The Lancia Delta is a small family car produced by Italian automobile manufacturer Lancia in three generations. The first generation produced between 1979 and 1994, the second generation from 1993 to 1999, the third generation from 2008 to 2014; the Delta was first shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1979. The Delta dominated the World Rally Championship during early 1990s; the homologation requirements of Group A regulations meant marketing road-going versions of these competition cars — the Lancia Delta HF 4WD and HF Integrale. A total of 44,296 Integrales were produced; the first Delta was a five-door hatchback, designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and released in 1979. Between 1980 and 1982, it was sold in Sweden by Saab Automobile, badged as the Saab-Lancia 600; the Delta was voted the 1980 European Car of the Year. A special Delta HF Integrale version was a four-wheel drive hot hatch with a turbocharged petrol engine. Modified versions of the HF dominated the World Rally Championship, scoring 46 WRC victories overall and winning the Constructors Championship a record six times in a row from 1987 to 1992, in addition to Drivers' Championship titles for Juha Kankkunen and Miki Biasion.
The Lancia Delta S4, which the works team ran prior to the HF 4WD and Integrale models' world championship careers from the season-ending 1985 RAC Rally until the end of the 1986 season, while sharing the same name and appearance, was a Group B race car designed and built for rallying, was different from the mass-produced consumer versions. The car that would become the Delta during its development went by the project codename Y 5, was conceived as an upmarket front-wheel drive small family car positioned below the larger Beta. Design was by Giorgetto Giugiaro's Italdesign, its platform put together MacPherson suspension developed for the Beta with four-cylinder, SOHC engines derived from the Fiat Ritmo. The Fiat engines were revised by Lancia engineers with a Weber twin-choke carburettor, a new inlet manifold, exhaust system and ignition. To achieve its market positioning the Delta offered features uncommon in the segment, as independent suspension and pinion steering, available air conditioning, optional split-folding rear seat, height-adjustable steering wheel, defogger.
Its three-piece body-coloured bumpers made from polyester resin sheet moulding compound were claimed by Lancia to be a first in the industry. The heating and ventilation were developed with help from experts in the field. Whilst details about the car were known since the spring, the Lancia Delta was unveiled to the public at the September 1979 Frankfurt Motor Show, At launch three models were offered: the base Delta 1300 4-speed, with a 1,301 cc 75 PS engine and simplified equipment, Delta 1300 5-speed, which added more features and an overdrive fifth gear for cruising, Delta 1500, with a 1,498 cc 85 PS engine and a 5-speed gearbox; the Delta was met with warm reception at the Frankfurt unveiling by the Italian press and by the German one to booth. Sales started in October 1979. At the beginning of 1982 as an automatic transmission option was added, the 1500 Automatica. In March the top-of-the-line 1500 LX trim level joined the lineup. Two months after the trim level was extended to the 1.3-litre engine too, which increased its output to 78 PS thanks to a raised compression ratio and electronic ignition.
November 1982 brought the first facelift for the Delta. The bumpers were changed from three-piece sheet moulded compound to one-piece thermoplastic polymer, the front one was redesigned with a more prominent lower spoiler. Other changes included the deletion of the anodised fascia between the rear tail lights and a 40 kg weight reduction on all models. Inside there were new seats and, on the range topping an optional digital trip computer. Concurrently the Delta GT 1600 was launched, the car's first sporting variant, it was powered by 105 PS DOHC engine with Marelli Digiplex ignition. Standard equipment was the richest available and some optionals like air conditioning were exclusive to the GT. Outside details like a "GT" badge on the right side of the grille, matte black door handles and window trim distinguished it from other Deltas; as the 5-speed 1500, 4-speed 1300 and LX versions were dropped — the latter only to be reintroduced in April 1984 on the 1300 LX, with revised equipment—the range was now composed of three models.
On 9 March 1984 the 200,000th Delta left the Chivasso factory. The first performance Delta was the Delta HF, introduced in July 1983 and went on sale in September after a first appearance at the Frankfurt Motor Show; the HF acronym—last used on the Stratos—stood for "High Fidelity", had been used on performance version of Lancia cars since 1966. It was front-wheel drive and powered by a turbocharged version of the 1.6-litre engine from the Delta GT.
Ford Taunus V4 engine
The Ford Taunus V4 engine was a 60° V4 piston engine with one balance shaft, introduced by Ford Motor Company in Germany in 1962. The German V4 was built in the Cologne plant and powered the Ford Taunus and German versions of the Consul and Transit. In common with other V4 and V6 engines, but unlike longer V engines with more cylinders, the connecting rods do not share a crankpin on the crankshaft; the V4 was expanded into the Ford Cologne V6 engine, used in the Ford Capri, Ford Taunus, Ford Cortina, Ford Consul, Ford Granada, Ford Sierra, Ford Scorpio, Ford Ranger, Ford Explorer, Ford Mustang, Mercury Capri, many other cars. The V4 engine was used in industrial applications: pumps, electrical generators, in agricultural machinery and snowcats. In automobiles, the Taunus V4 was replaced by the Ford OHC/Pinto engine; the V4 engine was designed by Ford for a new entry compact car intended for the US market to be called the Ford "Cardinal", which evolved into the Taunus 12m P4. Ford instead built the Ford Falcon for North America.
Ford sought other uses for the V4 engine, tested in the Saab 96. Ford bought several Saab 96s for testing and sold the cars back to Saab with the V4 engines in them. Saab tested the V4s at their Trollhättan test track which stimulated Saab to acquire the V4 engine for their 95, 96, 97 introduced in August 1966; the V4 engine eliminated the need to mix oil with fuel for the two-cycle Saab "Shrike" engine and provided better low end torque. Saab dealers offered the first owner a "Lifetime Warranty" for the V4 for US$50. Applications: Ford Taunus Ford Consul Ford Transit Ford Capri Saab 95 Saab 96 Saab Sonett Matra 530 Ford Mustang I The 1.2 L version features an 80 mm × 58.86 mm bore and stroke. Output was 40 hp and 80 N⋅m or 45 hp and 82 N⋅m. Applications: 1962 - 1966 Ford Taunus 12M P4 1967 - 1968 Ford Taunus 12M P6 The 1.3 L version had an 84 mm × 58.86 mm bore and stroke. Output was 50 hp and 95 N⋅m or 53 hp and 98 N⋅m. Applications: 1966 - 1970 Ford Taunus 12M P6 1969 - 1972 Ford Capri Ford Transit 600 The 1.5 L V4 had a 90 mm × 58.86 mm bore and stroke.
It produced 60 hp and 114 N ⋅ m or 65 hp and 117 N ⋅ m at 2500 rpm. The 1.7 L V4 had stroke. It produced 65 hp and 129 N⋅m, 70 hp and 137 N⋅m or 75 hp and 130 N⋅m; some DKW Munga, a Jeep like vehicle used in the German army were retrofitted with this Ford V4, to replace its standard two-stroke engine. Since the engine mounts and gearbox connections are identical between the Ford Cologne V6 engine and the V4, some vintage V4 Saab 96s were modified to take a V6, for rally racing, although this changed the weight distribution and steering characteristics. Since the Saab 96 was used for rallying it was tuned. In the rally versions it was bored and stroked to 1.8 and 1.9 L giving around 150 hp in the aspirated version and 200 hp DIN at 7000 rpm in the Saab 96 RC Turbo version, doing 0 to 100 km/h in five seconds. SAAB tuned the engine to 240 hp. Ford Essex V4 engine
Saab 92 is the first production automobile from Saab. The design was aerodynamic for its time, with a drag coefficient of 0.30. The entire body was stamped out of one piece of sheet metal and cut to accommodate doors and windows. Full-scale production started December 1949, based on the prototype Ursaab. All of them were of the Deluxe version. A standard version was advertised, but nobody was interested in buying it so no standard versions were produced; the engine was a transversely mounted, water-cooled two-cylinder, two-stroke 764 cc, 25 hp thermosiphon engine based on a DKW design, giving a top speed of 105 km/h. The transmission had the first unsynchronised. In order to overcome the problems of oil starvation during overrun for the two-stroke engine, a freewheel device was fitted; the suspension was by torsion bars. All early Saab 92s were painted in a dark green colour similar to British racing green. According to some sources, Saab had a surplus of green paint from wartime production of airplanes.
Saab's rally history started two weeks after the 92 was released, when Saab's head engineer Rolf Mellde entered the Swedish Rally and came second in his class. Only 700 1950 models were made. In 1951, the German VDO instruments were replaced by American Stewart-Warner components. In 1952 Greta Molander won the'Coupe des Dames' of the Monte Carlo Rally in a 92. In 1953, the 92B arrived with larger luggage space, it was now available in grey, blue-grey and green. In 1954 the Saab 92 got a new ignition coil giving 28 hp; the US headlights were replaced with Hella units. Another novelty was; the colour maroon was introduced this year. In 1955, it acquired square tail lights installed in the rear fenders; the colours were grey, maroon and a new color, moss green. The English aviation test pilot'Bob' Moore, who had helped to develop the Saab Tunnan jet aircraft, brought a 1955 Saab 92B back to England, when he returned to become the first managing director of Saab GB Ltd; this was reputedly the first-ever Saab car imported to the UK.
The Saab 93 was introduced in December 1955, but both the 92B and 93 were produced at the same time, for a while. The last 92 was assembled in late 1956–early 1957. Two new colours, grey-green and beige, were available. A total of 20,128 Saab 92s were made; the Saab 92 appears on a Swedish postage stamp. When General Motors in 2008 made a list of their top ten cars, the Saab 92 came in first followed by the Pontiac GTO, the Chevrolet Corvette, the EV1, the Opel Olympia, the LaSalle, the Chevrolet Bel Air, the Cadillac V16, the Cadillac Model 30 and the Cadillac Spyker Cars, the Dutch maker of supercars, bought Saab in February 2010 from General Motors Co. In May 2010, Spyker's CEO Victor Muller stated the firm was planning a new small car, tear-drop shaped and inspired by the Saab 92 model. Saabmuseum.com
Saab 90 is the name of an aeroplane, the Saab 90 Scandia. The Saab 90 is a compact executive car from Saab made from September 1984 to 1987, it was manufactured at a facility in Finland, at that time owned by Saab and Valmet. The 90 was a continuation of the Saab 99 and it was a Saab 99 from the B-pillar forward with the rear of a Saab 900 sedan; the 90, while easier to build than the 99, was still more labour intensive than the more modern 900. The 900's rear end made the trunk and fuel tank larger than in the 99, while keeping the car smaller than the 900, it came with the 2.0 L Saab H engine, giving 100 hp. It was available with both four and a five-speed manual transmissions, with the five-speed receiving closer gearing and rear spoilers, lower profile tires; the valve seats were hardened. It had a new starter motor, the steering wheel was more upright than the one in the 99. In 1986 it was fitted with modified shock absorbers. In 1987 the Zenith carburettor was altered to make it easier to start in cold weather.
Falling sales meant that it was not worth the investment to catalyze the engine and 1987 was the final year for the model, with the last car built on 1 July. In total, only 25,360 Saab 90s were made, it was sold in a limited number of European countries only. A limited edition of ten Saab 90 Lumikko was made for the Finnish market; these models had extra trim. Lumikko is Finnish for known as Snow weasel in Scandinavia. Media related to Saab 90 at Wikimedia Commons
Saab Aero-X is a concept car built by Saab, unveiled at the 2006 Salon International de l'Auto. It is powered by a 2.8 L twin turbocharged V6 running on pure ethanol that produces 298 kW. 0 to 100 km/h was predicted to be 4.9 s and top speed is 255 km/h. It has a seven speed manual transmission controlled by paddles on the steering wheel. Like the Saab Turbo X, the Aero-X has four wheel drive; the doors and windscreen are connected, so instead of using conventional doors or gullwing doors, it uses a cockpit canopy where the entire top section of the car is opened. This offers the Aero X's driver full 180 degree vision, facilitates entry and exit from its low slung cabin; the body is made of carbon fiber. The suspension is electronically controlled. Though it is a two seat sports car, it has reasonable storage, as the rear features two storage facilities, with a conventional hatchback and sliding drawer underneath; the interior offers "clean Scandinavian interior design". The car has no ordinary buttons.
All interior and exterior lights utilize LEDs. Although only a concept car, it has been well received, with many fans calling for its production. Victor Muller responded on the SaabsUnited.com website, saying that it is not a priority for the company right now."This study shows how the strength of the Saab brand heritage can inspire bold, innovative design", said Bryan Nesbitt, the Executive Director of GM Design Europe: "As we move forward with new Saab product, we will remain focused on cultivating this brand equity in the context of Scandinavian design values". "This concept shows the exciting possibilities that are open to us as we evolve a more progressive design language for the Saab brand", said Jan Åke Jonsson, Saab's Managing Director. "Our designers and marketers in Sweden are ideally placed to nurture and communicate the unique DNA of the Saab brand. Their work will ensure that future product proposals express core qualities, such as progressive design, sporty performance and emotional functionality, in a way, specific to Saab."
Elements of the cars frontal design have emerged in Saab models, notably the design refresh of the Saab 9-3 Sports Sedan, the second generation Saab 9-5 and the Saab 9-4X. The Aero-X was rumored to make its cinematic début in Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen, with fans speculating that it may be used for the Autobot Wheeljack. However, it was not used
Saab AB is a Swedish aerospace and defence company, founded in 1937. From 1947 to 1990 it was the parent company of automobile manufacturer Saab Automobile. Between 1968 and 1995 the company was in a merger with commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania-Vabis, known as Saab-Scania; the two were de-merged in 1995 by the new owners, Investor AB. Despite the demerger, both Saab and Scania share the right to use the griffin logo, which originates from the coat of arms of the Swedish region of Scania. "Svenska Aeroplan AB" was founded in 1937 in Trollhättan, with the merger of Svenska Aero AB and Linköping based ASJA the headquarters moved to Linköping. The style "Saab" replaced "SAAB" around 1950. Manufacturing aircraft, the company sought ways in which to diversify its business. In the late 1940s the company began manufacturing cars at its Saab Automobile division, based in Trollhättan; the first car was the Saab 92. In the late 1950s Saab ventured into the computer market with Datasaab; the company was a result of the need to make a computer that would be small enough to mount in an aeroplane as navigational equipment.
During the 1960s several computers were developed and sold to European countries, for uses such as banking. The aircraft computer was used in 1971 in the Viggen; the company was sold in 1975 to Sperry UNIVAC. In May 1965, the company name was changed to Saab AB to reflect its broad range of activities. In 1968 Saab AB merged with the Swedish lorry and heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturer Scania-Vabis, became Saab-Scania AB. In 1990 General Motors bought 51% of the car division Saab Automobile, acquired the rest a decade later. In 1991 Investor AB completed a leveraged buyout of Saab-Scania AB. Investor AB acquired all the outstanding shares in Saab-Scania for SEK 21 billion. Saab-Scania became a wholly owned subsidiary of the company was de-listed. In 1995 Saab-Scania was divided by Investor AB into two independent companies, de-merging into Scania AB and Saab AB; the intention by Investor AB was to broaden ownership in the two companies later. Following the sale of 50% of the car division Saab Automobile AB to General Motors, the main reason behind the merger with lorry manufacturer Scania-Vabis in 1968 had disappeared.
Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace formed in 1995 the joint venture company Saab-BAe Gripen AB, to manufacture and support Gripen internationally. This co-operation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International for the same purpose. From 1998 until 2005 the largest shareholder in Saab was the British aerospace company BAE Systems, following its acquisition of a 35% stake from Investor AB by its predecessor, British Aerospace. In January 2005, BAE Systems reduced its shareholding to 20%. Investor AB maintained a 20% share. 16 November 1999, Saab announced its intention is to purchase Celsius AB and the acquisition was concluded by early March 2000. In September 2000 United Defense Industries purchased Bofors Weapon Systems from Saab, while Saab retained the missile interests. BAE Systems acquired United Defense Industries. In December 2005 Saab joined the Dassault nEUROn project as a major partner. In October 2008 the company announced its intention to merge its operations with that of Simrad Optronics.
The new unit will develop high-tech optronics products and will be headquartered in Norway, although other details of the new arrangement have not been finalized. In 2010 the company restructured from fifteen business units into five business areas. According to Saab the restructuring was undertaken to become more customer oriented. In March 2010, BAE Systems sold half of its 20% stake in the company to Investor AB, which became the major shareholder. In June 2011, the British company sold its remaining stake bringing its 16-year involvement in Saab to an end; as of June 2012, Investor AB is the majority owner. The main focus of aircraft production is fighter aircraft. Saab has been making aircraft since the 1930s, the jet predecessors of the JAS 39 Gripen were the Tunnan, the Lansen, the Draken and the Viggen; the last civilian models made by Saab were the Saab 340 and Saab 2000. Both were mid-range turboprop-powered airliners; the development and the manufacturing of these aircraft is undertaken in Linköping.
Aeronautics offers related subsystems, Unmanned Aerial Systems and aerostructures. The business area Aeronautics is responsible for airframe structures for JAS 39 Gripen, whole sections for Airbus, Boeing and NH90. Aeronautics is partner in the European joint UAV-project Dassault nEUROn, where Saab develop Avionics and is responsible for the overall architecture and design. Marketing and support of the JAS 39 Gripen fighter jet is included in the Aeronautics business area. Dynamics offers ground combat weapons, missile systems, sensor systems, unmanned underwater vehicles and signature management systems, remotely operated vehicles for armed forces as well as civil security applications. Short range weapons offered include Carl-Gustaf, AT4/AT4 CS, STRIX and MBT LAW. Missile systems offered are RBS 70, RBS 23 and RBS 15. Surveillance offers airborne surveillance solutions (including GlobalEye, Sa
Sixten Sason was a Swedish industrial designer, noted for his work in designing several generations of Saab automobiles. Sason was born in the son of a Swedish sculptor, he trained in Paris as an artist and as an industrial designer. He had a stint in the Swedish Air Force until an injury disqualified him for flight. In the 1930s he became. Sason started working for Saab, designing aircraft throughout World War II. In 1946, he was asked to contribute to Project 92, the result of which would be the first Saab automobile, the Saab 92 which began production in 1949. Sason remained with Saab, designing the 93, 95, 96, 99, as well as the first Sonett. Many of the design elements that Sason implemented in the 99 continued as elements of Saab design into the 1990s. In addition to Saab, Sason designed consumer products for Electrolux, where he designed their first camera model in 1949, Husqvarna, designing such motorcycles as the Silverpilen, a high performance lightweight 175cc sold 1955-1965