Algolsheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. This Alsatian commune is located in the Haut-Rhin several kilometers from Neuf-Brisach. Situated 2 km from the border with Germany, Algolsheim includes a good number of German residents, which has increased its number of inhabitants in recent years. Algolsheim is part of the Canton of Ensisheim and the Arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé. In 1196, the village was mentioned under the name d'Altolvisherde. From 1324 until the Revolution, the commune was part of the holdings of the counts of Wurtemberg. Between 1870 and 1875, several tombs of bronze were found in the territory of the commune; the village held the name Alt-Olsheim. It owes its current name to the ease; the town includes a catholic church, a protestant temple since 1864, as well as a Mennonite chapel founded in 1977. Modernised agriculture, the principal industry of Algolsheim, maintains a healthy level, despite the increasing scarcity of farmers.
More than half of the inhabitants of the commune work in the nearby industrial centers on the banks of the Rhine. The construction of new housing projects has led to an increase in the demographic diversity of the village. Algolsheim possesses a rich natural heritage, owing to the proximity of the Rhine forest and the île du Rhin. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
The Thur is a river in the Haut-Rhin department, France, left tributary of the river Ill. It rises in the Vosges Mountains, flows through the towns Thann and Cernay, it flows into the Ill near Ensisheim, north of Mulhouse. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Thur at the Sandre database
Aubure is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Grand Est in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Baldersheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. It forms part of the Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération, the inter-communal local government body for the Mulhouse conurbation. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Bantzenheim is a commune in the Haut-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France. Communes of the Haut-Rhin department INSEE commune file
Haut-Rhin is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine. Its name means Upper Rhine. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departments of the former administrative Alsace region after the 1871 cession of the southern territory known since 1922 as Territoire de Belfort, although it is still densely populated compared to the rest of metropolitan France; the department consists of the following arrondissements: Altkirch Colmar-Ribeauvillé Mulhouse Thann-Guebwiller Haut-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments, created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790 through the application of the law of 22 December 1789 in respect of the southern half of the province of Alsace. Its boundaries have been modified many times: 1798, it absorbed Mulhouse a free city, the last Swiss enclave in the south of Alsace; the remaining French part formed the Territoire de Belfort in 1922. 1940, it was annexed de facto by Nazi Germany. 1944, it was recovered by France.
Haut-Rhin is bordered by the Territoire de Belfort and Vosges départements and the Vosges Mountains to the west, the Bas-Rhin département to the North, Switzerland to the south and its eastern border with Germany is the Rhine. In the centre of the département lies a fertile plain; the climate is semi-continental. Haut-Rhin is one of the richest French départements. Mulhouse is the home of a Peugeot automobile factory, manufacturing the 206 models; the lowest unemployment rate in France can be found in the Southern Sundgau region. The countryside is marked by hills. Many Haut-Rhinois work in Switzerland in the chemical industries of Basel, but commute from France where living costs are lower. Alsace and the adjacent Moselle department have a legal system different from the rest of France; the statutes in question date from the period 1871 - 1919 when the area was part of the German Empire. With the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France in 1919, Paris accepted that Alsace and Moselle should retain some local laws in respect of certain matters with regard to hunting, economic life, local government relationships, health insurance and social rights.
It includes notably the absence of any formal separation between church and state: several mainstream denominations of the Christian church benefit from state funding, in contrast to principles applied in the rest of France. Alsatian language Cantons of the Haut-Rhin department Communes of the Haut-Rhin department Arrondissements of the Haut-Rhin department General Council website Prefecture website Haut-Rhin at Curlie
Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France. Each side drew many allies into the war, it was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages, in which five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne of the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war marked both the height of chivalry and its subsequent decline, the development of strong national identities in both countries. Tensions between the crowns of France and England can be traced back to the origins of the English royal family itself, French in origin. For this reason, English monarchs had held not only the English Crown, but titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals to the kings of France; the status of the English King's French fiefs was a major source of conflict between the two monarchies throughout the Middle Ages.
French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France. Over the centuries, English holdings in France had varied in size, at some points dwarfing the French royal domain. In 1316, a principle was established denying women succession to the French throne. In 1328, Charles IV of France died without brothers, his closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was sister of the deceased King. Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess. Furthermore, political sentiment favoured a Frenchman for the crown rather than a foreign prince; the throne passed instead to Philip, Count of Valois, a patrilineal cousin of Charles IV, who would become Philip VI of France, the first king of the House of Valois. The English had not expected their claim to meet with success, did not press the matter when it was denied.
However, disagreements between Philip and Edward induced the former to confiscate the latter's lands in France, in turn prompted Edward III to reassert his claim to the French throne. Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Agincourt—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, convinced the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades. However, the greater resources of the French monarchy prevented the English kings from completing the conquest of France. Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay and Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent. Historians divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War, the Caroline War, the Lancastrian War. Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession, the Castilian Civil War, the War of the Two Peters in Aragon, the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed by the parties to advance their agendas.
Historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history. The war owes its historical significance to multiple factors. By its end, feudal armies had been replaced by professional troops, aristocratic dominance had yielded to a democratisation of the manpower and weapons of armies. Although a dynastic conflict, the war gave impetus to ideas of French and English nationalism; the wider introduction of weapons and tactics supplanted the feudal armies where heavy cavalry had dominated, artillery became important. The war precipitated the creation of the first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire, thus helping to change their role in warfare. With respect to the belligerents, in France, civil wars, deadly epidemics and bandit free-companies of mercenaries reduced the population drastically. In England, political forces over time came to oppose the costly venture.
The dissatisfaction of English nobles, resulting from the loss of their continental landholdings, as well as the general shock at losing a war in which investment had been so great, became factors leading to the Wars of the Roses. The root causes of the conflict can be found in the demographic and political crises of 14th century Europe; the outbreak of war was motivated by a gradual rise in tension between the kings of France and England about Gascony and Scotland. The dynastic question, which arose due to an interruption of the direct male line of the Capetians, was the official pretext; the question of female succession to the French throne was raised after the death of Louis X in 1316. Louis X left only a daughter, his posthumous son John I lived only a few days. Furthermore, the paternity of his daughter was in question, as her mother, Margaret of Burgundy, had been exposed as an adulterer in the Tour de Nesle affair. Philip, Count of Poitiers, brother of Louis X, positioned himself to take the crown, advancing the stance that women should be ineligible to succeed to the French throne.
Through his political sagacity he won over his adversaries and succeeded to the French throne as Philip V. By the same law that he procured, his daughters were denied the succession, whi