The Oslofjord is an inlet in the south-east of Norway, stretching from an imaginary line between the Torbjørnskjær and Færder lighthouses and down to Langesund in the south to Oslo in the north. It is part of the Skagerrak strait, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea; the Oslofjord is not a fjord in the geological sense — in Norwegian the term fjord can refer to a wide range of waterways. The bay is divided into the inner and outer Oslofjord at the point of the 17 by 1 kilometre Drøbak Sound. In the period 1624–1925 the name of the fjord was Kristianiafjorden, since Christiania was the name of the capital in this period; the old Norse name of the fjord was Fold, giving names to the counties of Vestfold and Østfold — and the district Follo. Each of the islands in the innermost part of the fjord has its own identity and distinguishing history. Among them are Hovedøya, Lindøya, Bleikøya, Langøyene; these islands can be reached with the Oslo-boats from Aker Brygge.
Hovedøya contains monastery ruins, Gressholmen for its rabbits, Bleikøya, Lindøya for their cosy cabins at the water’s edge, Langøyene for its camping possibilities and beach. The inner part of the Oslofjord has forest covered hill slopes down towards the fjord; the Oslofjord has Norway’s highest all year temperature: 7.5 degrees Celsius. February is the coldest month in the fjord with -1.3 degrees Celsius, while July has 17.2 degrees Celsius. The islands in the middle of the fjord are among Norway’s warmest with high summer temperatures and moderate winters. Oslofjord’s high temperatures enable various flora to flourish; the oldest settlements in the area surrounding the Oslofjord date from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. It was here on the eastern and western shores that three of the best preserved Viking ships were unearthed. In historical times, this bay was known by the current name of Viken. Oslofjord has been an important body of water strategically due to its proximity to Oslo. During WWII, there were German installations at several points on its coastline.
One installation in Hovedøya held 1,100 Wehrmacht soldiers and women deemed Nazi collaborators at the National Internment Camp for Women in Hovedøya. Norwegian painter Edvard Munch had a cottage and studio in Åsgårdstrand on the fjord and the Oslofjord appears in several of his paintings, including The Scream and Girls on the Pier; the fjord was the scene of a key event in the German invasion of Norway in April 1940, the Battle of Drøbak Sound. The invasion included a planned landing of 1,000 troops transported by ship to Oslo. Colonel Eriksen, Commander of the Oscarsborg fortress near Drøbak maintained for historical purposes, sank the German heavy cruiser Blücher in the Drøbak narrows; the fortress's resistance blocked the route to Oslo, thus delaying the rest of the group long enough for the royal family, government and national treasury to be evacuated. The result was that Norway never surrendered to the Germans, leaving the Quisling government illegitimate and permitting Norway to participate as an ally in the war, rather than as a conquered nation.
The entire population situated around the Oslofjord including Oslo is about 1.96 million, the total population of all the counties situated around the fjord is 2.2 million. More than 40% of Norway’s population resides under 45 minutes of driving from the Oslofjord; the Oslofjord has Norway’s busiest traffic of ferries and cargo boats. Although the Oslofjord contains hundreds of populated islands, most of the population of the fjord resides on the mainland. In the summer there are boats of all sizes on the fjord, it is possible to go kayaking, canoeing and sailing; the Oslofjord is one of the nine venues of the Class 1 World Powerboat Championship
Trondheim is a city and municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It has a population of 193,501, is the third-most populous municipality in Norway, although the fourth largest urban area. Trondheim lies on the south shore of Trondheim Fjord at the mouth of the River Nidelva; the city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Foundation for Scientific and Industrial Research, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions; the settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, it served as the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Nidaros, it was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand and Tiller; the city functions as the seat of the County Mayor of Trøndelag county, but not as the administrative centre, Steinkjer. This is to make the county more efficient and not too centralized, as Trøndelag is the second largest county in Norway.
The city was given the name by Olav Tryggvason. It was for a long time called Niðaróss in the Old Norse spelling, but it was just called kaupangr or, more kaupangr í Þróndheimi. In the late Middle Ages people started to call the city just Þróndheimr. In the Dano-Norwegian period, during the years as a provincial town in the united kingdoms of Denmark–Norway, the city name was spelled Trondhjem. Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931; the name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had resulted in 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and only 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage in the same year taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim; the name of the diocese was, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme in 1918.
Trondheim was named Drontheim during the Second World War, as a German exonym. Trondheimen indicates the area around Trondheim Fjord; the spelling Trondhjem was rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of NidarosTrondheim was named Kaupangen by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Shortly thereafter it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was used as a military retainer of King Olav I, it was used as the seat of the king, was the capital of Norway until 1217. People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the River Nidelva. Harald Fairhair was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I, called'the Good'; the battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke.
Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim. Trondheim was the seat of the Archbishop of Nidaros for Norway from 1152, who operated from the Archbishop's Palace. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium; the city has experienced several major fires. Since much of the city was made of wooden buildings, many of the fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; the 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 led to an total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire.
At the time, the city had a population of 8000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered 10 months later; the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660. During the Second World War, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945; the German invasion force consisted of the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, 4 destroyers and 1700 Austrian Mountain troops. Other than a coastal battery opening fire, there was no resistance to the invasion on 9 April at 5 AM. On 14 and 17 April and French forces landed near Trondheim in a failed attempt to liberate Trondheim as part of the Namsos Campaign. During the occupation, Trondheim was the home of the notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, who operated from a nearby villa a
A coronation is the act of placement or bestowal of a crown upon a monarch's head. The term also refers not only to the physical crowning but to the whole ceremony wherein the act of crowning occurs, along with the presentation of other items of regalia, marking the formal investiture of a monarch with regal power. Aside from the crowning, a coronation ceremony may comprise many other rituals such as the taking of special vows by the monarch, the investing and presentation of regalia to the monarch, acts of homage by the new ruler's subjects and the performance of other ritual deeds of special significance to the particular nation. Western-style coronations have included anointing the monarch with holy oil, or chrism as it is called; the monarch's consort may be crowned, either with the monarch or as a separate event. Once a vital ritual among the world's monarchies, coronations have changed over time for a variety of socio-political and religious factors. In the past, concepts of royalty and deity were inexorably linked.
In some ancient cultures, rulers were considered to be divine or divine: the Egyptian pharaoh was believed to be the son of Ra, the sun god, while in Japan, the emperor was believed to be a descendant of Amaterasu, the sun goddess. Rome promulgated the practice of emperor worship. Coronations were once a direct visual expression of these alleged connections, but recent centuries have seen the lessening of such beliefs. Coronations are still observed in the United Kingdom and several Asian and African countries. In Europe, most monarchs are required to take a simple oath in the presence of the country's legislature. Besides a coronation, a monarch's accession may be marked in many ways: some nations may retain a religious dimension to their accession rituals while others have adopted simpler inauguration ceremonies, or no ceremony at all; some cultures use bathing or cleansing rites, the drinking of a sacred beverage, or other religious practices to achieve a comparable effect. Such acts symbolise the granting of divine favour to the monarch within the relevant spiritual-religious paradigm of the country.
Coronation in common parlance today may in a broader sense, refer to any formal ceremony in relation to the accession of a monarch, whether or not an actual crown is bestowed, such ceremonies may otherwise be referred to as investitures, inaugurations, or enthronements. The date of the act of ascension, however precedes the date of the ceremony of coronation. For example, the Coronation of Elizabeth II took place on 2 June 1953 sixteen months after her accession to the throne on 6 February 1952 on the death of her father George VI; the coronation ceremonies in medieval Christendom, both Western and Eastern, are influenced by the practice of the Roman Emperors as it developed during Late Antiquity, indirectly influenced by Biblical accounts of kings being crowned and anointed. The European coronation ceremonies best known in the form they have taken in Great Britain, descend from rites created in Byzantium, Visigothic Spain, Carolingian France and the Holy Roman Empire and brought to their apogee during the Medieval era.
In non-Christian states, coronation rites evolved from a variety of sources related to the religious beliefs of that particular nation. Buddhism, for instance, influenced the coronation rituals of Thailand and Bhutan, while Hindu elements played a significant role in Nepalese rites; the ceremonies used in modern Egypt, Malaysia and Iran were shaped by Islam, while Tonga's ritual combines ancient Polynesian influences with more modern Anglican ones. Coronations, in one form or another, have existed since ancient times. Egyptian records show coronation scenes, such as that of Seti I in 1290 BC. Judeo-Christian scriptures testify to particular rites associated with the conferring of kingship, the most detailed accounts of which are found in II Kings 11:12 and II Chronicles 23:11; the corona radiata, the "radiant crown" known best on the Statue of Liberty, worn by the Helios, the Colossus of Rhodes, was worn by Roman emperors as part of the cult of Sol Invictus, part of the imperial cult as it developed during the 3rd century.
The origin of the crown is thus religious, comparable to the significance of a halo, marking the sacral nature of kingship, expressing that either the king is himself divine, or ruling by divine right. The precursor to the crown was the browband called the diadem, worn by the Achaemenid rulers, was adopted by Constantine I, was worn by all subsequent rulers of the Roman Empire. Following the assumption of the diadem by Constantine and Byzantine emperors continued to wear it as the supreme symbol of their authority. Although no specific coronation ceremony was observed at first, one evolved over the following century; the emperor Julian was hoisted upon a shield and crowned with a gold necklace provided by one of his standard-bearers. Emperors were crowned and acclaimed in a similar manner, until the momentous decision was taken to permit the Patriarch of Constantinople to physically place the crown on the emperor's head. Historians debate when this first took place, but the precedent was established by the reign of Leo II, crowned by the Patriarch Acacius in 473.
This ritual in
Eric Haraldsson, nicknamed Eric Bloodaxe, was a 10th-century Norwegian ruler. It is speculated that he had short-lived terms as King of Norway and twice as King of Northumbria. Historians have reconstructed a narrative of Eric's life and career from the scant available historical data. There is a distinction between contemporary or near contemporary sources for Eric's period as ruler of Northumbria, the saga-based sources that detail the life of Eric of Norway, a chieftain who ruled the Norwegian Westland in the 930s. Norse sources have identified the two as the same since the late 12th century, while the subject is controversial, most historians have identified the two figures as the same since W. G. Collingwood's article in 1901; this identification has been rejected by the historian Claire Downham, who argued that Norse writers synthesized the two Erics using English sources. This argument, though respected by other historians in the area, has not produced consensus. Contemporary or near-contemporary sources include different recensions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Eric's coinage, the Life of St Cathróe, skaldic poetry.
Such sources reproduce only a hazy image of Eric's activities in Anglo-Saxon England. Strikingly, Eric's historical obscurity stands in sharp contrast to the wealth of legendary depictions in the kings' sagas, where he takes part in the sagas of his father Harald Fairhair and his younger half-brother Haakon the Good; these include the late 12th-century Norwegian synoptics – Historia Norwegiæ, Theodoricus monachus' Historia de antiquitate regum Norwagiensium, Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum – and the Icelandic kings' sagas Orkneyinga saga, the Heimskringla ascribed to Snorri Sturluson, Egils saga, Óláfs saga Tryggvasonar en mesta. In what sense the Eric of the sagas may have been based on the historical Eric of Northumbria, conversely, to what extent evidence might be called upon to shed light on the historical figure, are matters which have inspired a variety of approaches and suggestions among generations of historians. Current opinion veers towards a more critical attitude towards the use of sagas as historical sources for the period before the 11th century, but conclusive answers cannot be offered.
Eric's soubriquet blóðøx, ` Bloodaxe' or ` Bloody-axe', is of uncertain context. It is arguable whether its preservation in two lausavísur by Egill Skallagrímsson and a contemporary skald genuinely dates to the 10th century or had been inserted at some stage when Eric was becoming the focus of legend. There is no guarantee that it predates the 12th-century narrative tradition, where it is first attached to him in Ágrip and in Latin translation as sanguinea securis in the Historia Norwegiæ; the sagas explain it as referring to Eric's slaying of his half-brothers in a ruthless struggle to monopolise his rule over Norway. Fagrskinna, on the other hand, ascribes it to Eric's violent reputation as a Viking raider; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle describes Eric laconically as ‘Harold’s son’ assuming some familiarity on the reader's part. In the early part of the 12th century, John of Worcester had reason to believe that Eric was of royal Scandinavian stock; this appears to match with independent tradition from Norwegian synoptic histories and Icelandic sagas, which are explicit in identifying Eric of Northumbria as a son of the Norwegian king Harald Fairhair.
The skaldic poems ascribed to Egill Skallagrímsson may offer further reassurance that the sagas are on the right track, although doubts have been expressed about the date and integrity of the verses in the form in which they have survived. One of Egill's lausavísur speaks of an encounter in England with a man of "Harald's line", while the Arinbjarnarkviða envisages a ruler at York, a descendant of Halfdán and of the Yngling dynasty. If genuine, the latter identification would form the only direct clue in the contemporary record which might link Eric with the Norwegian dynasty. Another Harald known from this period is Aralt mac Sitric, king of Limerick, the probable father of Maccus and Gofraid; this may be relevant, since both these brothers and a certain Eric have been described as rulers of'the Isles'. In a letter addressed to Pope Boniface VIII, King Edward I remembered a certain Eric as having been a king of Scotland subject to the English king. In the 19th century, a case had been made for Harald Bluetooth King of Denmark as being Eric's true father.
J. M. Lappenberg and Charles Plummer, for instance, identified Eric with Harald's son Hiring; the only authority for this son's existence is Adam of Bremen, who in his Gesta claims to cite the otherwise unknown Gesta Anglorum for a remarkable anecdote about Hiring's foreign adventures: "Harald sent his son Hiring to England with an army. When the latter had subjugated the island, he was in the end betrayed and killed by the Northumbrians." If Eric's rise and fall had been the inspiration for the story, the names are not identical and Harald Bluetooth's floruit does not sit well with Eric's. In the account cited in the Latin text of the North Sagas entitled, Morte Rex Eilricus, copied long ago from th
Vestfold is a county in Norway, on the western shore of the Oslofjord. It borders Telemark; the county administration is in Tønsberg, Norway's oldest city, the largest city is Sandefjord. With the exception of the city-county of Oslo, Vestfold is the smallest county in Norway by area. Vestfold is located west of the Oslofjord, it includes many smaller, but well-known towns in Norway, such as Larvik, Sandefjord, Tønsberg and Horten. The river Numedalslågen runs through the county. Many islands are located at the coast. Vestfold is dominated by lowland and is among the best agricultural areas of Norway. Winters last about three months, while pleasant summer temperatures last from May to September, with a July average high of 17 °C. Vestfold is traditionally known for sailing. Sandefjord was a headquarters for the Norwegian whaling fleet, Horten used to be an important naval port; the coastal towns of Vestfold now engage in shipbuilding. Some lumbering is carried on in the interior; the area includes some of the best farmland in Norway.
Vestfold is the only county in which all municipalities have declared Bokmål to be their sole official written form of the Norwegian language. Vestfold will merge with neighboring Telemark County on January 1, 2020 as part of a nationwide municipal reform; the new county name is Vestfold og Telemark. Vestfold is the old name of the region, revived in modern times. Fold was the old name of the Oslofjord, the meaning of the name Vestfold is the region west of the Fold. Before 1919, the county was called Jarlsberg og Larvik Amt; the amt was created in 1821, consisting of the two old counties of Larvik. In the Viking age, Vestfold referred to Eiker, Kongsberg, now in Buskerud. Vestfold is mentioned for the first time in a written source in 813, when Danish kings were in Vestfold to quell an uprising amongst the Fürsts. There may have been as many as six political centers in Vestfold. At that time Kaupang, located in Tjølling near Larvik, had been functioning for decades and had a chieftain. Kaupang, which dates from the Viking Era, is believed to be the first town in Norway, although Tønsberg is the oldest town in Norway still in existence.
At Borre, there was a site for another chieftain. That site held chieftains for more than one hundred years prior to 813; the stone mounds at Mølen have been dated to the Viking Age. The mounds at Haugar in present-day Tønsberg's town centre have been dated to the Viking period. At Farmannshaugen in Sem there seems to have been activity at the time, while activity at Oseberghaugen and Gokstadhaugen dates from a few decades later. An English source from around 890 retells the voyage of Ottar "from the farthest North, along Norvegr via Kaupang and Hedeby to England", where Ottar places Kaupang in the land of the Dane - danenes land. Bjørn Brandlien says that "To the degree that Harald Hårfagre gathered a kingdom after the Battle of Hafrsfjord at the end of the 9th century -, connected to Avaldsnes - it does not seem to have made such a great impression on Ottar". Kaupang is mentioned under the name of Skiringssal in Ottar's tales. By the 10th century, the local kings had established themselves; the king or his ombudsman resided in the old Royal Court at Sæheim i Sem, today the Jarlsberg Estate in Tønsberg.
The farm Haugar became the seat for Haugating, the Thing for Vestfold and one of Norway's most important place for the proclamation of kings. The family of Harald Fairhair, most the first king of Norway, is said to have come from this area; the Danish kings seem to have been weak in Vestfold from around the middle of the 9th century until the middle of the 10th century, but their rule was strengthened there at the end of the 10th century. The Danish kings seem to have tried to control the region until the 13th century. Erik Agnarsson Halfdan Hvitbeinn Eystein Halfdansson Halfdan the Mild Gudrød the Hunter Halfdan the Black, together with his brother, Olaf Gudrødsson Ragnvald the Mountain-High, Cousin of Harold Fairhair Harald Fairhair Bjørn Farmann Olaf Haraldsson Geirstadalf, brother of Bjørn Harald Gudrødsson Grenske, 976–987 Whaling was an important 19th century industry in coastal cities such as Larvik, Tønsberg, Sandefjord, the world centre for the world's modern whaling industry. Not only did men from Vestfold County make up all the crew on the Norwegian whaling fleet, but many were involved in the whaling industry in other nations.
As an example, the first phase of modern Australian whaling was entirely based on workers from Larvik. While the first whaling station in the Faroe Islands was established by Sandefjordians, Larvik played a similar role for the Shetland Islands. Tønsberg initiated much of the whaling industry in Iceland and the Hebrides; the largest settlement in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, was established by Carl Anton Larsen of Sandefjord on November 16, 1904. Sandefjordian Nils Larsen's expeditions to Antarctica in the early 20th century led to the Norwegian annexation of Bouvet Island and Peter I Island. A cove on Peter I Island is named Sandefjord Cove in honor of Nils Larsen's hometown. Sandefjord Harbor is now home to Southern Actor, the only whale-catcher from the Modern Whaling Epoch still to be in its original order; the museum ship is owned by Sandefjord Whaling Museum, Europe's only museum dedicated to wh
Olaf II of Norway
Olaf II Haraldsson known as St. Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site, his sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of the Christian religion among the Vikings / Norsemen in Scandinavia. Olaf's local canonisation was in 1164 confirmed by Pope Alexander III, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church, following the reformation he was a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions, he is a canonised saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church and one of the last famous Western saints before the Great Schism. The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. During the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride.
Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok is still his day of celebration. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him. St. Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf'the fat' or'the stout' or as Olaf'the big'. In Norway today, he is referred to as Olav den hellige or Heilage-Olav in honour of his sainthood. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian often spelt Olaf, his name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Faroese Ólavur, in Swedish Olof. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, Olaf are used interchangeably, he is sometimes referred to as Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae, a designation which goes back to the 13th century. St. Olaf was born in Ringerike, his mother was Åsta Gudbrandsdatter, his father was Harald Grenske, great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway.
Harald Grenske died. She married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children including Harald Hardrada, who would reign as a future king of Norway. There are many texts giving information concerning Olaf Haraldsson; the oldest source that we have is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. It mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. Olaf is mentioned in the Norwegian synoptic histories; these include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum, the Historia Norwegiae and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk. Icelanders wrote extensively about Olaf and we have several Icelandic sagas about him; these include: Morkinskinna. The famous Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson bases its account of Olaf on the earlier Fagrskinna. We have the important Oldest Saga of St. Olaf, important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. There are many hagiographic sources describing St. Olaf, but these focus on miracles attributed to him and cannot be used to recreate his life.
A notable one is the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr. A used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds. About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa; the Osilians, taken by surprise, had at first agreed to pay the demands made by Olaf, but gathered an army during the negotiations and attacked the Norwegians. Olaf won the battle, it is said that Olaf had participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008; the journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. Olaf made it back to his boats, he ordered his ships to take off though a storm was rising. Finns started a pursuit and made the same progress on land as Olaf and his men made with ships. Despite these events they survived; the exact location of the battle is uncertain and the Finnish equivalent for the place Herdaler is not known.
It is suggested. As a teenager he went to the Baltic to Denmark and to England. Skaldic poetry suggests he led a successful seaborne attack which pulled down London Bridge, though this is not confirmed by Anglo-Saxon sources; this may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut. Olaf saw it as his call to unite Norway into one kingdom, as his ancestor Harald Fairhair had succeeded in doing. On the way home he wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy; this region had been conquered by Norsemen in the year 881. Duke Richard was himself an ardent Christian, the Normans had previously converted to Christianity. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen in the pre-romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by the Norman duke's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normand
Heimskringla is the best known of the Old Norse kings' sagas. It was written in Old Norse in Iceland by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson c. 1230. The name Heimskringla was first used in the 17th century, derived from the first two words of one of the manuscripts. Heimskringla is a collection of sagas about Swedish and Norwegian kings, beginning with the saga of the legendary Swedish dynasty of the Ynglings, followed by accounts of historical Norwegian rulers from Harald Fairhair of the 9th century up to the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla in 1177; the exact sources of his work are disputed, but included earlier kings' sagas, such as Morkinskinna and the twelfth century Norwegian synoptic histories and oral traditions, notably many skaldic poems. Snorri had himself visited Norway and Sweden. For events of the mid-12th century, Snorri explicitly names the now-lost work Hryggjarstykki as his source; the composition of the sagas is Snorri's. The name Heimskringla comes from the fact that the first words of the first saga in the compilation are Kringla heimsins, "the orb of the Earth".
The earliest parchment copy of the work is referred to as Kringla, now catalogued as Reykjavík, National Library, Lbs fragm 82. This is now a single vellum leaf from c. 1260. Heimskringla consists of several sagas thought of as falling into three groups, giving the overall work the character of a triptych; the saga narrates the contests of the kings, the establishment of the kingdom of Norway, Viking expeditions to various European countries, ranging as far afield as Palestine in the saga of Sigurd the Crusader. The stories are told with a freshness, giving a picture of human life in all its reality; the saga is a prose epic, relevant to the history not only of Scandinavia but the regions included in the wider medieval Scandinavian diaspora. The first part of the Heimskringla is rooted in Norse mythology; the first section tells of the mythological prehistory of the Norwegian royal dynasty, tracing Odin, described here as a mortal man, his followers from the East, from Asaland and Asgard, its chief city, to their settlement in Scandinavia.
The subsequent sagas are devoted starting with Halfdan the Black. A version of Óláfs saga helga, about the saint Olaf II of Norway, is the main and central part of the collection: Olaf's 15-year-long reign takes up about one third of the entire work. Thereafter, the saga of Harald Hardrada narrates Harald's expedition to the East, his brilliant exploits in Constantinople and Sicily, his skaldic accomplishments, his battles in England against Harold Godwinson, the son of Godwin, Earl of Wessex, where he fell at the battle Battle of Stamford Bridge in 1066 only a few days before Harold fell at the Battle of Hastings. After presenting a series of other kinds, the saga ends with Magnus V of Norway. Heimskringla contains the following sagas: Ynglinga saga Saga of Halfdanr svarti Saga of Haraldr hárfagi Saga of Hákon góði Saga of King Haraldr gráfeldr Saga of King Óláfr Tryggvason Saga of King Óláfr Haraldsson, excerpt from conversion of Dale-Gudbrand Saga of Magnús góði Saga of Haraldr harðráði Saga of Óláfr Haraldsson kyrri Saga of Magnús berfœttr Saga of Sigurðr Jórsalafari and his brothers Saga of Magnús blindi and of Haraldr Gilli Saga of Sigurðr, Eysteinn and Ingi, the sons of Haraldr Saga of Hákon herðibreiðs Saga of Magnús Erlingsson Snorri explicitly mentions a few prose sources, now lost in the form that he knew them: Hryggjarstykki by Eiríkr Oddsson, Skjǫldunga saga, an unidentified saga about Knútr inn gamli, a text called Jarlasǫgurnar.
Snorri may have had access to a wide range of the early Scandinavian historical texts known today as the'synoptic histories', but made most use of: Ágrip af Nóregs konunga sǫgum. Morkinskinna. Fagrskinna, itself based on Morkinskinna, but the much shorter, his own Separate saga of St Óláfr, which he incorporated bodily into Heimskringla. This text was based on a saga of Olaf from about 1220 by Styrmir Kárason, now lost. Oddr Snorrason's Life of Óláfr Tryggvason, a Latin life of the same figure by Gunnlaugr Leifsson. Snorri made extensive use of skaldic verse which he believed to have been composed at the time of the events portrayed and transmitted orally from that time onwards, made us of other oral accounts, though it is uncertain to what extent. Up until the mid-19th century, historians put great trust in the factual truth of Snorri's narrative, as well as other old Norse sagas. In the early 20th century, this trust was abandoned with the advent of saga criticism, pioneered by Curt and Lauritz Weibull.
These historians pointed out that Snorri's work had been written sev