Rendova is an island in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands in the South Pacific, east of Papua New Guinea. Rendova Island is a rectangularly-shaped island, located in the South Pacific in the New Georgia Islands; the length of the island is about 40 kilometers. To the north is the island of New Georgia and to the east is the island of Vangunu. Rendova is a volcanic island, with a central stratovolcano cone, with a height of 1,050 metres which last erupted in the Pleistocene; the island is surrounded in some places by a coral reef. The climate on Rendova is wet and tropical, the island is subject to frequent cyclones; the black-sand beaches along the southwest coast of Rendova are important nesting grounds for the critically endangered leatherback turtle. Community-based conservation organisation, the Tetepare Descendants' Association, runs a leatherback conservation program in the villages of Baniata and Retavo on this coastline. In 1999, the population of Rendova was estimated at 3,679 people.
There are two indigenous languages spoken on Rendova Island: the Austronesian language Ughele in the north, the Papuan language Touo in the south. On March 15, 1893, Rendova was declared part of the British Solomon Islands protectorate; the island was occupied by the Empire of Japan in the early stages of World War II. On June 21, 1943, the United States staged the Landings on Rendova which overcame the 300-man Japanese garrison as part of a strategy to disrupt the supply line to the Japanese garrison on the island of New Georgia; the island was subsequently used as a base by the United States Navy for PT boat operations. Solomon Islanders Biuku Gasa and Eroni Kumana paddled their dugout canoe 35 miles to reach the base and deliver a message inscribed on a coconut from then-Lieutenant John F. Kennedy after his PT boat, PT 109, was run down by the Japanese destroyer IJNS Amagiri and he and his crew were stranded on one of the local islands. Since 1978, the island has been part of the independent state of the Solomon Islands Rendova is the setting for the humorous book Solomon Time by Will Randall, about a British school teacher who moves to a village on Rendova to help organise a community project.
Http://www.tetepare.org/ Global Volcanism Project
PT 109 (film)
PT 109 is a 1963 Technicolor biographical war film, filmed in Panavision, which depicts the actions of John F. Kennedy as an officer of the United States Navy in command of Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109 during the Pacific War of World War II; the film was adapted by Vincent Flaherty and Howard Sheehan from the book PT 109: John F. Kennedy in World War II by Robert J. Donovan, the screenplay was written by Robert L. Breen. Cliff Robertson stars as Kennedy, with featured performances by Ty Hardin, James Gregory, Robert Culp, Grant Williams. PT 109 was the first commercial theatrical film about a sitting United States President released while he was still in office and still alive, it was released in the United States on June 19, 1963, five months before Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. In August 1942, the American forces are fighting the Japanese across the Pacific. U. S. Navy Lieutenant, junior grade John F. Kennedy uses his family's influence to get himself assigned to the fighting in the Solomon Islands in the Pacific Theater during World War II, much to the surprise of Commander C.
R. Ritchie. Kennedy lobbies for command of a PT boat, is assigned to the "109", a badly damaged boat in dire need of repair and overhaul. Ritchie seems to regard the young, inexperienced Kennedy as something of a lightweight, but his enthusiasm to build a crew and refurbish the "109" to operational status earns Ritchie's grudging respect; the crew includes Kennedy's executive officer, Ensign Leonard J. Thom, sailors "Bucky" Harris and Edmund Drewitch. On one mission, the PT 109 is sent to evacuate paramarines after their Raid on Choiseul. Kennedy takes aboard the survivors, but gets out of range of Japanese mortars before running out of fuel; the tide starts to carry the boat back toward the island. Kennedy, his crew, the rescued Marines face the prospect of a desperate fight for their lives, but in the nick of time another PT boat arrives and tows the 109 to safety. Another sortie is less successful. While on patrol one, moonless night in August 1943, a Japanese destroyer appears out of the darkness and slices the 109 in two, killing two of the thirteen crew.
Kennedy survives the collision and searches for survivors, despite injuring his back. When Kennedy and his men are presumed dead by nearby allies, Kennedy leads the survivors in swimming to a deserted island, while himself towing a badly burned crewman. Morale drops and several of the men appear ready to give up/surrender but Kennedy remains determined and swims out into the channel the next night hoping another PT boat will come by. No PT boats come by that night or the next night, but after a few days, Kennedy encounters two natives and gives them a carved message on a coconut. For the sailors, they take it to an Australian coastwatcher instead of the Japanese; the coastwatcher sends more natives to the island, they take Kennedy with them, the coastwatcher arranges for a rescue. Afterward, Kennedy is eligible to transfer back to the U. S. but is assigned command of another PT boat, modified as a gunboat, PT 59, elects to stay in the fight. Cliff Robertson as LTJG John F. Kennedy Ty Hardin as ENS Leonard J. Thom James Gregory as CDR C.
R. Ritchie Robert Culp as ENS George "Barney" Ross Grant Williams as LT Alvin Cluster Lew Gallo as Yeoman Rogers Errol John as Benjamin Kevu Michael Pate as Lieutenant Reginald Evans, RANVR Robert Blake as Charles "Bucky" Harris William Douglas as Gerard Zinser Biff Elliot as Edgar E. Mauer Norman Fell as Edmund Drewitch Sam Gilman as Raymond Starkey Clyde Howdy as Leon Drawdy Buzz Martin as Maurice Kowal James McCallion as Pat McMahon Joseph Gallison as Harold Marney Sammy Reese as Andrew Kirksey Glenn Sipes as William Johnson John Ward as John Maguire David Whorf as Raymond Albert Andrew Duggan, narrator George Takei, helmsman of Japanese destroyer JFK's father, Joseph Kennedy, had been a Hollywood producer and head of the RKO studio at one point in his career, he used his influence to negotiate the film rights to Donovan's biography of his son; the film was made under the "personal supervision" of Warner's head of Jack L. Warner; the White House sent Alvin Cluster, a wartime buddy of JFK, his former commanding officer, as well as a PT boat commander to act as a liaison between Warners and the White House for the film.
The White House had other aspects of the film. Among other actors considered for the lead were Peter Fonda, who objected to having to do his screen test with an impersonation of JFK's voice. Kennedy selected Robertson after viewing the screen tests. Robertson met with President Kennedy, who set three conditions on the film: that it be accurate, that profits go to the survivors of PT 109 and their families, President Kennedy had the final choice of lead actor. Though Robertson bore little physical resemblance to JFK and was nearly forty years old at the time the film was made, Alvin Cluster told Robertson "The President picked you not only because you were a fine actor but because you're young looking, yet mature enough so that the world won't get the idea the President was being played by a parking lot attendant or something". In his autobiography Kookie, No More Edd Byrnes said he was told "President John F. Kennedy didn't want to be played by "Kookie". Kennedy vetoed Raoul Walsh as the director of the film after screening Walsh's Marines Let's Go and n
Honiara is the capital city of Solomon Islands, situated on the northwestern coast of Guadalcanal. As of 2017, it had a population of 84,520 people; the city is served by Honiara International Airport and the seaport of Point Cruz, lies along the Kukum Highway. The airport area to the east of Honiara was the site of a battle between the United States and the Japanese during the Guadalcanal Campaign in World War II, the Battle of Henderson Field of 1942, from which America emerged victorious. After Honiara became the new administrative centre of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate in 1952 with the addition of many administrative buildings, the town began to develop and grow in population. Since the late 1990s, Honiara has suffered a turbulent history of ethnic violence and political unrest and is scarred by rioting. A coup attempt in June 2000 resulted in violent rebellions and fighting between the ethnic Malaitans of the Malaita Eagle Force and the Guadalcanal natives of the Isatabu Freedom Movement.
Although a peace agreement was made in October 2000, violence ensued in the city streets in March 2002 when two diplomats from New Zealand and numerous others were murdered. In July 2003, conditions had become so bad in Honiara that the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, consisting of multiple Pacific nations under Australian leadership, was invited into the country by the Solomons Government to restore order. In 2006, riots broke out following the election of Snyder Rini as Prime Minister, destroying a part of Chinatown and making more than 1,000 Chinese residents homeless; the riots devastated the town and tourism in the city and the islands was affected. Honiara contains the majority of the major government institutions of Solomon Islands; the National Parliament of Solomon Islands, Honiara Solomon Islands College of Higher Education, International School in Honiara and University of the South Pacific Solomon Islands are located in Honiara as is the national museum and Honiara Market.
Politically Honiara is divided into three parliamentary constituencies, electing three of the 50 members of the National Parliament. These constituencies, East Honiara, Central Honiara and West Honiara, are three of only six constituencies in the country to have an electorate of over 10,000 people. Honiara is predominantly Christian and is served by the headquarters of the Church of the Province of Melanesia, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Honiara, the South Seas Evangelical Church, the United Church, the Seventh-day Adventist Church and other Christian churches; the name Honiara derives from nagho ni ara which translates as "place of the east wind" or "facing the southeast wind" in one of the Guadalcanal languages. The town has not been extensively documented and little detailed material exists on it; the Battle of Henderson Field, the last of the three major land offensives conducted by the Japanese during the Guadalcanal Campaign of World War II took place in what is now the airport area about 11 kilometres to the east of the city centre.
During the battle, the US Marine and Army forces, under the overall command of Major General Alexander Vandegrift, repulsed an attack by the Japanese 17th Army, under the command of Japanese Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake. The US forces were defending the Lunga River perimeter, which guarded Henderson Field on Guadalcanal, captured from the Japanese by the Allies in landings on Guadalcanal on 7 August 1942. Hyakutake's force was sent to Guadalcanal in response to the Allied landings with the mission of recapturing the airfield and driving the Allied forces off of the island; the Japanese landed with 3,500 troops but the force soon grew to over 20,000 personnel in total equal to America's 23,000. From the top of Mount Austin at 410 metres, panoramic views of the north coastal plains and Florida islands, the battlefields of World War II can be seen; the Japanese had held this hilltop in the second half of 1942 and showered artillery fire on American troops at the Henderson airfield below the hill.
The hill was captured but the Japanese held on to the Gifu, Sea Horse, Galloping Horse ridges for about a month. Most of the Japanese died of banzai assaults or direct killing. Hyakutake's soldiers conducted numerous assaults over three days at various locations around the Lunga perimeter. Along the Matanikau River, the principal river flowing through what is now central Honiara, tanks attacked in pairs across the sandbar at the mouth of the river behind a barrage of artillery. Artillery, including 37 mm anti-tank guns destroyed all nine tanks. At the same time, four battalions of Marine artillery, totalling 40 howitzers, fired over 6,000 rounds into the area between Point Cruz and the Matanikau, causing heavy casualties in Nomasu Nakaguma's infantry battalions as they tried to approach the Marine lines. Both sides incurred heavy losses during the events of the overall battle the Japanese attackers. After an attempt to deliver further reinforcements failed during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in November 1942, Japan conceded defeat in the struggle for the island and evacuated many of its remaining forces by the first week of February 1943.
The Quonset hut built by the Americans can still be seen in the back lanes of the town and numerous memorials give testament to the war. Honiara became the capital of the British Protectorate of Solomon Islands in 1952; the infrastructure had been well developed by the US during the war which dictated the decision of the British Government to shift the capital to Honiara. Government buildings opened in Honiara from early January in 1952. Sir Robert Stanley was based at
Inauguration of John F. Kennedy
The inauguration of John F. Kennedy as the 35th President of the United States was held on Friday, January 20, 1961 at the eastern portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of John F. Kennedy's only term as President and of Lyndon B. Johnson's only term as Vice President. Kennedy was assassinated 2 years, 306 days into this term, Johnson succeeded to the presidency. Kennedy took office following the November 1960 presidential election, in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon, the then–incumbent Vice President, he was the first Catholic to become President, became the youngest person elected to the office. His inaugural address encompassed the major themes of his campaign and would define his presidency during a time of economic prosperity, emerging social changes, diplomatic challenges; this inauguration was the first in which Robert Frost, participated in the program. Presidential inaugurations are organized by the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.
For John F. Kennedy's inauguration, this committee was chaired by Senator John Sparkman, included Senators Carl Hayden and Styles Bridges, Representatives Sam Rayburn, John William McCormack, Charles A. Halleck. Frank Sinatra and Peter Lawford organized and hosted a pre-inaugural ball at the D. C. Armory on the eve of Inauguration day, January 19, 1961, considered as one of the biggest parties held in Washington, D. C. Sinatra recruited many Hollywood stars who performed and attended, went as far as convincing Broadway theatres to suspend their shows for the night to accommodate some of their actors attending the gala. With tickets ranging from $100 per person to $10,000 per group, Sinatra hoped to raise $1.7 million for the Democratic Party to eliminate its debt brought on by a hard-fought campaign. Many Hollywood stars gave brief speeches or performed acts, rehearsed by Kay Thompson and directed by Roger Edens, stayed at the Statler-Hilton Hotel where preparations and rehearsals were photographed by Phil Stern.
Performances and speeches included Fredric March, Sidney Poitier, Nat King Cole, Ella Fitzgerald, Gene Kelly, Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, Bill Dana, Milton Berle, Jimmy Durante, Harry Belafonte, Sinatra himself. Sammy Davis, Jr. a long-time friend of Sinatra, supporter of the Democratic Party, member of the Rat Pack, was asked by John F. Kennedy not to attend the gala at the behest of his father Joseph, fearing that his interracial marriage to Swedish actress May Britt was too controversial for the time and occasion, much to Sammy's and Sinatra's dismay. Davis had postponed his wedding to Britt until after the election at the request of the Kennedy campaign via Sinatra. Davis switched his support to the Republican Party and Richard Nixon in the early 1970s. Harry Belafonte expressed sadness at the controversy, stating "It was the ambassador, we didn't know that until after. Sammy not being there was a loss."At the end of the ball, Kennedy spoke to thank Sinatra on the festivities and his support of the Democratic Party throughout his life and the 1960 campaign, adding "The happy relationship between the arts and politics which has characterized our long history I think reached culmination tonight."
Jacqueline retired to the White House before the ball ended at 1:30am, John went to a second pre-inaugural ball hosted by his father Joseph Kennedy, would return to the White House at around 3:30am. A strong nor'easter fell the day before the inauguration, with temperatures at 20 °F and snowfall at 1–2 inches per hour and a total of 8 inches during the night, causing transportation and logistical problems in Washington and serious concern for the inauguration. On inauguration day, January 20, 1961, the skies began to clear but the snow created chaos in Washington canceling the inaugural parade; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was put in charge of clearing the streets during the evening and morning before the inauguration, were assisted by more than 1,000 District of Columbia employees and 1,700 Boy Scouts; this task force employed hundreds of dump trucks, front-end loaders, plows and flamethrowers to clear the route. Over 1,400 cars, stranded due to the conditions and lack of fuel had to be removed from the parade route along Pennsylvania Avenue.
The snowstorm dropped visibility at Washington National Airport to less than half a mile, preventing former President Herbert Hoover from flying into Washington and attending the inauguration. Before the proceeding to the Capitol in company with outgoing President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Kennedy went to a morning Mass at Holy Trinity Catholic Church in Georgetown. Cardinal Richard Cushing gave the invocation at the inaugural which lasted for 12 minutes, with additional prayers recited by Archbishop Iakovos of the Greek Orthodox Church and Reverend Dr. John Barclay of the Central Christian Church of Austin, a blessing offered by Rabbi Nelson Glueck; the invocation and prayers lasted a total of 28 minutes. Marian Anderson sang "The Star-Spangled Banner", a composition by musical Leonard Bernstein titled "Fanfare for the Inauguration of John F. Kennedy" was played; the oath of office for Vice President was administered by the Speaker of the House of Representatives Sam Rayburn to Lyndon Johnson.
This marked the first time a Speaker administered the oath, given in previous inaugurations by either the President pro tempore of the Senate, the ex-Vice President, or a United States Senator. Robert Frost 86 years old, recited his poem "The Gift Outright". Kennedy requested Frost to read a poem at the inauguration, suggesting "The Gift Outright", considered an act of gratitude towards Frost for his h
PT-109 (video game)
PT-109 is a naval simulation video game developed by Digital Illusions and Spectrum HoloByte in 1987 for the Macintosh and MS-DOS. This game is based on the events involving the Motor Torpedo Boat PT-109; the game starts in the practice-tactics mode. In this mode, new players learn how to operate the boat, fire torpedoes, read radar on different displays, when to use the engine muffler for a quieter approach, how to operate smoke screens, how to find other weaponry. Players learn the history of the craft, as some patrol boats can be piloted only during specific stages of World War II. Additional features of the game include four difficulty levels, radio messages to the player's base for additional air or ship support, automatic pilot, assigned patrols. A Computer Gaming World reviewer in 1988 called PT-109 "a remarkable achievement", but stated that he no longer played the game because he had played all of the preprogrammed patrols several times and knew what would happen, he recommended using the practice mode to become familiar with the game, instead of the lowest difficulty level, to maximize its lifetime.
1991 and 1993 surveys of strategy and war games gave it two and a half stars out of five. In 1988, Dragon gave the Macintosh version of the game 4 out of 5 stars, they gave the MS-DOS version 4½ out of 5 stars. PT-109 at MobyGames
National Geographic is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society. It has been published continuously since its first issue in 1888, nine months after the Society itself was founded, it contains articles about science, geography and world culture. The magazine is known for its thick square-bound glossy format with a yellow rectangular border and its extensive use of dramatic photographs. Controlling interest in the magazine has been held by The Walt Disney Company since 2019; the magazine is published monthly, additional map supplements are included with subscriptions. It is available through an interactive online edition. On occasion, special editions of the magazine are issued; as of 2015, the magazine was circulated worldwide in nearly 40 local-language editions and had a global circulation of 6.5 million per month according to data published by The Washington Post or 6.7 million according to National Geographic. This includes a US circulation of 3.5 million. The current Editor-in-Chief of the National Geographic Magazine is Susan Goldberg.
Goldberg is Editorial Director for National Geographic Partners, overseeing the print and digital expression of National Geographic’s editorial content across its media platforms. She is responsible for news, National Geographic Traveler magazine, National Geographic History magazine and all digital content with the exception of National Geographic Kids. Goldberg reports to CEO of National Geographic Partners; the first issue of National Geographic Magazine was published on September 22, 1888, nine months after the Society was founded. It was a scholarly journal sent to 165 charter members and nowadays it reaches the hands of 40 million people each month. Starting with its January 1905 publication of several full-page pictures of Tibet in 1900–1901, the magazine changed from being a text-oriented publication closer to a scientific journal to featuring extensive pictorial content, became well known for this style; the June 1985 cover portrait of the presumed to be 12-year-old Afghan girl Sharbat Gula, shot by photographer Steve McCurry, became one of the magazine's most recognizable images.
National Geographic Kids, the children's version of the magazine, was launched in 1975 under the name National Geographic World. From the 1970s through about 2010 the magazine was printed in Corinth, Mississippi, by private printers until that plant was closed. In the late 1990s, the magazine began publishing The Complete National Geographic, a digital compilation of all the past issues of the magazine, it was sued over copyright of the magazine as a collective work in Greenberg v. National Geographic and other cases, temporarily withdrew the availability of the compilation; the magazine prevailed in the dispute, in July 2009 it resumed publishing a compilation containing all issues through December 2008. The compilation was updated to make more recent issues available, the archive and digital edition of the magazine are available online to the magazine's subscribers. On September 9, 2015, the National Geographic Society announced a deal with 21st Century Fox that would move the magazine to a new partnership, National Geographic Partners, in which 21st Century Fox would hold a 73 percent controlling interest.
In December 2017, Disney announced that it would acquire 21st Century Fox, including the latter's interest in National Geographic Partners. The magazine had a single "editor" from 1888–1920. From 1920–1967, the chief editorship was held by the president of the National Geographic Society. Since 1967, the magazine has been overseen by its own "editor-in-chief"; the list of editors-in-chief includes three generations of the Grosvenor family between 1903 and 1980. John Hyde Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor John Oliver LaGorce Melville Bell Grosvenor Frederick Vosburgh Gilbert Melville Grosvenor Wilbur E. Garrett William Graves William L. Allen Chris Johns Susan Goldberg During the Cold War, the magazine committed itself to presenting a balanced view of the physical and human geography of nations beyond the Iron Curtain; the magazine printed articles on Berlin, de-occupied Austria, the Soviet Union, Communist China that deliberately downplayed politics to focus on culture. In its coverage of the Space Race, National Geographic focused on the scientific achievement while avoiding reference to the race's connection to nuclear arms buildup.
There were many articles in the 1930s, 40s and 50s about the individual states and their resources, along with supplement maps of each state. Many of these articles were written by longtime staff such as Frederick Simpich. There were articles about biology and science topics. In years, articles became outspoken on issues such as environmental issues, chemical pollution, global warming, endangered species. Series of articles were included focusing on the history and varied uses of specific products such as a single metal, food crop, o
A PT boat was a torpedo-armed fast attack vessel used by the United States Navy in World War II. It was small and inexpensive to build, valued for its maneuverability and speed but hampered at the beginning of the war by ineffective torpedoes, limited armament, comparatively fragile construction that limited some of the variants to coastal waters; the PT boat was different from the first generation of torpedo boat, developed at the end of the 19th century and featured a displacement hull form. These first generation torpedo boats rode low in the water, displaced up to 300 tons, had a top speed of 25 to 27 kn. During World War I Italy, the US and UK developed the first high-performance motor torpedo boats and corresponding torpedo tactics, but these projects were all disbanded with the Armistice. World War II PT boats continued to exploit some of the advances in planing hull design borrowed from offshore powerboat racing and were able to grow in size due to advancements in engine technology.
During World War II, PT boats engaged enemy warships, tankers and sampans. As gunboats they could be effective against enemy small craft armored barges used by the Japanese for inter-island transport. Several saw service with the Philippine Navy, where they were named "Q-boats", most after President Manuel L. Quezon. Primary anti-ship armament was four 2,600 pound Mark 8 torpedoes. Launched by 21-inch Mark 18 torpedo tubes, each bore a 466-pound TNT warhead and had a range of 16,000 yards at 36 knots. Two twin M2.50 cal machine guns were mounted for general fire support. Some boats shipped a 20 mm Oerlikon cannon. Propulsion was via a trio of Packard 4M-2500 and 5M-2500 supercharged gasoline-fueled, liquid-cooled marine engines. Nicknamed "the mosquito fleet" – and "devil boats" by the Japanese – the PT boat squadrons were hailed for their daring and earned a durable place in the public imagination that remains strong into the 21st century. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, W. Albert Hickman devised the first procedures and tactics for employing fast maneuverable seaworthy torpedo motorboats against capital ships, presented his proposal to Rear Admiral David W. Taylor, the Chief of the US Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair.
In September 1914, Hickman completed plans for a 50-foot Sea Sled torpedo boat and submitted these to the Navy in hopes of obtaining a contract. While favorably received, Secretary of the Navy Josephus Daniels rejected the proposal since the US was not at war, but Hickman was advised to submit his plans and proposal to the British Admiralty, done the following month, his plan was promptly rejected by the Admiralty, so Hickman built and launched his own financed 41-foot Sea Sled capable of carrying a single 18" Whitehead Mark 5 torpedo. In February 1915, this Hickman sea sled demonstrated 35 kn speeds in rough winter seas off Boston to both US and foreign representatives but again, he received no contracts; the Admiralty representative for this sea sled demonstration was Lieutenant G. C. E. Hampden. In the summer of 1915, Lieutenants Hampden and Anson approached John I. Thornycroft & Company about developing a small high speed torpedo boat, this effort led to the Coastal Motor Boat which first went into service in April 1916.
Meanwhile, in August 1915, the General Board of the United States Navy approved the purchase of a single experimental small torpedo boat that could be transportable. This contract for C-250 ended up going to Greenport Basin and Construction Company, of Greenport, NY; when it was delivered and tested in the summer of 1917, it was not deemed a success, so a second boat of the sea sled design was ordered from Hickman in either late 1917 or early 1918. Using his previous design from September 1914 and the previous unsuccessful bid for C-250, the new boat C-378 was completed and tested just in time to be cancelled by the Armistice. With a full loaded weight of 56,000 pounds, C-378 made a top speed of 37 kn with 1400 HP, maintained an average speed of 34.5 kn in a winter northeaster storm with 12 to 14 foot seas, which would still be considered exceptional 100 years later. The Sea Sled would not surface again as a torpedo boat topic until 1939, but would continue to be used by both the Army and Navy as rescue boats and seaplane tenders during the 20s and 30s.
In 1922, the US Navy reconsidered using small internal combustion engine powered torpedo boats. As a result, two types of British Royal Navy Coastal Motor Boats were obtained for testing; the larger boat was used for experiments until 1930. In 1938, the U. S. Navy renewed their investigation into the concept by requesting competitive bids for several different types of motor torpedo boats, but excluded Hickman's Sea Sled; this competition led to eight prototype boats built to compete in two different classes. The first class was for 54-foot boats, the second class was for 70-foot boats; the resulting PT boat designs were the product of a small cadre of respected naval architects and the Navy. On 11 July 1938, invitations to builders and designers were issued with prizes awarded for the winning PT boat designs given out on 30 March 1939. In an important note after winning the design competition for the smaller PT boat, George Crouch wrote that Hickman's Sea Sled design would be far superior "in either rough or smooth water to that of the best possible V-bottom or hard chine design".
Earlier when Sea Sl