Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Armenian, Laz and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea.
This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή.
The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines.
They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
The coinage of the Seleucid Empire is based on the coins of Alexander the Great, which in turn were based on Athenian coinage of the Attic weight. Many mints and different issues are defined, with mainly base, the symbol of Seleucid power was the anchor, which was placed on the obverse of coins depicting Alexander posthumously but prior to the issue of coins portraying Seleukos I around 306 BCE. Bronze coinage was issued in five denominations, the weight and size varies greatly and most likely no effort was made to conform to a set standard,1 Obol and Bow and Quiver. 2 Diobol and Quiver 3 Hemidrachm,6 Drachm, Anchor 24 Tetradrachm, Elephant walking Coins with the head of Zeus on the reverse and these coins are of a lighter Phoenician standard, which were circulated in India prior to Alexander the Greats conquest. Starting from Seleukos I, these mints were most likely a continuation from before his reign, Ecbatana, Apamaea mint, Babylon, Aï Khanoum, Seleucia in Pieria, Bactria, Cyzicus, Abydus.
Coins of the Selucid Empire had many images including the King with a head dress, or Zeus on a throne with a sceptre. Bronze coins usually didnt feature the Kings image, and usually had a god or goddess or in some cases a charging bull, under Seleukos I Nicator, the first Selucid king, the coinage varieties are similar to Alexander the Greats with the kings head wearing a lion skin. After 300 BCE the head of this King is portrayed in a style to other Greek coinage. Obverses 1, Seleucos or Dionysos in helmet covered with a panther skin & adorned with bulls ears & horns,2, Head of Herakles wearing lions skin headdress. 3, Head of Apollo facing right 4, Young Heracles,5, A naked male figure seated facing left on a rock, holding an ankh in his right hand. 6, Dioskouros 7, Athena wearing an Attic helmet,8, Winged head of Medusa facing right. Reverses 1, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre 2, Athena advancing right, brandishing a spear & holding a shield 3, on bronze coins 4, Athena over elephant.
5, Boeotian shield between Nike & trophy 6, Forepart of a horse facing right with an anchor above. Antiochus I Soter Coins Designs are much the same as the ruler, in featuring the many Greek gods and the Kings head. Syria The Seleucid Kings SELEUCID KINGDOM - COINS Seleucos I Antiochos 1 Zeno. ru
The ancient city is located within the modern Turkish city of İznik, and is situated in a fertile basin at the eastern end of Lake Ascanius, bounded by ranges of hills to the north and south. It is situated with its west wall rising from the lake itself, the lake is large enough that it could not be blockaded from the land easily, and the city was large enough to make any attempt to reach the harbour from shore-based siege weapons very difficult. The ancient city is surrounded on all sides by 5 kilometres of walls about 10 metres high and these are in turn surrounded by a double ditch on the land portions, and included over 100 towers in various locations. Large gates on the three sides of the walls provided the only entrance to the city. Today the walls have been pierced in places for roads. The version however was not widespread even in Antiquity, Antigonus is known to have established Bottiaean soldiers in the vicinity, lending credence to the tradition about the citys founding by Bottiaeans.
Following Antigonus defeat and death at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BC, the city was captured by Lysimachus, who renamed it Nicaea, in tribute to his wife Nicaea, who had recently died. Sometime before 280 BC, the city came under the control of the dynasty of the kings of Bithynia. This marks the beginning of its rise to prominence as a seat of the royal court, the two cities dispute over which one was the pre-eminent city of Bithynia continued for centuries, and the 38th oration of Dio Chrysostom was expressly composed to settle the dispute. Along with the rest of Bithynia, Nicaea came under the rule of the Roman Republic in 72 BC. The geographer Strabo described the city as built in the typical Hellenistic fashion with great regularity, in the form of a square, measuring 16 stadia in circumference, i. e. approx. This monument stood in the gymnasium, which was destroyed by fire but was restored with increased magnificence by Pliny the Younger, in his writings Pliny makes frequent mention of Nicaea and its public buildings.
Emperor Hadrian visited the city in 123 AD after it had been damaged by an earthquake. The new city was enclosed by a wall of some 5 kilometres in length. Reconstruction was not completed until the 3rd century, and the new set of walls failed to save Nicaea from being sacked by the Goths in 258 AD, by the 4th century, Nicaea was a large and prosperous city, and a major military and administrative centre. Emperor Constantine the Great convened the First Ecumenical Council there, the city remained important in the 4th century, seeing the proclamation of Emperor Valens and the failed rebellion of Procopius. During the same period, the See of Nicaea became independent of Nicomedia and was raised to the status of a metropolitan bishopric, many of its grand civic buildings began to fall into ruin, and had to be restored in the 6th century by Emperor Justinian I. Nicaea became the capital of the Opsician Theme in the 8th century and remained a center of administration, a Jewish community is attested in the city in the 10th century
Roman provincial currency
Roman provincial currency was coinage minted within the Roman Empire by local civic rather than imperial authorities. These coins were often continuations of the original currencies that existed prior to the arrival of the Romans, when a new region was assimilated into Roman civilization, the continuance of pre-existing local currencies was often allowed as a matter of expediency. Also, new colonies were given authority to mint bronze coins. These provincial currencies were used by the local inhabitants only for local trade – as their intrinsic values were usually much lower than Roman imperial coinage. Provincial coins were issued in silver and bronze denominations and billon coins were more common in the Eastern regions of the Empire, particularly Alexandria. In general, the issuance of coinage was controlled by Rome. That gave the government a measure of control and influence throughout the empire. Some coins that circulated in the parts of the empire may have been minted at the mint of Rome.
There were over 600 provincial mints during the Imperial Era, the mints were located throughout the Empire, with a particular concentration in the Eastern portions of the Empire. Major provincial cities such as Corinth or Antioch possessed their own minting capabilities, some mints issued only for their cities while others issued coins for entire province. There are several cities known by their coins, as there is no mention of them. List of historical currencies Roman currency Roman Republican coinage Roman Provincial Coins Coins on Wildwinds. com Coins with similar Designs Roman Egypt coins Area of issues
Bithynia and Pontus
Bithynia and Pontus was the name of a province of the Roman Empire on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia. It was formed by the amalgamation of the kingdoms of Bithynia. The province of Bithynia and Pontus was originally two separate kingdoms, among the successor kingdoms of Alexander the Greats empire. The Kingdom of Bithynia first achieved Independence from the larger Hellenistic kingdoms in 297 BC under its first king Zipoetes I of Bithynia, under king Prusias I, Bithynia first came into contact with the Roman Republic. Bithynia remained neutral during Romes war against the Seleucid Empire and its King Antiochus the Great from 192-188 BC, Prusias Is son and successor, Prusias II of Bithynia, first opened relations with Rome. Following Prusias IIs failed invasion of the Roman ally of the Kingdom of Pergamon in 154 BC, Prusias II sent his son Nicomedes II of Bithynia to Rome to negotiate a reduction in the annual payments. Supported by Rome and Pergamon king Attalus II Philadelphus, Nicomedes II overthrew his father and became king in 149 BC, Nicomedes II would be a loyal ally, actively supporting Romes interests in the Aegean Sea and Black Sea.
In 133 BC, King Attalus III of Pergamon died, bequeathing his kingdom to Rome, Eumenes III, claiming to be the illegitimate son of a former Pergamon king, claimed the throne and made war against the Romans. Though the Romans sent the Consul Publius Licinius Crassus Dives Mucianus to enforce their claims in 130 BC, Eumenes III defeated them, Rome sent a second army in 129 BC under Marcus Perperna to face Pergamon pretender. Supported by forces under Nicomedes II, Perperna was able to defeat Eumenes III and secured Romes claims in western Anatolia, relations between Bithnyia and Rome soured during the reign of Nicomedes IIs son and successor Nicomedes III over the influence over the central Anatolian kingdom of Cappadocia. Becoming king in 127 BC, Nicomedes III conqurered Paphlagonia along the Black Sea, in 116 BC, the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VI was murdered by the Cappadocian noble Gordius on orders from King Mithridates VI of Pontus. Mithridates VI installed his sister Laodice of Cappadocia, Ariarathes VIs widow, as regent over for the infant Ariarathes VII, ensuring Pontic control over Cappadocia in the process.
Nicomedes III sought to take advantage of the power vacuum in Cappadocia, invaded the kingdom. Laodice, mother of Nicomedes IIIs deaseced wife Nysa, married Nicomedes III to secure his hold over the kingdom, the Roman Senate did not side with either party and demanded both to withdraw from Cappadocia and ensure its independence. The next year, in 94 BC, Nicomedes III died and was succeeded by his son, with Cappadocia secured, Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia, defeating Nicomedes IV in 90 BC, annexing his kingdom. Nicomedes IV sought the protection of Rome, upon arriving in Italy, the Senate sent a delegation to Pontus, demanding Mithridates restore Nicomedes IV to his throne. Though the Social War was still raging in Italy, Rome was able to restore both kings due to the Republics growing influence in the region. Once restored to his throne, the Senate encouraged Nicomedes IV to raid Mithridates VIs territories, Mithridates VI invaded Bithynia in 88 BC, again forcing Nicomedes IV to flee to Rome
In the coinage of the North Indian and Central Asian Kushan Empire the main coins issued were gold, weighing 7. 9g. and base metal issues of various weights between 12g and 1. 5g. Little silver coinage was issued, but in periods the gold used was debased with silver. The coin designs usually follow the styles of the preceding Greco-Bactrian rulers in using Hellenistic styles of image, with a deity on one side. Kings may be shown as a head, a standing figure, typically officiating at a fire altar in Zoroastrian style. The artistry of the dies is generally lower than the high standards of the best coins of Greco-Bactrian rulers. Iranian influence, especially in the figures and the pantheon of deities used, is even stronger. Under Kanishka the royal title of King of kings changed from the Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ to the Persian form ϷAONANOϷAO, much of what little information we have of Kushan political history derives from coins. The language of inscriptions is typically the Bactrian language, written in a derived from Greek.
Many coins show the tamga symbols as a kind of monogram for the ruler, there were several regional mints, and the evidence from coins suggests that much of the empire was semi-independent. Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on early coins, during Kanishkas reign, the language of the coinage changes to Bactrian. After Huvishka, only two appear on the coins and Oesho. Representation of entities from Greek mythology and Hellenistic syncretism are, Ηλιος, Ηφαηστος, Σαληνη, the coins of Huvishka portray the demi-god erakilo Heracles, and the Egyptian god sarapo Sarapis. This is typically a depiction of Rudra, but in the case of two coins is generally assumed to represent Shiva. The northern area, Bactria which had the largest sized coins of 12g and 1. 5g, Gandhara whose coinage weighed 9-10g for large and 2g for small, and the Indian area, where coins are 4g each. MacDowell proposed a reduction of all three issues starting with Huvishka, while Chattopadhyay proposes a rapid devaluation of the issue by Kanishka.
It seems that there were two reductions based on the coinage of the rulers just named, issues were unified into a central coinage system of weights. Vima Kadphises issued three denominations of for this metal, a two of 15.75 grammes, a one of 7.8 grammes and a quarter piece of 1.95 grammes. MacDowell, David W. Mithra, Mithras Planetary Setting in the Coinage of the Great Kushans, in Études Mithriaques, Actes Du 2e Congrès International, Téhéran, Du 1er Au 8 Septembre,1975, ed
The Bosporan Kingdom was the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state and it was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a defeat on the Scythians. The prosperity of the Bosporan Kingdom was based on the export of wheat and these include gold work, vases imported from Athens, coarse terracottas, textile fragments and specimens of carpentry and marquetry. These Greek colonies were settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Phanagoria was a colony of Teos, and the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens, at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian League in the 5th century. The Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the name derived. Spartocus founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c.110 BC, surviving material do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region.
Satyrus son Leucon eventually took the city and he was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, and Paerisades, Spartocus died in 342, allowing Paerisades to reign alone until 310. After Paerisades death, a war between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was killed in battle. Eumelus successor was Spartocus III and after him Paerisades II, succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him and they maintained close relations with Athens, their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports, Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports. The Attic orators make numerous references to this, in return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. His eldest living son, regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, Mithridates ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war.
In 63 BC, the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a tomb in either Sinope or Amasia. Before the death of Pharnaces II, Asander had married Pharnaces II’s daughter Dynamis and Dynamis were the ruling monarchs until Caesar commanded a paternal uncle of Dynamis, Mithridates II to declare war on the Bosporan Kingdom and claimed the kingship for himself
The cistophorus was a coin of ancient Pergamum. It was introduced sometime in the years 175-160 BC at that city to provide the Attalid kingdom with a substitute for Seleucid coins and it was used by a number of other cities that were under Attalid control. It continued to be minted and circulated down to the time of Hadrian and it owes its name to a figure, on the obverse, of the sacred chest of Dionysus. It was tariffed at four drachmas, but weighed only as much as three Attic drachmas,12.75 grams, in addition, the evidence of hoards suggests that it did not travel outside the area which Pergamum controlled. It is therefore suspected that it was overvalued in this area, article in Smiths Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities
Civil wars and executions continued, culminating in the victory of Octavian, Caesars adopted son, over Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the annexation of Egypt. Octavians power was unassailable and in 27 BC the Roman Senate formally granted him overarching power, the imperial period of Rome lasted approximately 1,500 years compared to the 500 years of the Republican era. The first two centuries of the empires existence were a period of unprecedented political stability and prosperity known as the Pax Romana, following Octavians victory, the size of the empire was dramatically increased. After the assassination of Caligula in 41, the senate briefly considered restoring the republic, under Claudius, the empire invaded Britannia, its first major expansion since Augustus. Vespasian emerged triumphant in 69, establishing the Flavian dynasty, before being succeeded by his son Titus and his short reign was followed by the long reign of his brother Domitian, who was eventually assassinated.
The senate appointed the first of the Five Good Emperors, the empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan, the second in this line. A period of increasing trouble and decline began with the reign of Commodus, Commodus assassination in 192 triggered the Year of the Five Emperors, of which Septimius Severus emerged victorious. The assassination of Alexander Severus in 235 led to the Crisis of the Third Century in which 26 men were declared emperor by the Roman Senate over a time span. It was not until the reign of Diocletian that the empire was fully stabilized with the introduction of the Tetrarchy, which saw four emperors rule the empire at once. This arrangement was unsuccessful, leading to a civil war that was finally ended by Constantine I. Constantine subsequently shifted the capital to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople in his honour and it remained the capital of the east until its demise. Constantine adopted Christianity which became the state religion of the empire. However, Augustulus was never recognized by his Eastern colleague, and separate rule in the Western part of the empire ceased to exist upon the death of Julius Nepos.
The Eastern Roman Empire endured for another millennium, eventually falling to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, the Roman Empire was among the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in the world of its time. It was one of the largest empires in world history, at its height under Trajan, it covered 5 million square kilometres. It held sway over an estimated 70 million people, at that time 21% of the entire population. Throughout the European medieval period, attempts were made to establish successors to the Roman Empire, including the Empire of Romania, a Crusader state. Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, then, it was an empire long before it had an emperor
The Black Sea is a body of water between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, bounded by Bulgaria, Romania, Russia and Ukraine. It is supplied by a number of rivers, such as the Danube, Rioni, Southern Bug. The Black Sea has an area of 436,400 km2, a depth of 2,212 m. It is constrained by the Pontic Mountains to the south and by the Caucasus Mountains to the east, the longest east-west extent is about 1,175 km. The Black Sea has a water balance, that is, a net outflow of water 300 km3 per year through the Bosphorus. Mediterranean water flows into the Black Sea as part of a two-way hydrological exchange, the Black Sea drains into the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, via the Aegean Sea and various straits. The Bosphorus Strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and these waters separate Eastern Europe and Western Asia. The Black Sea is connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch, the water level has varied significantly. Due to these variations in the level in the basin. At certain critical water levels it is possible for connections with surrounding water bodies to become established and it is through the most active of these connective routes, the Turkish Straits, that the Black Sea joins the world ocean.
When this hydrological link is not present, the Black Sea is a basin, operating independently of the global ocean system. Currently the Black Sea water level is high, thus water is being exchanged with the Mediterranean. The Turkish Straits connect the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea, and comprise the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Black Sea as follows, On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Sea of Marmara, a line joining Cape Takil and Cape Panaghia. Strabos Geographica reports that in antiquity, the Black Sea was often just called the Sea, for the most part, Graeco-Roman tradition refers to the Black Sea as the Hospitable sea, Εὔξεινος Πόντος Eúxeinos Póntos. This is a euphemism replacing an earlier Inhospitable Sea, Πόντος Ἄξεινος Póntos Áxeinos, strabo thinks that the Black Sea was called inhospitable before Greek colonization because it was difficult to navigate, and because its shores were inhabited by savage tribes.
The name was changed to hospitable after the Milesians had colonized the southern shoreline and it is possible that the epithet Áxeinos arose by popular etymology from a Scythian word axšaina- unlit, the designation Black Sea may thus date from antiquity. A map of Asia dating to 1570, entitled Asiae Nova Descriptio, from Abraham Orteliuss Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, english-language writers of the 18th century often used the name Euxine Sea to refer to the Black Sea
Nicomedia was an ancient Greek city in what is now Turkey. It was founded in 712/11 BC as a Megarian colony and was known as Astacus. The great military commander Hannibal Barca came to Nicomedia in his final years, the historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, Nicomedia remained as the eastern capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his capital city for the next six years. Constantine died in a villa in the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, a major earthquake, however, on 24 August 358, caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia, and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale, in the sixth century under Emperor Justinian I the city was extended with new public buildings.
Situated on the leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center. In 451, the bishopric was promoted to a Metropolitan see under the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. The metropolis of Nicomedia was ranked 7th in the Notitiae Episcopatuum among the metropolises of the patriarchate, in the eighth century the Emperor Constantine V established his court there for a time, when plague broke out in Constantinople and drove him from his capital in 746-47. From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi, by that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurdadhbih as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel, in the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city remained in Byzantine control for over a century after that, the city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans before finally succumbing in 1337.
Author of Keter Torah, Gan Eden, and Etz Hayyim 20,000 Martyrs of Nicomedia Nicaea
Pergamon /ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/ or Pergamum /ˈpɜːrɡəməm/ was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres from the coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus. Many remains of its monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar. It became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC, Pergamon is cited in the Book of Revelation as one of the seven churches of Asia. Xenophon provides the earliest surviving mention of Pergamon. Captured by Xenophon in 399 BC and immediately recaptured by the Persians, in 261 BC he bequeathed his possessions to his nephew Eumenes I, who increased them greatly, leaving as heir his cousin Attalus I. The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world, for their support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.
As a consequence of its rise to power, the city expanded greatly, until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c.21 hectares. After this year, a new city wall was constructed,4 kilometres long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares. The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity, many documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence and they sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi and Athens. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens, when Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome in order to prevent a civil war. Not everyone in Pergamon accepted Romes rule, who claimed to be Attalus brother as well as the son of Eumenes II, an earlier king, led a revolt among the lower classes with the help of Blossius.
The revolt was put down in 129 BC, and Pergamon was divided among Rome, Pergamon was briefly the capital of the Roman province of Asia, before the capital was transferred to Ephesus. After a slow decline, the city was favoured by several imperial initiatives under Hadrian, in addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic, after Hippocrates the most famous physician of antiquity, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. Pergamon reached the height of its greatness under Roman Imperial rule and was home to about 200,000 inhabitants, the city was an early seat of Christianity and was granted a bishopric by the 2nd century. The city suffered badly during the century and was badly damaged by an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly after