An earth oven, ground oven or cooking pit is one of the most simple and ancient cooking structures. At its most basic, an earth oven is a pit in the ground used to trap heat and bake, smoke, or steam food. Earth ovens have been used in many places and cultures in the past, the presence of such cooking pits is a key sign of human settlement sought by archaeologists. Earth ovens remain a common tool for cooking large quantities of food where no equipment is available, they have been used in various civilizations around the world and are still found in the Pacific region to date. To bake food, the fire is built allowed to burn down to a smoulder; the food is placed in the oven and covered. This covered area can be used to bake other various items. Steaming food in an earth oven covers a similar process. Fire-heated rocks are put into a pit and are covered with green vegetation to add moisture and large quantities of food. More green vegetation and sometimes water are added, if more moisture is needed.
A covering of earth is added over everything. The food in the pit can take up to several hours to a full day to cook, regardless of the dry or wet method used. Today, many communities still use cooking pits for ceremonial or celebratory occasions, including the indigenous Fijian lovo, the Hawaiian imu, the Māori hāngi, the Mexican barbacoa, the New England clam bake; the central Asian tandoor use the method for uncovered, live-fire baking, a transitional design between the earth oven and the horizontal-plan masonry oven. This method is a permanent earth oven made out of clay or firebrick with a burning hot fire in the bottom. In many areas, archaeologists recognize "pit-hearths" as being used in the past. In Central Texas, there are large "burned-rock middens" speculated to be used for large-scale cooking of plants of various sorts the bulbs of sotol; the Mayan pib and Andean watia are other examples. In Mesoamerica and the Caribbean nations, barbacoa is a common practice. Barbacoa a Taino word referring to the pit itself, consists of slow-roasted meat in a maguey-lined pit, popular in Mexico alongside birria and salsa.
The clam bake, invented by Native Americans on the Atlantic seaboard and considered a traditional element of New England cuisine, traditionally uses a type of ad hoc earth oven. A large enough hole is dug into the sand and heated rocks are added to the bottom of the hole. A layer of seaweed is laid on top to create moisture and steam, followed by the food. Lastly, another layer of seaweed is added to trap in the steam and cook the food, which consists of shellfish and vegetables; the Curanto of the Chiloé Archipelago consists of shellfish, potatoes, milcao chapaleles, vegetables traditionally prepared in an earth oven. It has spread to the southern areas of Chile. Earth oven cooking is sometimes used for celebratory cooking in North Africa Morocco: a whole lamb is cooked in an earth oven in a manner similar to the Hawaiian kalua. Among Bedouin and Tuareg nomads, a simple earth oven is used – when men travel without family or kitchen equipment in the desert; the oven is used to bake bread but is used to cook venison and waran.
When baking bread, the wheat or barley flour is mixed with water and some salt and placed directly into the hot sands beneath the camp fire. It is covered again by hot coal and left to bake; this kind of bread is eaten with black tea. The sand has to be knocked off before consuming the bread. Sometimes this type of bread is made when the family is together, because people like the taste of it; the bread is mixed with molten fat and labneh and formed into a dough before eating. This bread may be known under other local names. Earth oven cooking was common in the past and continues into the present – for special occasions, since the earth oven process is labor-intensive. In some part-Melanesian and other related languages, the general term is "umu," from the Proto-Oceanic root *qumun. In some non-Polynesian, part-Polynesian, Micronesian parts of the Pacific, which some islands use the similar word umu, but not all Micronesian islands having many different languages use that base word umu, other words are used instead of umu - in Fiji it is a lovo and in Rotuman it is a koua.
In Papua New Guinea, "mumu" is used by Tok Pisin and English speakers, but each of the other hundreds of local languages has its own word. In the Solomon Islands the word in Pidgin is Toku. Despite the similarities, there are many differences in the details of preparation, their cultural significance, current usage. Earth ovens are said to have originated in Papua New Guinea and have been adopted by the arriving Polynesians; the Samoan umu uses the same method of cooking as many other earth ovens and is related to the Hawaiian earth oven, the imu, made underground by digging a pit. It is a common day-to-day method of preparing roasted foods, with modern ovens being restricted to western-style houses. In the traditional village house, gas burners will be used inside the house to cook some food in pots; the umu is sheltered by a roof in case of rain, it is separate from the house. There are no walls; the Samoan u
Control of fire by early humans
The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution. Fire provided a source of warmth, improvement on hunting and a method for cooking food; these cultural advancements allowed for human geographic dispersal, cultural innovations, changes to diet and behavior. Additionally, creating fire allowed the expansion of human activity to proceed into the dark and colder hours of the evening. Claims for the earliest definitive evidence of control of fire by a member of Homo range from 1.7 to 0.2 million years ago. Evidence for the controlled use of fire by Homo erectus, beginning some 1,000,000 years ago, has wide scholarly support. Flint blades burned in fires 300,000 years ago were found near fossils of early but not modern Homo sapiens in Morocco. Evidence of widespread control of fire by anatomically modern humans dates to 125,000 years ago. Use and control of fire was a gradual process. One was a change in habitat, from dense forest, where wildfires were rare and catastrophic, to savanna where wildfires were rare and of lower intensity.
Such a change may have occurred about three million years ago, when the savanna expanded in East Africa due to cooler and drier climate. The next stage involved interaction with burned landscapes and foraging in the wake of wildfires, as observed in various wild animals. In the African savanna, animals that preferentially forage in burned areas include Savanna chimpanzees, Vervet monkeys and a variety of birds, some of which hunt insects and small vertebrates in the wake of grass fires; the next step would be to make some use of residual hot spots. For example, foods found in the wake of wildfires tend to be either undercooked; this might have provided incentives to place undercooked foods on a hotspot or to pull food out of the fire if it was in danger of getting burned. This would require familiarity with its behavior. An early step in the control of fire would have been transporting it from burned to unburned areas and lighting them on fire, providing advantages in food acquisition. Maintaining a fire over an extended period of time, as for a season may have led to the development of base campsites.
Building a hearth or other fire enclosure such as a circle of stones would have been a development. The ability to make fire with a friction device with hardwood rubbing against softwood was a late development; each of these stages could occur at different intensities, ranging from occasional or "opportunistic" to "habitual" to "obligate". Most of the evidence of controlled use of fire during the Lower Paleolithic is uncertain and has limited scholarly support; the inconclusiveness of some of the evidence lies behind the fact that there exist other plausible explanations, such as natural processes, that could explain the findings. Recent findings support that the earliest known controlled use of fire took place in Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, 1.0 Mya. Over time, early humans figured out. Archaeological evidence suggests that this happened 120,000 years ago. Findings from the Wonderwerk Cave site, in the Northern Cape province of South Africa, provide the earliest evidence for controlled use of fire.
Intact sediments were analyzed using micromorphological analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy and yielded evidence, in the form of burned bones and ashed plant remains, that burning took place at the site 1.0 Mya. East African sites, such as Chesowanja near Lake Baringo, Koobi Fora, Olorgesailie in Kenya, show some possible evidence that fire was controlled by early humans. In Chesowanja archaeologists found red clay clasts dated to 1.4 Mya. These clasts must have been heated to 400 °C to harden. However, tree stumps burned in bush fires in East Africa produce clasts which, when broken by erosion, are like those described at Chesownja. Controlled use of fire at Chesowanja is unproven. In Koobi Fora, sites FxJjzoE and FxJj50 show evidence of control of fire by Homo erectus at 1.5 Mya with findings of reddened sediment that could come from heating at 200–400 °C. Evidence of possible human control of fire has been found at South Africa; the evidence includes several burned bones, including ones with hominin-inflicted cut marks, along with Acheulean and bone tools.
This site shows some of the earliest evidence of carnivorous behavior in H. erectus. A "hearth-like depression" that could have been used to burn bones was found at a site in Olorgesailie, Kenya. However, it did not contain any charcoal and no signs of fire have been observed; some microscopic charcoal was found. In Gadeb, fragments of welded tuff that appeared to have been burned were found in Locality 8E but re-firing of the rocks might have occurred due to local volcanic activity. In the Middle Awash River Valley, cone-shaped depressions of reddish clay were found that could have been formed by temperatures of 200 °C; these features, thought to have been created by burning tree stumps, were hypothesized to have been produced by early hominids lighting tree stumps so they could have fire away from their habitation site. However, this view is not accepted. Burned stones are found in Awash Valley, but volcanic welded tuff is found in the area which could explain the burned stones. Burned flints discovered near Jebel Irhoud, dated by thermoluminescence to 300,000 years, were discovered in the sa
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
National Archaeological Museum (France)
The musée d'Archéologie nationale is a major French archeology museum, covering pre-historic times to the Merovingian period. It is located in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye in the département of Yvelines, about 19 kilometres west of Paris; the château had been one of the most important French royal residences in the Paris region since the 12th century. Following the move of the court to Versailles, the castle housed the court of James II of England in exile, became a cavalry school in 1809 and a military prison from 1836 to 1855; the château, in poor condition, was classified as a monument historique on 8 April 1863. The interior was a maze of cells, false floors and partitions; the exterior was covered in a black coating. The architect Eugène Millet, a pupil of Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, was given the job of restoring the château to hold the planned National Museum of Antiquities in 1855 and was told to remove all traces of the cells that the Ministry of War had installed when it was used as a prison.
In 1857 he reported that all the partitions forming the cells and dungeons had been demolished and the rest of the chateau had been cleaned. Construction work began in 1862 with the destruction of the West pavilion. Millet's goal was to restore the building to its state. Eugène Millet died in Cannes on 24 February 1879; the restoration was continued by Auguste Lafollye and Honoré Daumet, completed in 1907. The museum was created by imperial decree on 8 March 1862 and formally opened on 12 May 1867. Since 2009, the museum and gardens have been united as one institution, marking a new era for the museum and château. Since its inception, the museum has been titled: 1862: Museum of Gallo-Roman antiquities 1867: Museum of Celtic and Gallo-Roman antiquities 1879: Museum of national antiquities 2005: National archaeological museum 2009: National archaeological museum, National domain of Saint-Germain-en-Laye The Second French Empire coincides with a great expansion of archaeology in France. Napoleon III was passionately interested in history and archeology, ordered digs, most notably in Alesia and Gergovia, to complete his biography of.
The question of conservation and storage of the finds arises. The imperial decree creating the Musée Gallo-Romain was signed by Napoleon III on 8 March 1862. In 1864, Jean-Baptiste Verchère de Reffye, involved in the project, proposes to the Emperor an "historical museum" project in order to: "provide historians with precise documents on the life of our Fathers, to invite industrials to ancient manufacturing secrets, to get the artist to recognise how art was modified." The first meeting of the committee set up to organize the museum was held on 1 April 1865 in the office of Count Émilien de Nieuwerkerke, superintendent of the École des Beaux-Arts and in charge of imperial museums. Attendees included major figures in archaeology: Alexandre Bertrand, Édouard Lartet, Louis Félicien de Saulcy and Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes. On 11 April 1866, the committee published a report detailing the main axes of the project, the organisation of the space and an estimate of the budget. Napoleon III inaugurated the first seven rooms of the museum on the 12 May 1867, during the Paris world fair.
Starting in 1936, following the rise in political tensions, the museum established plans to save the artifacts, a list of the most important pieces, preparations for evacuations. The basements, with their 2.7-meter-thick vaults, were designated as the shelter for the museum employees. Wooden boxes were built for transportation. On 24 August 1939, the order was given to close the museum the next day in order to evacuate the collection, dispersed between Chambord and Cheverny. Starting 24 June 1940, the museum was occupied by German troops. Despite the efforts of Raymond Lantier to contain the German occupation, the exhibition room 1 was turned into a meeting room for the German authorities in charge of Île-de-France. Shooting exercises were held in the château’s ditch, the museum was progressively occupied by troops. Starting 1942, the château suffered damage from bombings, which destroyed some of its stained glasses. Following the liberation of France, on 26 August 1944, the French flag was raised above the entrance and on one of the towers, ending the occupation of the museum.
During this period little was done to the museum. The collections were repatriated progressively, the museum re-opened on 2 October 1945. After the war, the presentation of the museum was outdated and inadequate to meet the public's demand. Minister of Cultural AffairsAndré Malraux, passionate about archaeology, planned an ambitious renovation project started in 1961 under the direction of René Joffroy; the number of rooms was reduced to 19 and the number of pieces on display to 30,000, ending the previous "encyclopaedic" displays. The architect, André Hermant, wanted to "calm the strange decor" of the château by covering some of Millet's restoration and windows; the new layout was visited by Charles de Gaulle on 25 March 1965 and inaugurated on the 9 April 1965 by André Malraux. The renovations and the updated museology were successively rolled out up until 1984 with the opening of the
The steppe bison or steppe wisent is an extinct species of bison, once found on the mammoth steppe where its range included Europe, Central Asia, Northern to Northeastern Asia and North America, from northwest Canada to Mexico during the Quaternary. Three chronological subspecies, Bison priscus priscus, Bison priscus mediator, Bison priscus gigas, have been suggested, it is believed to have evolved from Bison paleosinensis in South Asia, which means the species appeared at the same time and region as the aurochs with which its descendants are sometimes confused. The steppe bison was contemporaneous with the Pleistocene woodland bison and the European bison in Europe, Leptobison in Japan, the long-horned bison in North America; the steppe bison became extinct in the early Holocene, as it was replaced in Europe by the modern bison B. bonasus, a hybrid between B. priscus and the Bos primigenius, in America by a sequence of several species culminating in the modern American bison. European cave paintings appear to depict both B. B. priscus.
Resembling the modern bison species American wood bison, the steppe bison was over 2 m tall at the wither, reaching 900 kg in weight. The tips of the horns were a meter apart. Steppe bison appear in cave art, notably in the Cave of Altamira and Lascaux, the carving Bison Licking Insect Bite, have been found in ice-preserved form. Blue Babe is the 36,000-year-old mummy of a male steppe bison, discovered north of Fairbanks, Alaska, in July 1979; the mummy was noticed by a gold miner who named the mummy Blue Babe – "Babe" for Paul Bunyan's mythical giant ox, permanently turned blue when he was buried to the horns in a blizzard. Blue Babe is frequently referenced when talking about scientists eating their own specimens: the research team, preparing it for permanent display in the University of Alaska Museum removed a portion of the mummy's neck, stewed it, dined on it to celebrate the accomplishment. In 2011, a 9,300-year-old mummy was found at Yukagir in Siberia
The three-age system is the categorization of history into time periods divisible by three. In history and physical anthropology, the three-age system is a methodological concept adopted during the 19th century by which artifacts and events of late prehistory and early history could be ordered into a recognizable chronology, it was developed by C. J. Thomsen, director of the Royal Museum of Nordic Antiquities, Copenhagen, as a means to classify the museum’s collections according to whether the artifacts were made of stone, bronze, or iron; the system first appealed to British researchers working in the science of ethnology who adopted it to establish race sequences for Britain's past based on cranial types. Although the craniological ethnology that formed its first scholarly context holds no scientific value, the relative chronology of the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age is still in use in a general public context, the three ages remain the underpinning of prehistoric chronology for Europe, the Mediterranean world and the Near East.
The structure reflects the cultural and historical background of Mediterranean Europe and the Middle East and soon underwent further subdivisions, including the 1865 partitioning of the Stone Age into Paleolithic and Neolithic periods by John Lubbock. It is, however, of little or no use for the establishment of chronological frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa, much of Asia, the Americas and some other areas and has little importance in contemporary archaeological or anthropological discussion for these regions; the concept of dividing pre-historical ages into systems based on metals extends far back in European history originated by Lucretius in the first century BC. But the present archaeological system of the three main ages—stone and iron—originates with the Danish archaeologist Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, who placed the system on a more scientific basis by typological and chronological studies, at first, of tools and other artifacts present in the Museum of Northern Antiquities in Copenhagen.
He used artifacts and the excavation reports published or sent to him by Danish archaeologists who were doing controlled excavations. His position as curator of the museum gave him enough visibility to become influential on Danish archaeology. A well-known and well-liked figure, he explained his system in person to visitors at the museum, many of them professional archaeologists. In his poem and Days, the ancient Greek poet Hesiod between 750 and 650 BC, defined five successive Ages of Man: 1. Golden, 2. Silver, 3. Bronze, 4. Heroic and 5. Iron. Only the Bronze Age and the Iron Age are based on the use of metal:... Zeus the father created the third generation of mortals, the age of bronze... They were terrible and strong, the ghastly action of Ares was theirs, violence.... The weapons of these men were bronze, of bronze their houses, they worked as bronzesmiths. There was not yet any black iron. Hesiod knew from the traditional poetry, such as the Iliad, the heirloom bronze artifacts that abounded in Greek society, that before the use of iron to make tools and weapons, bronze had been the preferred material and iron was not smelted at all.
He did not continue the manufacturing metaphor, but mixed his metaphors, switching over to the market value of each metal. Iron was cheaper than bronze, so there must have been a silver age, he portrays a sequence of metallic ages. Each age has less of a moral value than the preceding. Of his own age he says: "And I wish that I were not any part of the fifth generation of men, but had died before it came, or had been born afterward." The moral metaphor of the ages of metals continued. Lucretius, replaced moral degradation with the concept of progress, which he conceived to be like the growth of an individual human being; the concept is evolutionary:. Everything must pass through successive phases. Nothing remains. Everything is on the move. Everything is transformed by nature and forced into new paths... The Earth passes through successive phases, so that it can no longer bear what it could, it can now what it could not before; the Romans believed that the species of animals, including humans, were spontaneously generated from the materials of the Earth, because of which the Latin word mater, "mother", descends to English-speakers as matter and material.
In Lucretius the Earth is Venus, to whom the poem is dedicated in the first few lines. She brought forth humankind by spontaneous generation. Having been given birth as a species, humans must grow to maturity by analogy with the individual; the different phases of their collective life are marked by the accumulation of customs to form material civilization: The earliest weapons were hands and teeth. Next came stones and branches wrenched from trees, fire and flame as soon as these were discovered. Men learnt to use tough iron and copper. With copper they tilled the soil. With copper they whipped up the clashing waves of war... By slow degrees the iron sword came to the fore. Lucretius envisioned a pre-technological human, "far tougher than the men of today... They lived out their lives in the fashion of wild beasts roaming at large." The next stage was the use of huts, clothing and the family. City-states and citadels followed them. Lucretius supposes that the initial