Norwegian Institute of Technology
Not to be confused with the National Institute of Technology The Norwegian Institute of Technology, known by its Norwegian abbreviation NTH was a science institute in Trondheim, Norway. It was established in 1910, and existed as an independent technical university for 89 years, in 1996 NTH ceased to exist as an organizational superstructure when the university was restructured and rebranded. The former NTH departments are now basic building blocks of the Norwegian University of Science, NTH was primarily a polytechnic institute, educating master level engineers as well as architects. In 1992 NTH had 7627 master and doctoral students and 1591 employees, it graduated 1262 chartered engineers,52 chartered architects, the operating budget was equivalent to USD100 M, and the total premises amounted to around 260,000 m². Since the merger, it forms a part of the University commonly known as Gløshaugen, after the geographical area in which it is situated. This will at least entail, 1) early years, pre-WWII history, incl Samfundet, 2) NTH during WWII, 3) possibly some info on each decade until 96, incl SINTEF, RUNIT, PVV, etc.
World War II radar and ASDIC pioneer and industry mentor, technology historian Johannes Falnes, World War II resistance agent, defence research director, Minister of Industry Terje Michalsen, electronics engr. Venture capitalist Lars Monrad Krohn, electronics engr, industrialist Ingvild Myhre, electronics engr. telecom industry executive Lars Onsager, chemical engr. 1968 Nobel laureate Venketa Parthasarathy, chemical engr. noted for work on wood pulp and two-stage oxygen delignification Erik Rolfsen and city planner for Oslo Edgar B. Student society co-founder, popular science & technology author Rolf Skaar, cybernetics engr. industrialist, Norwegian Space Centre director Einar Aasen Skogsholm, VP of MECO Øystein Stray Spetalen, petroleum engr. MP for 20 years, former Conservative party parliamentary leader Vebjørn Tandberg, industrialist Theodore Theodorsen, Norwegian-American aerodynamicist Leif Tronstad, O. B. E. Chemist, nuclear chemistry scientist and organiser of World War IIs Operation Gunnerside Tor Olav Trøim, shipping and energy industry executive John Ugelstad, chemical engr.
Inventor of the Rottefella ski binding and Dromedille dinghy, World War II resistance agent Vegard Wollan, sINTEFs development and investment company Sun Microsystems Trondheim, formerly ClustRa Systems Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies AS, acquired Systems in Motion AS
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Masfjorden is a municipality in the northern part of Hordaland county in Norway. The municipality is located in the Nordhordland district of the county, the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Masfjordnes. Other villages in the municipality include Frøyset, Matre, the municipality is centered on the Masfjorden which almost divides the municipality completely into a north side and a south side. A cable ferry crosses the fjord from Masfjordnes to Duesund in the part of the municipality. The Matre Hydroelectric Power Station is located in the part of the municipality. The parish of Masfjorden was established as a municipality on 1 March 1879 when it was separated from the municipality of Lindås. Masfjorden was the part of Lindås, and its initial population was 2,336. On 1 January 1964, the Einestrand and Kikallen area along the Austfjorden was transferred from Lindås to Masfjorden, the municipality is named after the Masfjorden, the fjord which runs through it. The Old Norse form of the name was Matrsfjǫrðr, the first element is the genitive case of the old name of the fjord, Matr.
This name is derived from matr which means food - and the meaning of the name is the one full of food. The village of Matre lies at the end of the fjord. The coat-of-arms is from modern times and they were granted on 28 September 1990. The arms feature three gold heldrer, a tool made of wood for fastening a rope around a load. They are meant to symbolize unity as well as the importance of forestry, three of these objects appear in yellow and they are centered on a field of red. See also, Coat of arms of Øyer The Church of Norway has three parishes within the municipality of Masfjorden and it is part of the Nordhordland deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The municipality is governed by a council of elected representatives. The municipal council of Masfjorden is made up of 17 representatives that are elected to four years. For 2011–2015, the party breakdown is as follows, Masfjorden municipality lies to the east of the Fensfjorden and Austfjorden, the Masfjorden runs east to west bisecting the municipality
Order of St. Olav
The Royal Norwegian Order of Saint Olav is a Norwegian order of chivalry that was instituted by King Oscar I of Norway and Sweden on August 21,1847, as a distinctly Norwegian order. It is named after King Olav II, known to posterity as St. Olav, nobility was abolished in Norway in 1821. Just before the union with Sweden was dissolved in 1905, the Order of the Norwegian Lion was instituted in 1904 by King Oscar II, the Order of St. Olav thus became the kingdoms only order of chivalry for the next 80 years. The Grand Master of the order is the monarch of Norway. It is awarded to individuals as a reward for remarkable accomplishments on behalf of the country, since 1985, the order has only been conferred upon Norwegian citizens, though foreign heads of state and royalty are awarded the order as a matter of courtesy. The Lord Chamberlain nominates the members of the commission, and the monarch approves them, nominations for the award are directed at the commission through the county governor. The order is divided into five classes and may be awarded for civilian or military contributions.
The collar is awarded as a distinction of the Grand Cross to those recipients deemed exceptionally worthy. Grand Cross of St. Olav – awarded to heads of state as a courtesy and in cases to individuals for merit, wears the badge on a collar. The insignia are expected to be returned either upon the advancement to a higher level of the order or upon his or her death. Since it was instituted, the order has been awarded approximately 19,500 times, the insignia are produced in Norway by craftsmen. The medal does not confer upon the recipient membership in an order, the badge of the Order is a white enamelled Maltese Cross, in silver for the knight class and in gilt of the higher classes, crowned monograms O appear between the arms of the cross. The cross is topped by a crown, military awards have crossed swords between the crown and the cross, the star of the Order for the Grand Cross is an eight-pointed silver star with faceted rays, bearing the obverse of the badge of the Order. The star for Commander with Star is a silver faceted Maltese Cross, the central disc is red with the golden Norwegian lion rampart bearing a battle axe, surrounded by a white-blue-white ring.
The ribbon of the Order is red with white-blue-white edge stripes, the Order of St. Olav is the highest civilian decoration currently awarded by Norway, and only ranks after the military War Cross among all Norwegian decorations still awarded in the general ranking. Bearers of the Grand Cross of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav are ranked 16th and this list contains holders of the Grand Cross, some of whom have been awarded the Collar and gives the year of their appointment. The list is collated alphabetically by last name, those not possessing a last name, such as royalty. Six of the listed are not heads of states or royals, before the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit was created in 1985, the Order of St Olav was awarded to members of a foreign delegation during state visits