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Bit error rate

In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, distortion or bit synchronization errors. The bit error rate is the number of bit errors per unit time; the bit error ratio is the number of bit errors divided by the total number of transferred bits during a studied time interval. Bit error ratio is a unitless performance measure expressed as a percentage; the bit error probability pe is the expectation value of the bit error ratio. The bit error ratio can be considered as an approximate estimate of the bit error probability; this estimate is accurate for a high number of bit errors. As an example, assume this transmitted bit sequence: 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 and the following received bit sequence: 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1, The number of bit errors is, in this case, 3; the BER is 3 incorrect bits divided by 10 transferred bits, resulting in a BER of 0.3 or 30%. The packet error ratio is the number of incorrectly received data packets divided by the total number of received packets.

A packet is declared incorrect. The expectation value of the PER is denoted packet error probability pp, which for a data packet length of N bits can be expressed as p p = 1 − N = 1 − e N log ⁡,assuming that the bit errors are independent of each other. For small bit error probabilities and large data packets, this is p p ≈ p e N. Similar measurements can be carried out for the transmission of blocks, or symbols. In a communication system, the receiver side BER may be affected by transmission channel noise, distortion, bit synchronization problems, wireless multipath fading, etc; the BER may be improved by choosing a strong signal strength, by choosing a slow and robust modulation scheme or line coding scheme, by applying channel coding schemes such as redundant forward error correction codes. The transmission BER is the number of detected bits that are incorrect before error correction, divided by the total number of transferred bits; the information BER equal to the decoding error probability, is the number of decoded bits that remain incorrect after the error correction, divided by the total number of decoded bits.

The transmission BER is larger than the information BER. The information BER is affected by the strength of the forward error correction code; the BER may be evaluated using stochastic computer simulations. If a simple transmission channel model and data source model is assumed, the BER may be calculated analytically. An example of such a data source model is the Bernoulli source. Examples of simple channel models used in information theory are: Binary symmetric channel Additive white Gaussian noise channel without fading. A worst-case scenario is a random channel, where noise dominates over the useful signal; this results in a transmission BER of 50%. In a noisy channel, the BER is expressed as a function of the normalized carrier-to-noise ratio measure denoted Eb/N0, or Es/N0. For example, in the case of QPSK modulation and AWGN channel, the BER as function of the Eb/N0 is given by: BER = 1 2 erfc ⁡. People plot the BER curves to describe the performance of a digital communication system. In optical communication, BER vs. Received Power is used.

Measuring the bit error ratio helps people choose the appropriate forward error correction codes. Since most such codes correct only bit-flips, but not bit-insertions or bit-deletions, the Hamming distance metric is the appropriate way to measure the number of bit errors. Many FEC coders continuously measure the current BER. A more general way of measuring the number of bit errors is the Levenshtein distance; the Levenshtein distance measurement is more appropriate for measuring raw channel performance before frame synchronization, when using error correction codes designed to correct bit-insertions and bit-deletions, such as Marker Codes and Watermark Codes. The BER is the likelihood of a bit misinterpretation due to electrical noise w. Considering a bipolar NRZ transmission, we have x 1 = A + w for a "1" and x 0 = − A + w {\dis

Shahrzad Mirgholikhan

Shahrzad Mirgholikhan is an Iranian whistleblower. The United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida convicted her of attempting to import night-vision goggles to Iran, that led to her imprisonment in the United States from 2007 to 2012. Following her release, Mirgholikhan returned to Iran and was appointed to work at Iran's state television. In 2016, she left Iran after being charged with espionage by the Intelligence Organization of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps, she was brought up as a practicing Muslim. Her mother, Belghis Rovshan was a professor of linguistics and her father, Ghassem Mirgholikhan was an engineer. Mirgholikhan met her first husband in the mid-1990s and after marriage gave birth to twin daughters and Melina, she divorced from her husband. In 2000, she married Mahmoud Seif; the couple separated in 2002, but were reunited again in 2003. During the separation, Mirgholikhan was briefly married to another man through a sham marriage to obtain permission papers to leave Iran.

Mirgholikhan has studied at a university in Dubai in the early 2000s. Following her release from the U. S. prison, she returned to Iran and was employed at the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting, as the director of international relations at Press TV under Mohammad Sarafraz, then-head of the channel. In 2014, when Sarafraz was promoted as the general-director of IRIB, Mirgholikhan became the'special inspector' of IRIB. According to Al-Monitor, she "poked around everywhere and into everything to stop waste and corruption", clashed with Abdulali Ali-Asgari, IRIB's deputy-director for technical affairs at the time. Since 2016, she resides in Oman. Shahrzad Mirgholikhan, Bianca Rahimi, Shahrzad: A True Story, H&S Media, ISBN 9781780834740 U. S. v. Gholikhan, Case No. 05-60238-CR-COHN

List of Miami Dolphins players

The following is a list of American football players that have played for the Miami Dolphins. Mike Iaquaniello Richie Incognito Mark Ingram Mark Irvin Heath Irwin Tim Irwin Qadry Ismail Rickey Isom Larry Izzo Legedu Naanee Jamie Nails John Nalbone Tony Nathan Ikechuku Ndukwe Ray Nealy Joe Nedney Bob Neff Billy Neighbors Nate Ness Ed Newman Keith Newman Kendall Newson Scott Nicolas Rob Ninkovich Troy Nolan Tom Nomina Karl Noonan Rick Norton Don Nottingham Jeff Novak Cliff Odom Jared Odrick John Offerdahl Jeff Ogden Alfred Oglesby Adewale Ogunleye Louis Oliver Muhammad Oliver Igor Olshansky Tom Orosz Ralph Ortega Louis Oubre Greg Ours David Overstreet Chris Owens Morris Owens Rich Owens Jeff Uhlenhake Jim Urbanek Iheanyi Uwaezuoke Craig Veasey Olivier Vernon Marcus Vick Tom Vigorito Troy Vincent Rick Volk Uwe von Schamann Billy Yates T. J. Yates Will Yeatman Garo Yepremian Steve Young Willie Young Dave Zawatson Rich Zecher Jeff Zgonina Scott Zolak Miami Dolphins All-Time Roster

USFS Auklet

USFS Auklet was an American fishery patrol vessel that served in the waters of Southeast Alaska. She was in commission in the United States Bureau of Fisheries from 1917 to 1940 and in the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service as US FWS Auklet from 1940 to 1950. In 1916, the United States Congress appropriated $10,000 to the United States Bureau of Fisheries for the construction of two fishery patrol vessels for service in the waters of Southeast Alaska. Martin C. Erismann designed the vessels as identical sister ships and patterned them after the seaworthy design of salmon purse seiners. Built out of Douglas fir, they had a raised deck forward of the pilot house that dropped moving aft, a raised deck house amidships which had an overhanging roof that covered the deck, a small afterdeck at the stern; the sides extended upward to create the walls of the after cabin. Each boat had a 25-horsepower Frisco-Standard gasoline engine and comfortable accommodations for two fishery agents and a crew of three.

Construction bids for the two vessels opened in Seattle, Washington, on 5 December 1916 and the project attracted seven bids. The BOF signed a contract to build the vessels with the Elliott Bay Yacht and Engine Company of Seattle. Construction began immediately. After the two boats were completed and inspected, the BOF accepted both boats, USFS Auklet and USFS Murre, on 10 May 1917; the total cost of designing and inspecting the two boats came to US$9,702.70. They were the first vessels constructed for fisheries enforcement duties in Alaska; the BOF commissioned both Auklet and Murre in the summer of 1917. On 4 July 1917, a dedication ceremony took place in Seattle to mark the opening of the Government Locks, which connected Puget Sound with the Lake Washington Ship Canal and Lake Washington, Auklet was part of a flotilla of hundreds of boats that followed the BOF steamer Roosevelt as she became the first large ocean-going vessel to enter the canal. Auklet and Murre departed Seattle on 7 July 1917 bound for Territory of Alaska.

After they arrived, they took up their patrol duties in the waters of Southeast Alaska. On 12 September 1918, Auklet suffered substantial damage to her deckhouse while moored at Juneau in the Territory of Alaska when the Canadian passenger liner SS Princess Sophia struck her. On 25 October 1918, Princess Sophia sank with the loss of all 343 people on board after grounding on Vanderbilt Reef in Lynn Canal near Juneau. Auklet joined Murre and the BOF fishery patrol vessel USFS Osprey in a fruitless search for survivors that lasted into November 1918. In addition to performing their primary duty of fishery patrols in the waters of Southeast Alaska, however and Murre engaged in other activities, they assisted the United States Department of War in inspecting active and abandoned fish traps as possible navigational obstructions, took part in routine stream improvements, which involved the removal of impediments to salmon – such as log jams and beaver dams – as they ascended to their spawning grounds.

Auklet provided transportation to BOF personnel and hauled supplies to settlements and BOF stations in Southeast Alaska, during a steamship strike in 1920 she transported foodstuffs from Prince Rupert, British Columbia, Canada, to merchants in Wrangell and Ketchikan, Alaska. After Murre struck a rock in Alaska's Keku Strait on 1 April 1920 and was beached to prevent her from sinking, Auklet arrived on the scene and towed Murre to Wrangell for repairs. In September 1920, Auklet and Murre conducted stream-marking, in 1921 they began a program of annual springtime patrolling of sealing grounds near Sitka, Territory of Alaska, during fur seal migrations. In 1921 Auklet made a voyage to Seattle for repairs and overhauling with USFS Osprey in tow. On her return voyage to the Territory of Alaska she towed the newly acquired BOF patrol vessel USFS Petrel. By 1922, both Auklet and Murre had had their original engines replaced with heavier, 40-horsepower Frisco-Standard gasoline engines that gave them additional power they needed to deal with the high winds and seas they encountered in the waters of the Territory of Alaska.

In February 1928, both boats had water heating systems installed at Juneau, in 1928 each boat had her galley enlarged to increase the comfort of crew and passengers. In 1934, Auklet took part in a Civil Works Administration project to clear log jams and other obstructions in salmon streams that were blocking the fish from reaching their spawning grounds. In 1936, she participated in the construction of a 70-foot concrete fish ladder at the rapids of the Pavlof Harbor headwaters on Chichagof Island in the Alexander Archipelago of the Alaska Panhandle. In 1939, the Bureau of Fisheries was transferred from the United States Department of Commerce to the United States Department of the Interior, on 30 June 1940, it merged with the Interior Department's Division of Biological Survey to form the new Fish and Wildlife Service as an element of the Interior Department. Via this reorganization, Auklet became part of the fleet of the new FWS as US FWS Auklet in 1940. In the late 1940s, Auklet was engaged in salmon hunting and trapping winter patrol work, she was scheduled to conduct the FWS′s first downstream fish migration research in early 1949.

She was sold in the autumn of 1950

Ritmo, Amor e Palavras

Ritmo, Amor e Palavras is Boss AC's third album. It was released in December 2005 in Portugal, it is Boss AC's most successful album and one of the greatest successes in Portuguese music in 2005. It is one of the biggest selling Portuguese hip hop albums and was awarded gold in August 2005 for selling 10,000 copies and platinum after selling 30,000 copies; the album was recorded at Hightower Productions in New York City. It was mastered by Jim Brick; the album was nominated for Best Portuguese Act at the 2005 MTV Europe Music Awards. All tracks produced by Boss AC, except "Só Preciso De Cinco Minutos", by Sam The Kid Boss AC - executive producer Recorded by AC at NoStress Studio, Troy Hightower at Hightower Productions Inc, Luís Caldeira at Estúdio Valentim de Carvalho and Jorge Cervantes at Estúdio Andinos Mixed by Troy Hightower at Hightower Productions Inc and AC at NoStress Studio Mastered by Jim Brick at Absolute Audio, New York Roda Dentada - writer Náná Sousa Dias - photographer


Pizzazz is the fifth album by American singer Patrice Rushen. While she was attacked for leaving the jazz genre, Rushen was able to get a good fan base with an R&B/Pop audience. Rushen's profile in the R&B world continued to increase with Pizzazz, her second album for Elektra Records and fifth overall. Pizzazz was her second highest-charting album, reaching #39 in 1979, it features the hit single "Haven't You Heard." The single is among Rushen's biggest hits. With this album Rushen drew on such influences as Earth, Wind & Fire, Minnie Riperton, Stevie Wonder, The Emotions. Rushen was able get the R&B lover's attention with songs such as the funky opener "Let the Music Take Me," the soulful ballad "Settle for My Love," and the perky "Keepin' Faith in Love." Pizzazz received plenty of attacks from jazz critics, who accused Rushen of being a traitor, but from an R&B/Pop perspective the album is considered one of Rushen's most rewarding and essential albums. Patrice Rushen-Pizzazz at Discogs