Kulm (ski flying venue)
Kulm is a ski flying hill located in Tauplitz/Bad Mitterndorf, Austria. Opened on 8 March 1950, the hill is one of only five of its type in the world, allowing for jumps of more than 240 metres; the current hill record of 244 m was set by Peter Prevc during the 2016 Ski Flying World Championships. The women's world record of 200 m was set by Daniela Iraschko-Stolz in 2003, who remains the only woman in history to have jumped to 200 m. Furthermore, the men's world record has been set three times at Kulm; the venue has hosted the Ski Flying World Championships five times, in 1975, 1986, 1996, 2006, 2016. For the World Cup event in 2015, the hill was renovated to a K-point of 200 m and a hill size of 235 m, making much longer jumps possible
FIS Ski Flying World Championships 2010
The FIS Ski Flying World Championships 2010 was held 18–21 March 2010 in Planica, Slovenia for a record sixth time. Planica hosted the event in 1972, 1979, 1985, 1994, 2004. Austria's Gregor Schlierenzauer was the defending individual champion. Schlierenzauer and his Austrian teammates of Andreas Kofler, Martin Koch, Thomas Morgenstern were the defending team champions. 18 March 2010 Ammann had the longest jump of the competition with a 236.5 m fourth round jump. He led after the first two rounds and had the most points both two days to win the championships for the first time. Adam Małysz had a poor fourth round jump to fall to fourth; the defending champion Schlierenzauer finished second. The second longest jump had Antonín Hájek with a 236.0 m and local matador Robert Kranjec, the winner of the ski flying World Cup 2009/10, finished fifth. After the first round, former ski flying champion Roar Ljøkelsøy jumped for the final time in his career after he failed to qualify for the first round. 19–20 March 2010.
21 March 2010. Schlierenzauer had the longest jump of the competition with his 231.0 m final round jump. Official website & - accessed 11 November 2009. FIS Ski Flying World Championship 2010 - calendar - accessed 11 November 2009
Pragelato is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 60 kilometres west of Turin, in the upper Val Chisone. The name Pragelato, meaning "icy meadow", has been derived from the harsh climate and the fact that the ground is covered with ice for long periods. On both sides of the Chisone, extensive forests of pine and larch provide protection from the avalanches which are a common occurrence in the winter season: for this reason in the nineteenth century the people of Pragelato were only permitted to fell trees close to the mountain summits, then only with the permission of the communal administration. Pragelato borders the following municipalities: Exilles, Salbertrand, Fenestrelle, Sauze d'Oulx, Sestriere, Sauze di Cesana, Salza di Pinerolo, Prali. Pragelato was part of the Escartons Republic, a semi-independent French state which lasted from 1343 to 1713. After the Treaty of Utrecht of the latter, it became a possession of the House of Savoy.
In 1747 the nearby Assietta Pass was the stage of the eponymous battle. During the 19th and 20th century, much of the population emigrated to France. On April 19, 1904 an avalanche struck the miners barracks of the Beth copper mine in the nearby Troncea Valley, killing 81 people. A memorial plaque in the small cemetery of the Laval hamlet remembers the victims of the avalanche. Pragelato was the site of three sports hosted during the 2006 Winter Olympics, its ski jump hosted the ski jumping and the ski jumping part of the Nordic combined events of the 2006 Winter Olympics. The flat part of the venue hosted the cross-country skiing and cross country skiing part of the Nordic combined events for those same games. Pragelato is well equipped for cross-country skiing, its Olympic course – the Pragelato Plan – has a snow-making system over 10 kilometres, a tourist course winds along Val Troncea Natural Park. The ski-jumping stadium present the Olympic heritage, which highlights the tourist-sport development of this resort.
Pragelato has his own alpine skiing areas with about 50 kilometres of slopes and is linked to the Via Lattea ski area, with about 400 kilometres of slopes in Sestriere, Sauze d'Oulx, Claviere, San Sicario, Cesana. Parco naturale Val Troncea Orsiera Nature Reserve, which stretches across the Northern Cottian Alps and encompasses the Val Chisone, Val Susa and Val Sangone. On average, the borders of this protected area reach 1,400 metres in elevation, the reserve includes a wealth of fauna and historical landmarks, including rock engravings and military buildings. Alpine lakes include the Lakes of Cristalliera, where herds of mouflon come to graze, Lake Chardonnet, the Lakes of Beth, which afford views of the old abandoned copper mines, the Lakes of Albergian, where edelweiss and Alpine aster blossom in summer. Summer & Winter: Official Tourism Information City Council Official website Pragelato SKI - new website
Salpausselkä (ski jump)
Salpausselkä is a ski jumping venue in Lahti, Finland. The hills are K116, K90, K64, K38, K25, K15, K8 and K6. Media related to Lahti Ski Jumping Hills at Wikimedia Commons
2010–11 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup
The 2010/11 FIS Ski Jumping World Cup was the 32nd World Cup season in ski jumping and the 14th official World Cup season in ski flying. It began on 28 November 2010 at the Rukatunturi ski jumping hill in Kuusamo and finished on 20 March 2011 at Planica, Slovenia. Defending champion was Simon Ammann; the overall world cup was won by Thomas Morgenstern. It was his second triumph after the 2007–08 season. Ammann placed second, Adam Małysz third, it was Adam Małysz's the last season. He finished his successful, 15 years long career; the ski flying world cup was won by Gregor Schlierenzauer for the second time. The nations cup and the FIS Team Tour were won by the team from Austria; the Nordic Tournament was not held due to the 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo, Norway. Among others, it was the last season of Andreas Küttel, Adam Małysz, Harri Olli, Primož Peterka and Michael Uhrmann. Lower competitive circuits this season included the Grand Continental Cup. All 17 locations which have been hosting world cup events for men this season.
Events in Harrachov were canceled. Oberstdorf hosted four hills tournament. Four Hills Tournament FIS Team Tour
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2011
The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2011 took place from 23 February to 6 March 2011 in Oslo, Norway, at the Holmenkollen National Arena. It was the fifth time these championships had been hosted in Holmenkollen, having been done in 1930, the 1952 Winter Olympics, 1966, 1982. On 25 May 2006, the 45th FIS Congress in Vilamoura, selected the Holmenkollen area over both Val di Fiemme and Zakopane, with a vote of 12 to 4 to 0; these games coincided with the Holmenkollen Ski Festival as they have in 1930, 1952, 1966, 1982. Cross-country skiing was dominated by Norway. Canada, with Devon Kershaw and Alex Harvey took its first-ever victory with gold in the men's team sprint. Austria dominated the ski jumping, winning all five events: Thomas Morgenstern took three golds and one silver, Gregor Schlierenzauer won three golds, Daniela Iraschko won the women's event. In the Nordic combined, Germany took four of the six individual medals, but lost both relays to Austria. In 2002, the Association for the Promotion of Skiing and Oslo Municipality started the process of applying for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2009.
The city council decided to grant NOK 52.8 million to upgrade Holmenkollen, including Holmenkollbakken, for the 2009 World Championships. Oslo lost the vote in the International Ski Federation against Liberec, Czech Republic, on 4 June 2004; the Norwegian Ski Federation subsequently stated that they would apply for the 2011 World Championships. The Association for the Promotion of Skiing stated that they wanted a new hill in Rødkleiva instead of expanding the existing ski flying hill in Vikersund, Vikersundbakken. Holmenkollbakken would be used for the last time during as a large hill during the 2011 World Championships, would converted to a normal hill. In May 2005, the general assembly of the Norwegian Ski Federation voted to build a new ski flying and normal hill in Rødkleiva ahead of the 2011 World Championships. Following Vikersundbakken being awarded the FIS Ski-Flying World Championships 2012 in 2008, the general assembly of the Norwegian Ski Federation that year decided to terminate the plans for a ski flying hill in Rødkleiva.
On 22 September 2005, FIS stated that an all-new Holmenkollbakken would have to be built if Oslo was to host the World Championships and World Cup tournaments. FIS stated that similar reconstructions had been done with Schattenbergschanze in Oberstdorf and Bergiselschanze in Innsbrück, Austria. In December 2005, the Norwegian Directorate for Cultural Heritage gave permission for the tower to be demolished, on the condition it was replaced by a new in-run with a similar architectural quality and retain its function as a landmark, they stated that it was the activity itself, worthy of preservation, not the structure itself. The city council made the final decision to apply for the World Championships and build a new hill on 1 March 2006. A new hill was at the time estimated to cost NOK 310 million, the state was willing to finance NOK 70 million of those. Oslo was awarded the 2011 World Championships in May 2006; the municipality issued an architectural design competition to rebuild the hill. At the time, it was estimated.
Demolition of Holmenkollbakken started on 16 October 2008. The World Cup tournament in 2009 was held at Vikersundbakken instead of Holmenkollen because of the reconstruction; when the decision to reconstruct the national arena was made by the city council in 2007, it was estimated to cost NOK 653 million. By 2008, the cost had accelerated to NOK 1.2 billion, by the following year it had reached NOK 1.8 billion. City Commissioner For Business and Culture, Anette Wiig Bryn of the Progress Party, had to leave her position because of the cost overruns. A consultant report ordered by the municipality concluded that the pressure to find cost savings to stay within the budget, underestimated to start with, resulted in slower progress, which again resulted in higher costs; the costs of the new large hill were NOK 715 million, while total costs for the upgrade of the national arena and infrastructure ended at NOK 2,426 million. This included the construction of a new ski stadium next to Holmenkollbakken, Midtstubakken, upgrades to the Holmenkollen Line.
Holmenkollbakken is a large ski jumping hill with a hill size of 134 and a construction point of 120. It has a spectator capacity for 30,000; the current structure consists of a 64 meters tall superstructure. The top of the structure is 420 meters above mean sea level, it is the first hill in the world with a permanent wind screen, able to restrain 45 to 50 percent of the wind. Midtstubakken is a normal hill with a hill size of 106 and a K-point of 95, it has a capacity for 16,000 spectators and was completed in 2010. Medal ceremonies were held at a square in the city center. Transport is based on. Instead, all spectators must use the Holmenkollen Line of the Oslo Metro. Holmenkollen Station is located within walking distance of the large hill and cross-country stadium, while Midtstuen Station is closest to Midtstubakken. Holmenkollen Station is the only one the line with platforms long enough for six cars, which allows a capacity of 9,000 per hour. "Chaotic" and "spectators stood in line for many hours to get into the arena" and "sheep are treated better", were some of the claims by Verdens Gang, in regards to the treatment of spectators on 26 February.
A number of people were not admitted into the arena (in time to see Marit Bjørgen w