Märkisches Museum (Berlin U-Bahn)
Märkisches Museum is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 2 in the Mitte district. Since 1935 it has been named after the nearby Märkisches Museum, the municipal museum of the history of Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg; the station called Inselbrücke, opened on 1 July 1913 in the course of the eastern continuation of Berlin's second U-Bahn line from Spittelmarkt to Alexanderplatz. Architect Alfred Grenander designed a vaulted hall deep beneath street level due to the adjacent Spree underpass leading to Klosterstrasse, it was renamed in 1935 to Märkisches Museum. There was a slight damage to the ceiling on 24 May 1944, it is one of only 2 Berlin U-Bahn stations with no central columns, the other being Platz der Luftbrücke. In 1987 and 1988, as part of events for the 750th anniversary of Berlin, the GDR government commissioned decorations for the station with the theme of "the history of Berlin". Artist Jo Doese constructed twelve mosaics depicting maps of the city of Berlin, from its beginnings as the twin towns of Berlin and Cölln in 1237 through to the modern city in 1987, with each mosaic being constructed from building materials that would have been used in the city at the time.
There are two copies of each of six maps on opposite walls of one set near each track. In between the maps are reliefs by artists Karl-Heinz Schäfer and Ulrich Jörke, each in a style appropriate to the time period of the adjacent map. Märkisches Museum is operated by the provider of most of Berlin's rapid transit. Situated on the U 2 line, trains from Märkisches Museum serve Pankow to the north, stopping at significant destinations such as Alexanderplatz, Ruhleben to the west, stopping at Potsdamer Platz, Kurfürstendamm and the Olympic Stadium
Spandau is a locality of Berlin in the homonymous borough of Spandau. The historic city is situated, on the western banks of the Havel river; as of 2008 the estimated population of Spandau was 33,433. The locality is situated in the middle of its borough, it borders Wilhelmstadt in the south and Falkenhagener Feld in the west, Hakenfelde in the north as well as Haselhorst and Westend in the east. Spandau proper is subdivided into four historic neighbourhoods: Altstadt Spandau Neustadt Spandau Stresow Kolk-Spandau The city was founded at the confluence of the rivers Spree and Havel; the settlement of the area can be traced back to the 6th century when the eastern territories of the Elbe river were populated by several Slavic tribes. The history of Spandau begins in the 7th or 8th century, when the Slav Hevelli settled in the area and built a fortress there, it was conquered in 928 by the German King Henry I, but returned to Slavic rule after the rebellion of 983. In 1156, the Ascanian count Albert the Bear took possession of the region and is believed to have established a fortress here, from which the name Spandau originated.
It was around this fortress that the city of Spandow developed, becoming the centre of the entire region. It was first mentioned as Spandowe in 1197 in a deed of Otto II, Margrave of Brandenburg – 40 years earlier than the Cölln part of medieval Berlin. Spandau was given city rights in 1232. During the Ascanian Rule the construction of the Spandau Citadel began, completed between 1559 and 1594 by Joachim II of Brandenburg. In 1558 the village of Gatow became part of Spandau. During the Thirty Years' War Spandau was surrendered to the Swedes in 1634. In 1806, after the Battle of Jena and Auerstedt, French troops under Napoleon took possession of the city and stayed there until 1807. In 1812, Napoleon returned and the Spandau Citadel was besieged in 1813 by Prussian and Russian troops; the poet and revolutionary Gottfried Kinkel was an inmate of the Spandau town prison from 1849, until he was freed by his friend Carl Schurz on the night of November 6, 1850. Before World War I, Spandau was a seat of large, cannon foundries, factories for making gunpowder, other munitions of war making, it a centre of the arms industry in the German Empire.
It was a garrison town with numerous barracks, home of the 5th Guards Infantry Brigade and the 5th Foot Guards of the German Army. In 1920, the independent city of Spandau was incorporated into Greater Berlin as a borough. After World War II until 1990, when Berlin was divided into four sections administered by the victorious Allies, Spandau was part of the British Occupation Sector in West Berlin; the Spandau Prison, built in 1876, was used to house Nazi war criminals who were sentenced to imprisonment at the Nuremberg Trials. After the death of its last inmate, Rudolf Hess in 1987, Spandau Prison was demolished by the Allied powers and replaced by a shopping mall. Spandau Citadel, a Renaissance fortress built in the 16th century St. Nikolai, a late Gothic hall church of the 14th century, where Elector Joachim II Hector on November 1, 1539 attended a Lutheran service for the first time; this date is regarded as the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in the Margraviate of Brandenburg. The Baroque spire was attached in 1744 and refurbished by Karl Friedrich Schinkel in 1839.
Spandau Old Town with medieval Gotisches Haus of the 15th century Rathaus Spandau, the town hall, finished in 1913. Spandau is served by the Berliner S-Bahn lines S3 and S9 and by the U-Bahn line U7; the main railway station is Berlin one of the most important of the city. Berlin-Spandau railway station Media related to Spandau at Wikimedia Commons Spandau page on www.berlin.de
A boulevard abbreviated Blvd, is a type of large road running through a city. In modern American usage it means a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare divided with a median down the centre, with roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery. Phnom Penh has numerous boulevards scattered throughout the city. Norodom Boulevard, Sisowath Boulevard, Monivong Boulevard, Sothearos Boulevard are the most famous. Indira Gandhi Sarani Red Road, is a road in Kolkata that runs from Raj Bhavan to Fort William; the road, a wide boulevard, was built in 1820. The British authorities during colonial era intended for the road to be able to host large parades; the name'Red Road' was given due to its surfacing. During the Second World War, the road, in the heart of Kolkata, served as a landing strip for fighter aircraft; the annual Kolkata Marathon starts from outside the Rangers Club on Red Road. The name'Indira Gandhi Sarani' was adopted in 1985.
Mumbai'sMarine Drive is a 4.3 km -long crescent-shaped coastal road located in South Mumbai along the Arabian Sea. It is called the Queen's Necklace because if the stretch is viewed from an elevated point, the lamp posts along the road seem like pearls and thus in continuation look like a necklace. A promenade lies parallel to the road, it is one of the major tourist attractions in Mumbai. The Gateway of India is located just 1.7 kilometres away from Marine Drive. Though used, Marine Drive's official name is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Marg. Local residents use it for morning exercises as well, it is popular among youths who come here to enjoy the splash of water during high tide. New Delhi's premier boulevard is the Rajpath, a thoroughfare. New Delhi being the national capital, many such thoroughfares were built to sustain the exploding traffic growth that New Delhi and most Indian metro cities have seen in recent decades. Rajpath, a tree lined road with ponds and fountains, was designed, along with Janpath, by British architect Edwin Lutyens during the British Raj.
Various national events such as Independence Day parades and Republic Day parades among many others take place over here annually. Hyderabad's Necklace Road is a boulevard adjoining the Hussain Sagar lake. In Chennai, the capital city of Tamil Nadu the major road is the Anna Salai. Another boulevard is Radakrishnan Salai called Cathedral Road; some of the most important thoroughfares in Jakarta are not named as a boulevard while do in fact follow the boulevard configuration of multiple lanes and/or landscaping. Examples of these are Jalan Jenderal Sudirman, Jalan M. H. Thamrin, Jalan Jenderal Gatot Subroto, Jalan H. R. Rasuna Said, Jalan Gajah Mada/Jalan Hayam Wuruk, Jalan Haji Benyamin Sueb, Jalan Teuku Umar, Jalan Prof. Dr. Satrio; the term boulevard - sometimes under its Indonesian translation "bulevar" - is however used for thoroughfares in integrated urban centers as developed by private developers, such as Jalan Boulevard Raya in Kelapa Gading, Jalan Boulevard BSD Timur in Bumi Serpong Damai and Jalan Boulevard Gading Serpong in Gading Serpong.
Note that the term "Jalan" is still used despite the use of the term "Boulevard". Examples of boulevards in other Indonesian cities are Jalan Dago in Bandung, Jalan Pahlawan in Semarang, Jalan Mayjen Sungkono and Jalan Raya Darmo in Surabaya. In Iran, "Boulevard" is defined as a wide road surrounded by trees in sides and divided by a green space line including grass, trees or buxuses in the middle. There are many boulevards in Iran. One of the most famous one is Keshavarz Boulevard in Tehran, referred to as "The Boulevard". Isfahan has a historical boulevard, called Chaharbagh Boulevard. Tel Aviv, was designed along the guidelines set out by architect Sir Patrick Geddes. Geddes designed a green or garden ring of boulevards surrounding the central city, which still exists today and continues to characterize Tel Aviv. One of the most famous and busy streets in the city is Rothschild Boulevard. Roxas Boulevard is a major boulevard in Metro Manila, Philippines; the boulevard, which runs along the shores of Manila Bay, is popular for its view of Manila's famous sunsets and stretch of coconut trees.
The boulevard is an eight-lane major arterial road designated as Radial Road 1 that connects the center of Manila with Pasay and Parañaque. Other boulevards in Metro Manila include the Shaw Boulevard, España Boulevard, Pedro Tuazon Boulevard and Quezon Boulevard. Not all boulevards in the Philippines have ornamentation, or slow lanes, like the Aurora Boulevard and E. Rodriguez Sr. Boulevard, which have no ornamentation at all. Osmeña Boulevard is a boulevard in the Philippines' second city, it is Cebu's most important street and is its primary ceremonial avenue, the conventional route of the city's civic and cultural parades. Measuring six to ten lanes wide with 3-5 meter-wide sidewalks on both sides and a landscaped central median, the boulevard is lined with narra trees. Midway is the roundabout of Fuente Osmeña; the Ring Road is a circular ring road surrounding the Innere Stadt district of Vienna, Austria and is one of its main sights. Constructed in the mid-19th century after the dismantling of the city fortification walls, its architecture is typical of the eclectic, historicist style called Ringstraßenstil of the 1860s to 1890s.
Known for its unique architectural beauty and history, it
Deutsche Oper (Berlin U-Bahn)
Deutsche Oper is a station of the Berlin U-Bahn located in the Charlottenburg district on the U 2 line. It is named after the Deutsche Oper Berlin; the station opened on 14 May 1906 under the name Bismarckstraße in the course of the first western extension of the 1902 Stammstrecke route, which ran from Warschauer Brücke to Knie. At the same time the station Wilhelmplatz was put in operation as the western terminus; the architect Alfred Grenander had designed Germany's first U-Bahn station with four tracks, in consideration of the future branch-off to Reichskanzlerplatz in Westend that went into service on 29 March 1908. The station was renamed Städtische Oper on 1 August 1929, Deutsches Opernhaus on 16 August 1934 and received its current name on 22 September 1961. Service between this station and Richard-Wagner-Platz ceased on 1 May 1970, leaving the two central tracks unused, however the tunnel remains and is used for maintenance service between the U2 and U7 lines. U7 line to the new Bismarckstraße station began on 28 April 1978On 8 July 2000 during the Love Parade a fire broke out at Deutsche Oper, injuring 21, destroying an U-Bahn train and demolishing the station.
As the only exits were at the western end of the platforms, passengers had to flee in the tunnel. In consequence the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe company decided to provide a new eastern exit and reopened the station on 1 September 2000 in a renovated 1906 condition; the walls are furnished with tiles designed by José de Guimarães, a present from the Portuguese ambassador in Berlin. The station is featured in Rammstein's 2004 music video for Mein Teil and in the movie Run Lola Run by Tom Tykwer
Reinforced concrete is a composite material in which concrete's low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is though not steel reinforcing bars and is embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may be permanently stressed, so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning. For a strong and durable construction the reinforcement needs to have the following properties at least: High relative strength High toleration of tensile strain Good bond to the concrete, irrespective of pH, similar factors Thermal compatibility, not causing unacceptable stresses in response to changing temperatures.
Durability in the concrete environment, irrespective of corrosion or sustained stress for example. François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete as a technique for constructing building structures. In 1853, Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house at 72 rue Charles Michels in the suburbs of Paris. Coignet's descriptions of reinforcing concrete suggests that he did not do it for means of adding strength to the concrete but for keeping walls in monolithic construction from overturning. In 1854, English builder William B. Wilkinson reinforced the concrete roof and floors in the two-storey house he was constructing, his positioning of the reinforcement demonstrated that, unlike his predecessors, he had knowledge of tensile stresses. Joseph Monier was a French gardener of the nineteenth century, a pioneer in the development of structural and reinforced concrete when dissatified with existing materials available for making durable flowerpots, he was granted a patent for reinforced flowerpots by means of mixing a wire mesh to a mortar shell.
In 1877, Monier was granted another patent for a more advanced technique of reinforcing concrete columns and girders with iron rods placed in a grid pattern. Though Monier undoubtedly knew reinforcing concrete would improve its inner cohesion, it is less known if he knew how much reinforcing improved concrete's tensile strength. Before 1877 the use of concrete construction, though dating back to the Roman Empire, having been reintroduced in the early 1800s, was not yet a proven scientific technology. American New Yorker Thaddeus Hyatt published a report titled An Account of Some Experiments with Portland-Cement-Concrete Combined with Iron as a Building Material, with Reference to Economy of Metal in Construction and for Security against Fire in the Making of Roofs and Walking Surfaces where he reported his experiments on the behavior of reinforced concrete, his work played a major role in the evolution of concrete construction as a proven and studied science. Without Hyatt's work, more dangerous trial and error methods would have been depended on for the advancement in the technology.
Ernest L. Ransome was an English-born engineer and early innovator of the reinforced concrete techniques in the end of the 19th century. With the knowledge of reinforced concrete developed during the previous 50 years, Ransome innovated nearly all styles and techniques of the previous known inventors of reinforced concrete. Ransome's key innovation was to twist the reinforcing steel bar improving bonding with the concrete. Gaining increasing fame from his concrete constructed buildings, Ransome was able to build two of the first reinforced concrete bridges in North America. One of the first concrete buildings constructed in the United States, was a private home, designed by William Ward in 1871; the home was designed to be fireproof for his wife. G. A. Wayss was a pioneer of the iron and steel concrete construction. In 1879, Wayss bought the German rights to Monier's patents and in 1884, he started the first commercial use for reinforced concrete in his firm Wayss & Freytag. Up until the 1890s, Wayss and his firm contributed to the advancement of Monier's system of reinforcing and established it as a well-developed scientific technology.
One of the first skyscrapers made with reinforced concrete was the 16-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, constructed in 1904. The first reinforced concrete building in Southern California was the Laughlin Annex in Downtown Los Angeles, constructed in 1905. In 1906, 16 building permits were issued for reinforced concrete buildings in the City of Los Angeles, including the Temple Auditorium and 8-story Hayward Hotel. On April 18, 1906 a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck San Francisco. The strong ground shaking and subsequent fire killed thousands; the use of reinforced concrete after the earthquake was promoted within the U. S. construction industry due to its non-combustibility and perceived superior seismic performance relative to masonry. In 1906, a partial collapse of the Bixby Hotel in Long Beach killed 10 workers during construction when shoring was removed prematurely; this event spurred a scrutiny of concrete erection practices and building inspections. The structure was constructed of reinforced concrete frames with hollow clay tile ribbed flooring and hollow clay
Kurfürstendamm (Berlin U-Bahn)
Kurfürstendamm is an underground station, part of the Berlin U-Bahn network in Germany. It is on the U 1 and U 9 line and opened on 28 August 1961, when the first section of the U9 between Spichernstraße and Leopoldplatz was inaugurated; as there had been no stop of the U1 where it now crossed the U9, the line received an additional station here. It lies in eastern Charlottenburg on the intersection of Kurfürstendamm and Joachimstaler Straße, south of Zoologischer Garten Berlin and the Bahnhof Zoo. At the road junction above the station can be found the Café Kranzler, successor of the Café des Westens, a famous venue for artists and bohémiens of the pre–World War I era, as well as the Swissôtel Berlin; the well-known Kurfürstendamm boulevard is the most important upscale shopping district in Berlin. Next to the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche on Breitscheidplatz, shattered during the air raids in World War II, a modern new church was built
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg, known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890. In 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed Bismarck as Minister President of Prussia, a position he would hold until 1890, with the exception of a short break in 1873, he provoked three short, decisive wars against Denmark and France. Following the victory against Austria, he abolished the supranational German Confederation and instead formed the North German Confederation as the first German national state in 1867, leading it as Federal Chancellor; this aligned the smaller North German states behind Prussia. Receiving the support of the independent South German states in the Confederation's defeat of France, he formed the German Empire in 1871, unifying Germany with himself as Imperial Chancellor, while retaining control of Prussia at the same time.
The new German nation excluded Austria, Prussia's main opponent for predominance among the German states. With that accomplished by 1871, he skillfully used balance of power diplomacy to maintain Germany's position in a Europe which, despite many disputes and war scares, remained at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm, it was Bismarck who "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for twenty years after 1871, devoted himself and to maintaining peace between the powers". However, his annexation of Alsace-Lorraine gave new fuel to French nationalism and promoted Germanophobia in France; this helped set the stage for the First World War. Bismarck's diplomacy of realpolitik and powerful rule at home gained him the nickname the "Iron Chancellor". German unification and its rapid economic growth was the foundation to his foreign policy, he disliked colonialism but reluctantly built an overseas empire when it was demanded by both elite and mass opinion. Juggling a complex interlocking series of conferences and alliances, he used his diplomatic skills to maintain Germany's position and used the balance of power to keep Europe at peace in the 1870s and 1880s.
A master of complex politics at home, Bismarck created the first welfare state in the modern world, with the goal of gaining working class support that might otherwise go to his Socialist enemies. In the 1870s, he allied himself with the Liberals and fought the Catholic Church in what was called the Kulturkampf, he lost that battle as the Catholics responded by forming a powerful Centre party and using universal male suffrage to gain a bloc of seats. Bismarck reversed himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke with the Liberals, imposed protective tariffs, formed a political alliance with the Centre Party to fight the Socialists. A devout Lutheran, he was loyal to his king, who argued with Bismarck but in the end supported him against the advice of his wife and his heir. While the Reichstag, Germany's parliament, was elected by universal male suffrage, it did not have much control of government policy. Bismarck distrusted democracy and ruled through a strong, well-trained bureaucracy with power in the hands of a traditional Junker elite that consisted of the landed nobility in eastern Prussia.
Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck controlled domestic and foreign affairs, until he was removed by the young Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, at the age of seventy-five. Bismarck – a Junker himself – was strong-willed and overbearing, but he could be polite and witty, he displayed a violent temper, he kept his power by melodramatically threatening resignation time and again, which cowed Wilhelm I. He possessed not only a long-term national and international vision but the short-term ability to juggle complex developments; as the leader of what historians call "revolutionary conservatism", Bismarck became a hero to German nationalists. Many historians praise him as a visionary, instrumental in uniting Germany and, once, accomplished, kept the peace in Europe through adroit diplomacy. Bismarck was born in Schönhausen, a wealthy family estate situated west of Berlin in the Prussian province of Saxony, his father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck, was a Junker estate owner and a former Prussian military officer.
He had two siblings: his younger sister Malwine. The world saw Bismarck as a typical Prussian Junker, an image that he encouraged by wearing military uniforms. Bismarck was well cosmopolitan with a gift for conversation. In addition to his native German, he was fluent in English, Italian and Russian. Bismarck was educated at Johann Ernst Plamann's elementary school, the Friedrich-Wilhelm and Graues Kloster secondary schools. From 1832 to 1833, he studied law at the University of Göttingen, where he was a member of the Corps Hannovera, enrolled at the University of Berlin. In 1838, while stationed as an army reservist in Greifswald, he studied agriculture at the University of Greifswald. At Göttingen, Bismarck befriended the American student John Lothrop Motley. Motley, who became an eminent historian and diplomat while remaining close to Bismarck, wrote a novel in 1839, Morton's Hope, or the Memoirs of a Provincial, about l