle of Ponza in front of the island of Ponza, the fleet met with 40 galleys of Andrea Doria, managed to vanquish the Genoese and capture seven galleys; this alliance would lead to the combined Invasion of Corsica in 1553. The Ottomans continued harassing the Habsburg with various operations in the Mediterranean, such as the Ottoman invasion of the Balearic islands in 1558, following a request by Henry II. On the Continental front, Henry II allied with German Protestant princes at the Treaty of Chambord in 1552. An early offensive into Lorraine was successful, with Henry capturing the three episcopal cities of Metz and Verdun, securing them by defeating the invading Habsburg army at the Battle of Renty in 1554. However, the French invasion of Tuscany in 1553, in support of Siena attacked by an imperial‐Tuscany army, was defeated at the Battle of Marciano by Gian Giacomo Medici in 1554.
Siena fell in 1555 and became part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany founded by Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. The Treaty of Vaucelles was signed on 5 February 1556 between Philip II of Spain and Henry II of France. Based on the terms of the treaty, the territory of the Franche-Comté was relinquished to Philip. However, the treaty was broken shortly afterwards. After Charles' abdication in 1556 split the Habsburg empire between Philip II of Spain and Ferdinand I, the focus of the war shifted to Flanders, where Philip, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy, defeated the French at St. Quentin. England's entry into the war that year led to the French capture of Calais, French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Nonetheless, Henry was forced to accept a peace agreement in which he renounced any further claims to Italy; the wars ended for other reasons, including the Double Default of 1557, when the Spanish Empire, followed by the French, defaulted on its debts.
In addition, Henry had to confront a growing Protestant movement at home. Oman argues that the inconclusive campaigns which lack a decisive engagement were due to an effective leadership and lack of offensive spirit, he notes that mercenary troops were used too and proved unreliable. Hale emphasizes the defensive strength of fortifications newly designed at angles to dissipate cannon fire. Cavalry, which had traditionally used shock tactics to overawe the infantry abandoned them and relied on pistol attacks by successive ranks of attackers. Hale notes the use of old-fashioned mass formations. Overall, Hale emphasizes new levels of tactical proficiency. In 1552 Charles V had borrowed over 4 million ducats, with the Metz campaign alone costing 2.5 million ducats. Shipments of treasure from the Indies totalled over two million ducats between 1552 and 1553. By 1554, the cash deficit for the year was calculated to be over 4.3 million ducats after all tax receipts for the six ensuing years had been pledged and the proceeds spent in advance.
Credit at this point began costing the crown 43 percent interest. By 1557 the crown was refusing payment from the Indies since this was required for payment of the war effort. French finances during the war were financed by the increase in the taille tax, as well as indirect taxes like the gabelle and customs fees; the French monarchy resorted to heavy borrowings during the war from financiers at rates of 10–16 percent interest. The taille was estimated in collection for 1551 at around six million livres. During the 1550s, Spain had an estimated military manpower of around 150,000 soldiers, whereas France had an estimated manpower of 50,000; the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed between Henry II of France and Philip II of Spain on 3 April 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometers south-east of Cambrai. Under its terms, France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the Duke of Savoy, Corsica to the Republic of Genoa, but retained Saluzzo and the Three Bishoprics: Metz and Verdun. Spain retained Franche-Comté, more the treaty confirmed its direct control of Milan, Sicily and the State of Presidi in Italy.
The Duchy of Florence and the Republic of Venice prese