An arboretum in a general sense is a botanical collection composed of trees. More a modern arboretum is a botanical garden containing living collections of woody plants and is intended at least in part for scientific study. An arboretum specializing in growing conifers is known as a pinetum. Other specialist arboreta include saliceta and querceta; the term arboretum was first used in an English publication by John Claudius Loudon in 1833 in The Gardener's Magazine but the concept was long-established by then. Related collections include a viticetum. Egyptian Pharaohs cared for them. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt returned bearing thirty-one live frankincense trees, the roots of which were kept in baskets for the duration of the voyage, it is reported that Hatshepsut had these trees planted in the courts of her Deir el Bahri mortuary temple complex. Arboreta are special places for the cultivation and display of a wide variety of different kinds of trees and shrubs. Many tree collections have been claimed as the first arboretum, in most cases, the term has been applied retrospectively as it did not come into use until the eighteenth century.
Arboreta differ from pieces of woodland or plantations because they are botanically significant collections with a variety of examples rather than just a few kinds. Of course there are many tree collections that are much older than the eighteenth century in different parts of the world; the most important early proponent of the arboretum in the English-speaking transatlantic world was the prolific landscape gardener and writer, John Claudius Loudon who undertook many gardening commissions and published the Gardener's Magazine, Encyclopaedia of Gardening and other major works. Loudon's Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum, 8 vols. is the most significant work on the subject in British history and included an account of all trees and shrubs that were hardy in the British climate, an international history of arboriculture, an assessment of the cultural and industrial value of trees and four volumes of plates. Loudon urged that a national arboretum be created and called for arboreta and other systematic collections to be established in public parks, private gardens, country estates and other places.
He regarded the Derby Arboretum as the most important landscape-gardening commission of the latter part of his career because it demonstrated the benefits of a public arboretum. Commenting on Loddiges' famous Hackney Botanic Garden arboretum, begun in 1816, a commercial nursery that subsequently opened free to the public, for educational benefit, every Sunday, Loudon wrote: "The arboretum looks better this season than it has done since it was planted... The more lofty trees suffered from the late high winds, but not materially. We walked round the two outer spirals of this coil of shrubs. There is no garden scene about London so interesting". A plan of Loddiges' arboretum was included in The Encyclopaedia of 1834 edition. Leaves from Loddiges' arboretum and in some instances entire trees, were studiously drawn to illustrate Loudon's encyclopaedic book Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum which incorporated drawings from other early botanic gardens and parklands throughout the United Kingdom. One example of an early European tree collection is the Trsteno Arboretum, near Dubrovnik in Croatia.
The date of its founding is unknown, but it was in existence by 1492, when a 15 m span aqueduct to irrigate the arboretum was constructed. The garden was created by the prominent local Gučetić/Gozze family, it suffered two major disasters in the 1990s but its two unique and ancient Oriental Planes remained standing. Udhagamandalam Arboretum, The Nilgiris, IndiaThe arboretum at Ooty was established in 1992 with an aim of conserving native and indigenous trees, it was established during the year 1992 and maintained by Department of Horticulture with Hill Area Development Programme funds. The micro watershed area leading to Ooty lake where the arboretum is now located, had been neglected and the feeder line feeding water to Ooty was contaminated with urban waste and agricultural chemicals; the area is the natural habitats of both indigenous and migratory birds. During the year 2005-2006, it was rehabilated with funds provided by the Hill Area Development Programme by providing permanent fencing, a footpath, other infrastructure facilities.
Both indigenous and exotic tree species are included. The following tree species were planted: Celtis tetrandra, Dillenia pentagyna, Elaeocarpus ferrugineus, Elaeocarpus oblongus, Evodia lunuankenda, Glochidion neilgherrense, Ligustrum perrotetti, Litsaea ligustrina, Litsaea wightiana, Meliosma arnotiana, Meliosma wightii, Michelia champaca, Michelia nilagirica, Pygeum gardneri, Syzygium amothanum, Syzygium montanum, Alnus nepalensis, Viburnum erubescens, Podocarpus wallichianus, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa, Rapanea wightiana, Ternstroemia japonica, Microtropis microc
Tulsa County, Oklahoma
Tulsa County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 603,403, making it the second-most populous county in Oklahoma, behind only Oklahoma County, its county seat and largest city is the second-largest city in the state. Founded at statehood, in 1907, it was named after the established city of Tulsa. Before statehood, the area was part of both the Creek Nation and the Cooweescoowee District of Cherokee Nation in Indian Territory. Tulsa County is included in the Tulsa Metropolitan Statistical Area. Tulsa County is notable for being the most densely populated county in the state. Tulsa County ranks as having the highest income; the history of Tulsa County overlaps the history of the city of Tulsa. This section addresses events that occurred outside the present city limits of Tulsa; the Lasley Vore Site, along the Arkansas River south of Tulsa, was claimed by University of Tulsa anthropologist George Odell to be the most place where Jean-Baptiste Bénard de la Harpe first encountered a group of Wichita people in 1719.
Odell's statement was based on finding both Wichita and French artifacts there during an architectural dig in 1988. The U. S. Government's removal of Native American tribes from the southeastern United States to "Indian Territory" did not take into account how that would impact the lives and attitudes of the nomadic tribes that used the same land as their hunting grounds. At first, Creek immigrants stayed close to Fort Gibson, near the confluence of the Arkansas and Verdigris rivers. However, the government encouraged newer immigrants to move farther up the Arkansas; the Osage tribe had agreed to leave the land near the Verdigris, but had not moved far and soon threatened the new Creek settlements. In 1831, a party led by Rev. Isaac McCoy and Lt. James L. Dawson blazed a trail up the north side of the Arkansas from Fort Gibson to its junction with the Cimarron River. In 1832, Dawson was sent again to select sites for military posts. One of his recommended sites was about two and a half miles downstream from the Cimarron River junction.
The following year, Brevet Major George Birch and two companies of the 7th Infantry Regiment followed the "Dawson Road" to the aforementioned site. Flattering his former commanding officer, General Matthew Arbuckle, Birch named the site "Fort Arbuckle."According to Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the fort was about 8 miles west of the present city of Sand Springs, Oklahoma. Author James Gardner visited the site in the early 1930s, his article describing the visit includes an old map showing the fort located on the north bank of the Arkansas River near Sand Creek, just south of the line separating Tulsa County and Osage County. After ground was cleared and a blockhouse built, Fort Arbuckle was abandoned November 11, 1834; the remnants of stockade and some chimneys could still be seen nearly a hundred years later. The site was submerged. Main article Battle of Chusto-Talasah At the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, many Creeks and Seminoles in Indian Territory, led by Opothleyahola, retained their allegiance to the U. S. Government.
In November, 1861, Confederate Col. Douglas H. Cooper led a Confederate force against the Union supporters with the purpose of either compelling their submission or driving them out of the country; the first clash, known as the Battle of Round Mountain, occurred November 19, 1861. Although the Unionists withstood the attack and mounted a counterattack, the Confederates claimed a strategic victory because the Unionists were forced to withdraw; the next battle occurred December 9, 1861. Col. Cooper's force attacked the Unionists at Chusto-Talasah on the Horseshoe Bend of Bird Creek in what is now Tulsa County; the Confederates drove the Unionists across Bird Creek, but could not pursue, because they were short of ammunition. Still, the Confederates could claim victory; the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad had extended its main line in Indian Territory from Vinita to Tulsa in 1883, where it stopped on the east side of the Arkansas River. The company, which merged into the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway built a steel bridge across the river to extend the line to Red Fork.
This bridge allowed cattlemen to load their animals onto the railroad west of the Arkansas instead of fording the river, as had been the practice previously. It provided a safer and more convenient way to bring workers from Tulsa to the oil field after the 1901 discovery of oil in Red Fork. A wildcat well named Sue Bland No. 1 hit paydirt at 540 feet on June 1901 as a gusher. The well was on the property of Sue A. Bland, located near the community of Red Fork. Mrs. Bland was a Creek citizen and wife of Dr. John C. W. Bland, the first practicing physician in Tulsa; the property was Mrs. Bland's homestead allotment. Oil produced by the well was shipped in barrels to the nearest refinery in Kansas, where it was sold for $1.00 a barrel. Other producing wells followed soon after; the next big strike in Tulsa County was in the vicinity of Glenn Pool. While the city of Tulsa claimed to be "Oil Capital of the World" for much of the 20th century, a city ordinance banned drilling for oil within the city limits.
In 1910, Tulsa County built a court house in Tulsa on the northeast corner of Sixth Street and South Boulder Avenue. Yule marble was used in its construction; the land had been the site of a mansion owned by George Perryman and his wife. This was the court house where a mob of white residents gathered on May 31, 1921, threatening to lynch a young black man held in the top-floor jail, it was the beginning of the Tulsa Race Riot. An advertisement for bids specified that the building shoul
The Muscogee known as the Mvskoke and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands. Mvskoke is their autonym, their original homelands are in what now comprises southern Tennessee, all of Alabama, western Georgia and part of northern Florida. Most of the original population of the Muscogee people were forcibly relocated from their native lands in the 1830s during the Trail of Tears to Indian Territory; some Muscogee fled European encroachment in 1797 and 1804 to establish two small tribal territories that continue to exist today in Louisiana and Texas. Another small branch of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy managed to remain in Alabama and is now known as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians. A large population of Muscogee people moved into Florida between 1767 and 1821 and these people intermarried with local tribes to become the Seminole people, thereby establishing a separate identity from the Creek Confederacy. Muscogee people in these waves of migration into Florida were fleeing conflict and encroachment by European settlers.
The great majority of Seminoles were later forcibly relocated to Oklahoma, where they reside today, although the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida remain in Florida. The respective languages of all of these modern day branches and tribes, except one, are all related variants called Muscogee and Hitchiti-Mikasuki, all of which belong to the Eastern Muskogean branch of the Muscogean language family. All of these languages are, for the most part, mutually intelligible; the Yuchi people today are part of the Muscogee Nation but their Yuchi language is a linguistic isolate, unrelated to any other language. The ancestors of the Muscogee people were part of the Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere, who between AD 800 and AD 1600 built complex cities and surrounding networks of satellite towns centered around massive earthwork mounds, some of which had physical footprints larger than the Egyptian pyramids; some Mississippian city populations may have been larger than colonial European-American cities.
Muscogee Creeks are associated with multi-mound centers such as the Ocmulgee, Etowah Indian Mounds, Moundville sites. Mississippian societies were based on organized agriculture, transcontinental trade, copper metalwork, artisanship and religion. Early Spanish explorers encountered ancestors of the Muscogee when they visited Mississippian-culture chiefdoms in the Southeast in the mid-16th century; the Muscogee were the first Native Americans considered by the early United States government to be "civilized" under George Washington's civilization plan. In the 19th century, the Muscogee were known as one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they were said to have integrated numerous cultural and technological practices of their more recent European American neighbors. In fact, Muscogee confederated town networks were based on an 900-year-old history of complex and well-organized farming and town layouts. Influenced by Tenskwatawa's interpretations of the 1811 comet and the New Madrid earthquakes, the Upper Towns of the Muscogee, supported by the Shawnee leader Tecumseh resisted European-American encroachment.
Internal divisions with the Lower Towns led to the Red Stick War. Begun as a civil war within Muscogee factions, it enmeshed the Northern Creek Bands in the War of 1812 against the United States while the Southern Creeks remained US allies. General Andrew Jackson seized the opportunity to use the rebellion as an excuse to make war against all Muscogee people once the northern Creek rebellion had been put down with the aid of the Southern Creeks; the result was a weakening of the Muscogee Creek Confederacy and the forced cession of Muscogee lands to the US. During the 1830s Indian Removal, most of the Muscogee Confederacy were forcibly relocated to Indian Territory; the Muscogee Nation, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, all based in Oklahoma, are federally recognized tribes, as are the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas. Seminole people today are part of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida, the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida.
At least 12,000 years ago, Native Americans or Paleo-Indians lived in what is today the Southern United States. Paleo-Indians in the Southeast were hunter-gatherers who pursued a wide range of animals, including the megafauna, which became extinct following the end of the Pleistocene age. During the time known as the Woodland period, from 1000 BC to 1000 AD, locals developed pottery and small-scale horticulture of the Eastern Agricultural Complex; the Mississippian culture arose as the cultivation of maize from Mesoamerica led to population growth. Increased population density gave rise to regional chiefdoms. Stratified societies developed, with hereditary religious and political elites, flourished in what is now the Midwestern and Southeastern United States from 800 to 1500 AD; the early historic Muscogee were descendants of the mound builders of the Mississippian culture along the Tennessee River in modern Tennessee and Alabama. They may have been related to the Tama of central Georgia. Oral traditions passed down by the ancestors of the Creeks have alleged that their nation migrated eastward from places West of the Mississippi River settling on the east bank of the Ocmulgee River.
It was here that they waged war with other bands of Native American Indians, as the Savannas, Wapoos, Yamafees, Icofans
The Osage Nation is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains. The tribe developed in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys around 700 BC along with other groups of its language family, they migrated west of the Mississippi after the 17th century due to wars with Iroquois invading the Ohio Valley from New York and Pennsylvania in a search for new hunting grounds. The nations separated at that time, the Osage settled near the confluence of the Missouri and the Mississippi rivers; the term "Osage" is a French version of the tribe's name, which can be translated as "warlike". The Osage people refer to themselves in their indigenous Dhegihan Siouan language as Wazhazhe, or "Mid-waters". At the height of their power in the early 19th century, the Osage had become the dominant power in the region, feared by neighboring tribes; the tribe controlled the area between the Missouri and Red rivers, the Ozarks to the east and the foothills of the Wichita Mountains to the south. They depended on agriculture.
The 19th-century painter George Catlin described the Osage as "the tallest race of men in North America, either red or white skins. In the Ohio Valley, the Osage lived among speakers of the same Dhegihan language stock, such as the Kansa, Ponca and Quapaw. Researchers believe that the tribes became differentiated in languages and cultures after leaving the lower Ohio country; the Omaha and Ponca settled in what is now Nebraska, the Kansa in Kansas, the Quapaw in Arkansas. In the 19th century, the Osage were forced to remove from Kansas to Indian Territory, the majority of their descendants live in Oklahoma. In the early 20th century, oil was discovered on their land. Many Osage became wealthy through leasing fees generated by their headrights. However, during the 1920s, they suffered manipulation and numerous murders by whites eager to take over their wealth. In the 21st century, the federally recognized Osage Nation has ~20,000 enrolled members, 6,780 of whom reside in the tribe's jurisdictional area.
Members live outside the nation's tribal land in Oklahoma and in other states around the country, including Kansas. The Osage are descendants of cultures of indigenous peoples, in North America for thousands of years. Studies of their traditions and language show that they were part of a group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the Ohio River valley area, extending into present-day Kentucky. According to their own stories, they migrated west as a result of war with the Iroquois and/or to reach more game. Scholars are divided as to whether they think the Osage and other groups left before the Beaver Wars of the Iroquois; some believe that the Osage started migrating west as early as 1200 CE and are descendants of the Mississippian culture in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. They attribute their style of government to effects of the long years of war with invading Iroquois. After resettling west of the Mississippi River, the Osage were sometimes allied with the Illiniwek and sometimes competing with them, as that tribe was driven west of Illinois by warfare with the powerful Iroquois.
The Osage and other Dhegian-Siouan peoples reached their historic lands developing and splitting into the above tribes in the course of the migration to the Great Plains. By 1673, when they were recorded by the French, many of the Osage had settled near the Osage River in the western part of present-day Missouri, they were recorded in 1690 as having adopted the horse The desire to acquire more horses contributed to their trading with the French. They attacked and defeated indigenous Caddo tribes to establish dominance in the Plains region by 1750, with control "over half or more of Missouri, Arkansas and Kansas," which they maintained for nearly 150 years, they lived near the Missouri River. Together with the Kiowa and Apache, they dominated western Oklahoma, they lived near the Quapaw and Caddo in Arkansas. The Osage held high rank among the old hunting tribes of the Great Plains. From their traditional homes in the woodlands of present-day Missouri and Arkansas, the Osage would make semi-annual buffalo hunting forays into the Great Plains to the west.
They hunted deer and other wild game in the central and eastern parts of their domain. The women cultivated varieties of corn and other vegetables near their villages, which they processed for food, they harvested and processed nuts and wild berries. In their years of transition, the Osage had cultural practices that had elements of the cultures of both Woodland Native Americans and the Great Plains peoples; the villages of the Osage were important hubs in the Great Plains trading network served by Kaw people as intermediaries. In 1673 French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet were among the first Europeans to encounter the Osage as they explored southward from present-day Canada in their expedition along the Mississippi River. Marquette and Joliet claimed all land in the Mississippi Valley for France. Marquette's 1673 map noted that the Kanza and Pawnee tribes controlled much of modern-day Kansas; the Osage called the Europeans I'n-Shta-Heh because of their facial hair. As experienced warriors, the Osage allied with the French, with whom they traded, against th
Sunnyside (Tarrytown, New York)
Sunnyside is a historic house on 10 acres along the Hudson River, in Tarrytown, New York. It was the home of the American author Washington Irving, best known for his short stories, such as "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"; this cottage-like estate, designated a National Historic Landmark in 1962, reflects Dutch Colonial Revival, Scottish Gothic, Tudor Revival influences, with its wisteria-covered entrance and jagged crow-stepped gable. In some sense, Sunnyside began 200 years before Irving with Wolfert Acker, a Dutch-American inhabitant of the region, his property, Wolfert's Roost, was part of the Manor of Philipsburg. Among other buildings, Wolfert's Roost contained a simple two-room stone tenant farmhouse, built around 1690; the property came into the hands of the Van Tassel family, who were married into the Eckert family and owned it until 1802. That year, 150 acres were deeded to the family of Benson Ferris, one-time clerk of the Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow, whose wife, Maria Acker, was a descendant of Wolfert Acker's.
In 1832, Washington Irving visited his nephew Oscar Irving. Irving had undertaken a substantial trip through the prairies of the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers, the frontier lifestyle made him lament his lack of a home of his own, he was frustrated because he had lived most of his adult life as a guest in other people's homes. As Irving wrote, he was eager for a home and was "willing to pay a little unreasonably for it". Irving purchased the property on June 7, 1835 for $1,800. Irving wrote "Wolfert's Roost", about Acker and the site. In a letter to his brother Peter, he described it as "a beautiful spot, capable of being made a little paradise... I have had an architect up there, shall build upon the old mansion this summer. My idea is to make a little nookery somewhat in the Dutch style, but unpretending, it will be of stone." Irving requested that his friend and neighbor, English-born painter George Harvey, become his aesthetic collaborator and foreman in the house's subsequent remodeling and enlargement, the landscaping of the grounds in Romantic style, which included creating a pond Irving called "The Little Mediterranean", with a waterfall that led to a babbling serpentine brook.
The result is a "cottage", known at the time, appearing in Harper's Weekly and in guidebooks to the area. Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. said that Sunnyside stood "next to Mount Vernon, the best known and most cherished of all the dwellings in our land." The public interest in the home, in Irving, America's first literary star, drew numerous visitors throughout the year, hoping to catch a glimpse of Irving working. Irving's neighbor Nathaniel Parker Willis joked, "Could not Sunny-side'pay' to be got ready for a boarding-house?"In 1842, Irving accepted a nomination as Ambassador to the Court of Isabella II of Spain. He left Sunnyside in the care of his brother Ebenezer, who lived there with his four grown daughters, who supervised the running of the household. Irving wrote, "The only drawback upon all this is the hard trial of tearing myself away from dear little Sunnyside." He returned to New York on September 19, 1846. Shortly after his return, in 1847, he added to the cottage the "Spanish Tower", influenced by Spanish monastic architecture and the Alhambra in Granada.
It added four bedrooms to the house. Irving died of a heart attack in his bedroom at Sunnyside on November 28, 1859, at age 76; the Irving family continued to inhabit the cottage until 1945, when Louis Irving sold it to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. who purchased it as part of his efforts in historic preservation. It was restored – including tearing down a Victorian style northern addition – and was opened to the public in 1947. Sunnyside is now operated as a museum by Historic Hudson Valley. Tours are led by guides in period costume; the museum contains a large collection of Irving's original accessories. The study, dining room, kitchen, as well as most bedrooms, are open to the public and contain much of their original furnishings, or replacements which were owned by the Irving family. Sunnyside was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1962. There is a partial replica of Sunnyside in the Washington Irving Memorial Park and Arboretum in Bixby, with a statue of Irving seated on the side porch. A replica of the house stands at Liberty Square at The Walt Disney World Resort's Magic Kingdom.
List of National Historic Landmarks in New York National Register of Historic Places listings in northern Westchester County, New York Sleepy Hollow Washington Irving Memorial Notes Bibliography Burstein, Andrew. The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving. New York: Basic Books, 2007. ISBN 978-0-465-00853-7 Jones, Brian Jay. Washington Irving: An American Original. New York: Arcade Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-1-55970-836-4 Kime, Wayne R. Pierre M. Irving and Washington Irving: A Collaboration in Life and Letters. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1977. ISBN 0889200564Further reading Dwyer, Michael Middleton Great Houses of the Hudson River, preface by Mark Rockefeller, Boston, MA: Little and Company, published in association with Historic Hudson Valley, 2001. ISBN 082122767X. Sunnyside at Irvington Historical Society Sunnyside at Historic Hudson Valley Historic American Buildings Survey No. NY-5637, "Sunnyside, U. S. Route 9, Westchester County, NY", 11 photos, 9 measured drawings
Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still used and is applied to plants collectively to refer to all edible plant matter, including the flowers, stems, leaves and seeds; the alternate definition of the term vegetable is applied somewhat arbitrarily by culinary and cultural tradition. It may exclude foods derived from some plants that are fruits and cereal grains, but include fruits from others such as tomatoes and courgettes and seeds such as pulses. Vegetables were collected from the wild by hunter-gatherers and entered cultivation in several parts of the world during the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC, when a new agricultural way of life developed. At first, plants which grew locally would have been cultivated, but as time went on, trade brought exotic crops from elsewhere to add to domestic types. Nowadays, most vegetables are grown all over the world as climate permits, crops may be cultivated in protected environments in less suitable locations.
China is the largest producer of vegetables and global trade in agricultural products allows consumers to purchase vegetables grown in faraway countries. The scale of production varies from subsistence farmers supplying the needs of their family for food, to agribusinesses with vast acreages of single-product crops. Depending on the type of vegetable concerned, harvesting the crop is followed by grading, storing and marketing. Vegetables can be eaten either raw or cooked and play an important role in human nutrition, being low in fat and carbohydrates, but high in vitamins and dietary fiber. Many nutritionists encourage people to consume plenty of fruit and vegetables, five or more portions a day being recommended; the word vegetable was first recorded in English in the early 15th century. It comes from Old French, was applied to all plants, it derives from Medieval Latin vegetabilis "growing, flourishing", a semantic change from a Late Latin meaning "to be enlivening, quickening". The meaning of "vegetable" as a "plant grown for food" was not established until the 18th century.
In 1767, the word was used to mean a "plant cultivated for food, an edible herb or root". The year 1955 saw the first use of the shortened, slang term "veggie"; as an adjective, the word vegetable is used in scientific and technical contexts with a different and much broader meaning, namely of "related to plants" in general, edible or not—as in vegetable matter, vegetable kingdom, vegetable origin, etc. The exact definition of "vegetable" may vary because of the many parts of a plant consumed as food worldwide—roots, leaves, flowers and seeds; the broadest definition is the word's use adjectivally to mean "matter of plant origin". More a vegetable may be defined as "any plant, part of, used for food", a secondary meaning being "the edible part of such a plant". A more precise definition is "any plant part consumed for food, not a fruit or seed, but including mature fruits that are eaten as part of a main meal". Falling outside these definitions are edible fungi and edible seaweed which, although not parts of plants, are treated as vegetables.
In the latter-mentioned definition of "vegetable", used in everyday language, the words "fruit" and "vegetable" are mutually exclusive. "Fruit" has a precise botanical meaning, being a part that developed from the ovary of a flowering plant. This is different from the word's culinary meaning. While peaches and oranges are "fruit" in both senses, many items called "vegetables", such as eggplants, bell peppers, tomatoes, are botanically fruits; the question of whether the tomato is a fruit or a vegetable found its way into the United States Supreme Court in 1893. The court ruled unanimously in Nix v. Hedden that a tomato is identified as, thus taxed as, a vegetable, for the purposes of the Tariff of 1883 on imported produce; the court did acknowledge, that, botanically speaking, a tomato is a fruit. Before the advent of agriculture, humans were hunter-gatherers, they foraged for edible fruit, stems, leaves and tubers, scavenged for dead animals and hunted living ones for food. Forest gardening in a tropical jungle clearing is thought to be the first example of agriculture.
Plant breeding through the selection of strains with desirable traits such as large fruit and vigorous growth soon followed. While the first evidence for the domestication of grasses such as wheat and barley has been found in the Fertile Crescent in the Middle East, it is that various peoples around the world started growing crops in the period 10,000 BC to 7,000 BC. Subsistence agriculture continues to this day, with many rural farmers in Africa, South America, elsewhere using their plots of land to produce enough food for their families, while any surplus produce is used for exchange for other goods. Throughout recorded history, the rich have been able to afford a varied diet including meat and fruit, but for poor people, meat was a luxury and the food they ate was dull comprising some staple product made from rice, barley, millet or maize; the addition of vegetable matter provided some variety to the diet. The staple diet of the Aztecs in Central America was maize and they cultivated tomatoes, beans, pumpkins, squashes and amaranth seeds to supplement their tortillas and porridge.
In Peru, the Incas subsisted on maize in the lowla
Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by its roots or another piece of thin material. In British English, such material is more known as turf, the word "sod" is limited to agricultural senses. Sod is used for lawns, golf courses, sports stadiums around the world. In residential construction, it is sold to landscapers, home builders or home owners who use it to establish a lawn and avoid soil erosion. Sod can be used to repair golf course, or athletic field that has died. Sod is effective in increasing cooling, improving air and water quality, assisting in flood prevention by draining water. Scandinavia has a long history of employing sod roofing and a traditional house type is the Icelandic turf house. Following the passage of the Homestead Act by Congress in 1862, settlers in the Great Plains used sod bricks to build entire sod houses; this was effective because the prairie sod of the Great Plains was so dense and difficult to cut it earned the nickname "Nebraska marble".
Blacksmith John Deere made his fortune when he became the first to make a plow that could reliably cut the prairie sod. Different types of grass used for sod installation Sod is grown on specialist farms. For 2009, the United States Department of Agriculture reported 1,412 farms had 368,188 acres of sod in production, it is grown locally to minimize both the cost of transport and the risk of damage to the product. The farms that produce this grass may have many varieties of grass grown in one location to best suit the consumer's use and preference of appearance, it is harvested 10 to 18 months after planting, depending on the growing climate. On the farm, it undergoes fertilization, frequent mowing and subsequent vacuuming to remove the clippings, it is harvested using specialized equipment, precision cut to standardized sizes. Sod is harvested in small square or rectangular slabs, or large 4-foot-wide rolls. Mississippi State University has developed a hydroponic method of cultivating sod. For the few sod farms that export turf internationally, this soilless sod may travel both lighter and better than traditional sod.
Additionally, since the sod is not grown in soil, it does not need to be washed clean of soil down to the bare roots, so time to export is shortened. In many applications, such as erosion control and athletic fields, immediacy is a key factor. Seed may fail because of drought, it takes some weeks to form a visually appealing lawn and further time before it is robust enough for use. Turf avoids these problems, with proper care, newly laid sod is fully functional within 30 days of installation and its root system is comparable to that of a seeding lawn two or three years older. Sod reduces erosion by stabilizing the soil. Many prized cultivars only reproduce vegetatively, not sexually. Sod cultivation is the only means of producing additional plants. To grow these varieties for sale, turf farms use a technique called sprigging, where harvested sod mats are cut into slender rows and replanted in the field. Tall fescue is a cool-weather group of grasses originating in Europe used as sod, it exhibits moderate tolerance to both drought and cold, as such is popular in inland temperate environments referred to in the turf and landscaping industries as the "transition zone", where summers are too hot for most cool-weather grasses, yet winters are too cold for most warm-weather grasses.
Fescue is well-adapted to clay soils, moderately shade-tolerant, somewhat resistant to disease, yet still vulnerable to brown patch and Fusarium patch. It grows most in spring and fall, required frequent watering during summer. Due to its bunch-type growth habit, it will not spread undesirably or invade adjacent areas once sodded, yet neither will it fill in voids, periodic maintenance may be required to sustain a homogeneous surface, it has poor wear tolerance compared to Bermuda grass, making it less popular for applications such as athletic fields. Fine fescues are less popular as sod than the tall fescues; as their names suggest, they exhibit much thinner leaf blades, tolerate lower mowing heights than the tall fescues. They may be somewhat more resistant to common diseases. Otherwise, their characteristics are similar. Fine Fescues are used in mixtures with other grasses. Bermuda grass is quite used for golf courses and sports fields across the southern portions of the United States, it tolerates a range of climates in the U.
S. from hot and humid lagoons and bays of the Gulf Coast, to the arid expanses of terrain like plains and deserts in the South and lower Midwest. "Established bermuda grass is a network of shoots, rhizomes and crown tissue together that form a dense plant canopy. This dense plant canopy can be used to propagate clonal varieties by sod, plugs; the aggressive and resilient nature of Bermuda grass makes it not only an excellent turfgrass but a challenging and invasive weed in land cultivated for other purposes. Its one noted weakness is its low tolerance of shade. Given the economic importance of Bermuda grass, it has been the subject of numerous studies. Celebration Bermudagrass:'Celebration' is a dark–green, fine–textured, traffic–tolerant cultivar with high recuperative potential and drought t