Camino Real de Tierra Adentro
The Camino Real de Tierra Adentro was a 2560 kilometer long trade route between Mexico City and San Juan Pueblo, New Mexico, from 1598 to 1882. In 2010, 55 sites and 5 existing World Heritage Sites along the Mexican section of the route became an entry on the Unesco World Heritage List; those sites include historic cities, bridges and other monuments along the 1,400 km route between the Historic Center of Mexico City and the town of Valle de Allende, Chihuahua. The 404 mile section of the route within the United States was proclaimed as a part of the National Historic Trail system on 13 October 2000. El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail is overseen by both the National Park Service and the U. S. Bureau of Land Management with aid from El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro Trail Assoc. known as CARTA. A portion of the trail near San Acacia, New Mexico was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2014. Long before the Europeans arrived, the various indigenous tribes and kingdoms that had arisen throughout the northern central steppe of Mexico had established the route that would become the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro as a major hunting and trade route.
The route connected the peoples of the valley of Mexico with those of the north through the exchange of products such as turquoise, obsidian and feathers. By the year 1000, a flourishing trade network existed from Mesoamerica to the Rocky Mountains. Once the great Tenochtitlan was subdued, the conquistadors began a series of expeditions with the purpose of expanding their domains and obtaining greater wealth for the Spanish Crown, their initial efforts led them to follow the established trails of the natives who exchanged goods between the north and the south. In April 1598, a group of military scouts led by Juan de Oñate, the newly-appointed colonial governor of the province of Nuevo México, became lost in the desert south of Paso del Norte while seeking the best route to the Río del Norte. A local Indian they had captured named Mompil drew in the sand a map of the only safe passage to the river; this group arrived at the Río del Norte just south of present-day El Paso and Ciudad Juárez in late April, where they celebrated the Catholic day of Ascension on April 30, 1598 before crossing the river.
They mapped and extended the route to what is now Espaniola, where Oñate would establish the capital of the new province. This trail became the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, the northernmost of the four main "royal roads" - the Caminos Real - that linked Mexico City to its major tributaries in Acapulco, Veracruz and Santa Fe. After the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, which pushed the Spanish out of Nuevo México, the Spanish Crown decided not to abandon the province altogether but instead maintained a channel to the province so as not to abandon their remaining subjects in the province; the Viceroyalty organized a system, the so-called conducta, to supply the missions and northern ranchos. The conducta consisted of wagon caravans that departed every three years from Mexico City to Santa Fe along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro; the trip required a long and difficult journey of six months, including 2–3 weeks of rest along the way. Many were the uncertainties that other travelers faced. River floods could force weeks of waiting on the banks.
At other times, prolonged droughts in the area could make water difficult to find. The most feared section of the journey was the crossing of the Jornada del Muerto beyond El Paso del Norte: A hundred kilometers of open desert without any oases to hydrate the men and beasts. Beyond the sustenance needs, the greatest danger to the caravan was that of local assaults. Groups of bandits roamed throughout the territory and threatened the caravan from the current state of Mexico to the state of Querétaro, seeking articles of value, and from the southern part of Zacatecas onward to the north, the greatest threat was the native Chichimecas, which would become more to attack as the caravan progressed further north. The main objective of the Chichimecas was horses, but they would often take women and children; the Presidios along the way would provide relays of troops to provide additional protection to the caravans. The Camino Real was used as a commercial route for 300 years, from the middle of the 16th century to the 19th century for the transport of silver extracted from the northern mines.
During this time, the road was continuously improved, over time the risks became smaller as haciendas and population centers emerged. During the 18th century, the sites along the Camino Real de Tierra Adentro increased significantly; the area between the villas of Durango and Santa Fe came to be known as "the Chihuahua Trail". The villa of San Felipe el Real, established in 1709 to support the surrounding mines, became the most important commercial center and financial area along this segment; the villa of San Felipe Neri de Alburquerque was founded in 1706 and it became an important terminal. Because of its defensive position on the Camino Real, the Villa de Alburquerque became the center of commercial exchange between Nuevo México and the rest of New Spain during the 18th century, trading cattle, textiles, animal skins and nuts; this exchange occurred with the mining cities of Chihuahua, Santa Bárbara and Parral. And of course, Paso del Norte became another major terminal on the route. In 1765 the population of E
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument is a U. S. National Monument created to protect Mogollon cliff dwellings in the Gila Wilderness on the headwaters of the Gila River in southwest New Mexico; the 533-acre national monument was established by President Theodore Roosevelt through executive proclamation on November 16, 1907. It is located in the extreme southern portion of Catron County. Visitors can access the Monument by traveling northbound from Silver City, New Mexico 37 miles on NM 15. Considered by archaeologists to be on the northernmost portion of the Mogollon People's sphere of influence, the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument is home to two prominent ruins sites among a collection of smaller sites located within the Gila Wilderness inside the Gila National Forest; the Monument landscape ranges in elevation from around 5,700 to 7,300 feet above sea level and follows the branches of the Gila River. The terrain around the ruins is rugged and arid, contains steep-sided canyons cut by shallow spring rivers and mesas and bluffs forested with Ponderosa pine, Gambel's oak, Douglas fir, New Mexico juniper, pinon pine, alligator juniper.
The area geologic history stems from the Oligocene epoch and volcanic activity that subsequently covered the area with ash. The Monument's hot springs are remnants of this volcanic history; the Monument consists of 553 acres and contains the remains of a Mimbres Culture community in various locations, two of which are most prominent. The namesake ruins' developers made use of natural caves to build interlinked dwellings within five cliff alcoves above Cliff Dweller Canyon; the TJ Ruins are located on a bluff overlooking the Gila River. The Mogollon Peoples are believed to have inhabited the region from between 1275 and into the early 14th century, during the Pueblo III Era. Archaeologists have identified 46 rooms in the five caves on Cliff Dweller Canyon, believed they were occupied by 10 to 15 families; the "Heart-Bar Site" or the TJ Ruins located on TJ Mesa are un-excavated. It is not known. Hopi oral tradition refers to migrations occurred based cycles calendars, in response to changing environmental conditions.
Other ruins include Javalina House, about 1/3 mile above the main ruin, West Fork Ruin under Highway 15 across from Woody Corral, Three Mile Ruin along the west fork of the Gila River, middle fork of the Gila River at the 11 room Cosgrove Ruin. Dendrochronology determined that the wood used in the dwellings were cut between 1276 and 1287; the region provided for growing and hunting food. To visit the namesake dwellings, requires visitors to hike a well-traveled mile long trail loop with several foot bridges over a stream; the entire walk takes about an hour. The hike ends at 5875 Feet. Though local Native American Indians were aware of the location of ruins, the first European contact with the Gila Cliff Dwellings was by Henry B. Ailman. In the summer of 1878, Ailman and several friends were summoned to serve for jury duty and in an effort to avoid the summons, they organized a prospecting trip to the Gila River where they subsequently came upon the site. Throughout the following years, many visitors would study the dwellings.
Soon the site became more accessible and in the 1890s the Hill brothers had established a resort at the nearby Gila Hot Springs. The Hill brothers would begin the first tours to the ruin for their guests. In June 1906, Rep. John F. Lacey of Iowa and chairman of the House Public Lands Committee introduced a bill for the regulation of prehistoric sites; the Act for the Preservation of Antiquities known as the Antiquities Act, authorized the US President to set aside land that contained prehistoric and historic ruins by executive order. These federal reservations were called national monuments and were to be managed by the Interior and War departments, depending on which agency had controlled a particular site before it was withdrawn for preservation. In December 1906, Gila Forest Supervisor R. C. McClure reported to the chief forester in Washington, D. C. that the Gila Cliff Dwellings warranted preservation by the national government to avoid further removal of artifacts by hunters and other prospectors.
Several mummified bodies had been found at the Gila Cliff Dwellings location, though most were lost to looters and private collectors. In 1912, a burial ground was found; the discovery increased the monument's popularity and visitor numbers. In turn, additional improvements were made in the following years; the mummy is the only known mummy. Administration of the monument was transferred from the U. S. Department of Agriculture to the National Park Service on August 10, 1933, by Executive Order 6166. President Kennedy would sign proclamation no. 3467, that added 375 acres and contained the TJ site, as well as additional wilderness area. In the spring of 1975, the National Park Service and the United States Forest Service signed a cooperative agreement where the Gila National Forest is responsible for administration of the monument. A museum and visitors center is located at the monument near the TJ Ruins; the visitor center is jointly operated by the U. S. Forest Service, the National Park Service.
The Museum hosts exhibits of Apache and Mogollon artifacts, uncovered both in the surrounding wilderness, at the Monument. Displayed items include a br
Aztec Ruins National Monument
The Aztec Ruins National Monument preserves Ancestral Puebloan structures in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of New Mexico. This national monument is close to both the town of Aztec and the Animas River, it is about 12 miles northeast of Farmington, New Mexico; the Salmon Ruins and Heritage Park, which has Puebloan structures, is about 9.5 miles south of the monument. The Aztec ruins date from the 11th to the 13th centuries. American settlers in the 19th century named them the "Aztec ruins" based on their erroneous belief that the Aztec civilization built them; the site was declared "Aztec Ruin National Monument" on January 24, 1923. After a boundary change, "Ruin" was changed to "Ruins" on July 2, 1928; as a historical property of the National Park Service, the monument was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization listed the Chaco Culture as a World Heritage Site on December 8, 1987.
That listing included the Aztec ruins. The monument is on the Trail of the Ancients Scenic Byway, one of New Mexico's Scenic Byways; the property was part of a 160-acre homestead owned by H. D. Abrams, who supported the ruins preservation; the H. D. Abrams House in Aztec is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. National Register of Historic Places listings in San Juan County, New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States "The National Parks: Index 2001–2003". Washington, D. C. United States Department of the Interior Aztec Ruins National Monument National Park Service website American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary UNESCO World Heritage site Media related to Aztec Ruins National Monument at Wikimedia Commons
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
A dragonfly is an insect belonging to the order Odonata, infraorder Anisoptera. Adult dragonflies are characterized by large, multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong, transparent wings, sometimes with coloured patches, an elongated body. Dragonflies can be mistaken for the related group, which are similar in structure, though lighter in build. Dragonflies are agile fliers. Many dragonflies have brilliant iridescent or metallic colours produced by structural coloration, making them conspicuous in flight. An adult dragonfly's compound eyes have nearly 24,000 ommatidia each. Fossils of large dragonfly ancestors in the Protodonata are found from 325 million years ago in Upper Carboniferous rocks. There are about 3,000 extant species. Most are tropical, with fewer species in temperate regions. Dragonflies are predators, both in their aquatic larval stage, they are known as nymphs or naiads, as adults. Several years of their lives are spent as nymphs living in fresh water, they are fast, agile fliers, sometimes migrating across oceans, live near water.
They have a uniquely complex mode of reproduction involving indirect insemination, delayed fertilization, sperm competition. During mating, the male grasps the female at the back of the head, the female curls her abdomen under her body to pick up sperm from the male's secondary genitalia at the front of his abdomen, forming the "heart" or "wheel" posture. Loss of wetland habitat threatens dragonfly populations around the world. Dragonflies are represented in human culture on artifacts such as pottery, rock paintings, Art Nouveau jewellery, they are used in traditional medicine in Japan and China, caught for food in Indonesia. They are symbols of courage and happiness in Japan, but seen as sinister in European folklore, their bright colours and agile flight are admired in the poetry of Lord Tennyson and the prose of H. E. Bates. Dragonflies and their relatives are an ancient group; the oldest fossils are of the Protodonata from the 325 Mya Upper Carboniferous of Europe, a group that included the largest insect that lived, Meganeuropsis permiana from the early Permian, with a wingspan around 750 mm.
The Protanisoptera, another ancestral group which lacks certain wing vein characters found in modern Odonata, lived from the Early to Late Permian age until the end Permian event, are known from fossil wings from current day United States and Australia, suggesting they might have been cosmopolitan in distribution. The forerunners of modern Odonata are included in a clade called the Panodonata, which include the basal Zygoptera and the Anisoptera. Today there are some 3000 species extant around the world; the relationships of anisopteran families are not resolved as of 2013, but all the families are monophyletic except the Corduliidae. On the cladogram, dashed lines indicate unresolved relationships; the distribution of diversity within the biogeographical regions are summarised below. Dragonflies live on every continent except Antarctica. In contrast to the damselflies, which tend to have restricted distributions, some genera and species are spread across continents. For example, the blue-eyed darner Rhionaeschna multicolor lives all across North America, in Central America.
The globe skimmer Pantala flavescens is the most widespread dragonfly species in the world. Most Anisoptera species are tropical, with far fewer species in temperate regions; some dragonflies, including libellulids and aeshnids, live in desert pools, for example in the Mojave Desert, where they are active in shade temperatures between 18 and 45 °C. Dragonflies live from sea level up to the mountains, their altitudinal limit is about 3700 m, represented by a species of Aeshna in the Pamirs. Dragonflies become scarce at higher latitudes, they are not native to Iceland, but individuals are swept in by strong winds, including a Hemianax ephippiger native to North Africa, an unidentified darter species. In Kamchatka, only a few species of dragonfly including the treeline emerald Somatochlora arctica and some aeshnids such as Aeshna subarctica are found because of the low temperature of the lakes there; the treeline emerald lives in northern Alaska, within the Arctic Circle, making it the most northerly of all dragonflies.
Dragonflies are heavy-bodied, strong-flying insects that hold their win
The Chihuahuan Desert is a desert and ecoregion designation covering parts of northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. It occupies much of West Texas, parts of the middle and lower Rio Grande Valley and the lower Pecos Valley in New Mexico, a portion of southeastern Arizona, as well as the central and northern portions of the Mexican Plateau, it is bordered on the west by the extensive Sierra Madre Occidental range, along with northwestern lowlands of the Sierra Madre Oriental range. On the Mexican side, it covers a large portion of the state of Chihuahua, along with portions of Coahuila, north-eastern Durango, the extreme northern part of Zacatecas, small western portions of Nuevo León. With an area of about 362,000 km2, it is the third largest desert of the Western Hemisphere and the second largest in North America, after the Great Basin Desert. Several larger mountain ranges include the Sierra Madre, the Sierra del Carmen, the Organ Mountains, the Franklin Mountains, the Sacramento Mountains, the Chisos Mountains, the Guadalupe Mountains, the Davis Mountains.
These create "sky islands" of cooler, climates adjacent to, or within the desert, such elevated areas have both coniferous and broadleaf woodlands, including forests along drainages and favored exposures. The Sandia–Manzano Mountains, the Magdalena–San Mateo Mountains, the Gila Region border the Chihuahuan Desert at their lower elevations. There are a few urban areas within the desert: the largest is Ciudad Juárez with two million inhabitants. Las Cruces and Roswell are among the other significant cities in this ecoregion. Monterrey and Santa Fe are located near the Chihuahuan desert. According to the World Wide Fund for Nature the Chihuahuan Desert may be the most biologically diverse desert in the world as measured by species richness or endemism; the region has been badly degraded due to grazing. Many native grasses and other species have become dominated by woody native plants, including creosote bush and mesquite, due to overgrazing and other urbanization; the Mexican wolf, once abundant, remains on the endangered species list.
The desert is a rain shadow desert because the two main mountain ranges covering the desert, the Sierra Madre Occidental to the west and the Sierra Madre Oriental to the east block most moisture from the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico respectively. Climatically, the desert has a dry climate with only one rainy season in the summer and smaller amounts of precipitation in early winter. Most of the summer rains falls between late June and early October, during the North American Monsoon when moist air from the Gulf of Mexico penetrates into the region. Owing to its inland position and higher elevation than the Sonoran Desert to the west varying from 600 to 1,675 m in altitude, the desert has a milder climate in the summer and cool or cold winters with occasional frosts; the average annual temperature in the desert is 24 °C. The hottest temperatures in the desert occur in valleys. Northern areas can receive snowstorms; the mean annual precipitation for the Chihuahuan Desert is 235 mm with a range of 150–400 mm, although it receives more precipitation than other warm desert ecoregions.
Nearly two-thirds of the arid zone stations have annual totals between 275 mm. Snowfall is scant except at the higher elevation edges; the desert is young, existing for only 8000 years. Creosote bush is the dominant plant species on gravelly and occasional sandy soils in valley areas within the Chihuahuan Desert; the other species it is found with depends on factors such as the soil and degree of slope. Viscid acacia, tarbush dominate northern portions, as does broom dalea on sandy soils in western portions. Yucca and Opuntia species are abundant in foothill edges and the central third, while Arizona rainbow cactus and Mexican fire-barrel cactus inhabit portions near the US–Mexico border. Herbaceous plants, such as bush muhly, blue grama, gypsum grama, hairy grama, are dominant in desert grasslands and near the mountain edges including the Sierra Madre Occidental. Lechuguilla, honey mesquite, Opuntia macrocentra and Echinocereus pectinatus are the dominant species in western Coahuila. Ocotillo and Yucca filifera are the most common species in the southeastern part of the desert.
Candelilla, Mimosa zygophylla, Acacia glandulifera and lechuguilla are found in areas with well-draining, shallow soils. The shrubs found near the Sierra Madre Oriental are lechuguilla, Queen Victoria's agave and barreta, while the well-developed herbaceous layer includes grasses and cacti. Grasslands comprise 20% of this desert and are mosaics of shrubs and grasses, they include purple three-awn, black grama, sideoats grama. Early Spanish explorers reported encountering grasses.