The Blériot X was an unfinished early French aeroplane by Louis Blériot. Its design was quite unlike anything else he had built and was modelled on the successful aircraft of the Wright brothers: a pusher biplane with elevators and rudders carried on outriggers. After exhibiting it at the Salon de l'Automobile et de l'Aéronautique in Paris in December 1908, Bleriot abandoned it and returned to developing his successful monoplane designs. General characteristics Crew: one pilot Capacity: 2 passengers Length: 8.00 m Wingspan: 12.00 m Wing area: 60 m2 Gross weight: 650 kg Powerplant: 1 × Antoinette 8V V-8 water-cooled piston engine, 37 kW Performance Armament Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 161. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 890 Sheet 40. Devaux and Michel Marani. "Les Douze Premiers Aéroplanes de Louis Blériot". Pegase No 54, May 1989. Nova: A Daring Flight earlyaviators.com
An aileron is a hinged flight control surface forming part of the trailing edge of each wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. Ailerons are used in pairs to control the aircraft in roll, which results in a change in flight path due to the tilting of the lift vector. Movement around this axis is called'rolling' or'banking'; the modern aileron was invented and patented by the British scientist Matthew Piers Watt Boulton in 1868, based on his 1864 paper On Aërial Locomotion. Though there was extensive prior art in the 19th century for the aileron and its functional analog, wing warping, in 1906 the United States granted an expansive patent to the Wright Brothers of Dayton, for the invention of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulated an airplane's control surfaces. Considerable litigation ensued within the United States over the legal issues of lateral roll control, until the First World War compelled the U. S. Government to legislate a legal resolution; the name "aileron", from French, meaning "little wing" refers to the extremities of a bird's wings used to control their flight.
It first appeared in print in the 7th edition of Cassell's French-English Dictionary of 1877, with its lead meaning of "small wing". In the context of powered airplanes it appears in print about 1908. Prior to that, ailerons were referred to as rudders, their older technical sibling, with no distinction between their orientations and functions, or more descriptively as horizontal rudders. Among the earliest printed aeronautical use of'aileron' was that in the French aviation journal L'Aérophile of 1908. Ailerons had more or less supplanted other forms of lateral control, such as wing warping, by about 1915, well after the function of the rudder and elevator flight controls had been standardised. Although there were many conflicting claims over who first invented the aileron and its function, i.e. lateral or roll control, the flight control device was invented and described by the British scientist and metaphysicist Matthew Piers Watt Boulton in his 1864 paper On Aërial Locomotion. He was the first to patent an aileron control system in 1868.
Boulton's description of his lateral flight control system was both complete. It was "the first record we have of appreciation of the necessity for active lateral control as distinguished from.... With this invention of Boulton's we have the birth of the present-day three torque method of airborne control" as was praised by Charles Manly; this was endorsed by C. H. Gibbs-Smith. Boulton's British patent, No. 392 of 1868, issued about 35 years before ailerons were "reinvented" in France, became forgotten and lost from sight until after the flight control device was in general use. Gibbs-Smith stated on several occasions that if the Boulton patent had been revealed at the time of the Wright brothers' legal filings, they might not have been able to claim priority of invention for the lateral control of flying machines; the fact that the Wright brothers were able to gain a patent in 1906 did not invalidate Boulton's lost and forgotten invention. Boulton had described and patented ailerons in 1868 and they were not used on manned aircraft until they were employed on Robert Esnault-Pelterie’s glider in 1904, although in 1871 a French military engineer, Charles Renard and flew an unmanned glider incorporating ailerons on each side, activated by a Boulton-style pendulum controlled single-axis autopilot device.
The pioneering U. S. aeronautical engineer Octave Chanute published descriptions and drawings of the Wright brothers' 1902 glider in the leading aviation periodical of the day, L'Aérophile, in 1903. This prompted Esnault-Pelterie, a French military engineer, to build a Wright-style glider in 1904 that used ailerons in lieu of wing warping; the French journal L’Aérophile published photos of the ailerons on Esnault-Pelterie’s glider which were included in his June 1905 article, its ailerons were copied afterward. The Wright brothers used wing warping instead of ailerons for roll control on their glider in 1902, about 1904 their Flyer II was the only aircraft of its time able to do a coordinated banked turn. During the early years of powered flight the Wrights had better roll control on their designs than airplanes that used movable surfaces. From 1908, as aileron designs were refined it became clear that ailerons were much more effective and practical than wing warping. Ailerons had the advantage of not weakening the airplane's wing structure as did the wing warping technique, one reason for Esnault-Pelterie's decision to switch to ailerons.
By 1911 most biplanes used ailerons rather than wing warping—by 1915 ailerons had become universal on monoplanes as well. The U. S. Government, frustrated by the lack of its country's aeronautical advances in the years leading up to World War I, enforced a patent pool putting an end to the Wright brothers patent war; the Wright company changed its aircraft flight controls from wing warping to the use of ailerons at that time as well. Others who were thought to have been the first to introduce ailerons included: American John J. Montgomery included spring-loaded trailing edge flaps on his second glider: these were operable by the pilot as ailerons. In 1886 his third glider design used rotation of the entire wing rather than just a trailing edge portion for roll control. By his own accounts all of these changes in addition to his use of an elevator for pitch control provided "entire control of the machine in the wind, preventing it from upsetting." New Zealander Richard Pearse reputedly made a power
The Blériot 111 was a French four-seat executive transport monoplane designed by André Herbemont. The first French aircraft to be fitted with a retractable landing gear, after six years development it was not ordered into production; the Bleriot 111 was a low-wing single-engined monoplane with an enclosed passenger cabin and an open cockpit for the pilot forward of the cabin. The first variant was the Bleriot 111/1 which first flew on 24 January 1929 powered by a 280 hp Hispano-Suiza 6Mbr 6-cyl. Water-cooled in-line engine. In October 1929 a second variant flew; the 111/2 was re-engined with a 420 hp Gnome & Rhône 9Ady radial engine and re-designated 111/3. The 111/3 was flown as part of the Patrouille Blériot which gave exhibitions and demonstrations around France and Spain in the 1930s; the 111/1 was modified as the 111/4 with a revised wing bracing, a 400 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Jb engine and retractable landing gear,a first for a French aircraft. The 111/4 flew on 27 October 1930; the next variant was the 111/5 which moved the pilot's cockpit to the rear of the passenger cabin and was fitted with a 500 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Mbr engine.
A re-engined variant of the 111/5 was fitted with a 500 hp Gnome-Rhône K-14 radial engine and was named Sagittaire. Sagittaire fitted with a new wing and 840 hp Gnome & Rhône 14Kbrs, was re-designated 111/6; the 111/6 was entered into the 1934 London to Melbourne air race but it was withdrawn when the landing gear was damaged two days before the race start. With no commercial interest in the design no more Bleriot 111s were built. Bleriot 111/1 Powered by a 280 hp Hispano-Suiza 6Mbr 6-cyl. Water-cooled in-line engine. Bleriot 111/2 / bis Modified landing gear. Bleriot 111/3 The 111/2 re-engined with a 420 hp Gnome & Rhône 9Ady radial engine; this aircraft ended up in the Spanish Republican Air Force during the Spanish Civil War. Bleriot 111/4 The 111/1 was modified as the 111/4 with a revised wing bracing, a 400 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Jb engine and retractable landing gear,a first for a French aircraft. Bleriot 111/5 The pilot's cockpit moved to the rear of the passenger cabin and fitted with a 500 hp Hispano-Suiza 12Mbr engine.
Sagittaire A re-engined variant of the 111/5 was fitted with a 500 hp Gnome-Rhône K-14 radial engine and was named Sagittaire. Bleriot 111/6 Sagittaire fitted with a new wing and 840 hp Gnome & Rhône 14Kbrs FranceFrench Air Force Spain Spanish Republican Air Force - Bleriot 111/3 Data from The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: four passengers Length: 10.66 m Wingspan: 17.00 m Height: 4.07 m Wing area: 34.57 m2 Empty weight: 2136 kg Gross weight: 3400 kg Powerplant: 1 × Gnome-Rhône 14Kbrs radial engine, 636 kW Performance Maximum speed: 370 km/h Range: 1000 km Service ceiling: 5500 m Armament Related lists List of aircraft of the Spanish Republican Air Force Notes SourcesThe Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft. Orbis Publishing
Toury is a commune in the Eure-et-Loir department in northern France. On 31 October 1908 Louis Blériot succeeded in making a cross-country flight, making a round trip from Toury to Artenay and back, a total distance of 28 km; this was not the first cross-country flight by a narrow margin, since Henri Farman had flown from Bouy to Rheims, the preceding day. Communes of the Eure-et-Loir department INSEE
The Blériot XXIII was a racing monoplane produced in 1911 by Blériot Aéronautique. Two were built, both of which were flown in the 1911 Gordon Bennett Trophy competition at Eastchurch. Leblanc had set a world speed record of 125 km/h on 12 June 1911 at the eliminating trial for the French Gordon Bennett entrant; the Blériot XXIII was a shoulder-wing monoplane with a covered square-section fuselage with a down-curved appearance and narrow chord wings. After it was apparent that the aircraft was some five seconds a lap slower than the Nieuport II being flown by Charles Weymann, Blériot altered both machines by shortening the wings, reducing the span to around 5.2 m. The result was described by C. G. Grey, editor of The Aeroplane, as looking "more like the latter half of a dogfish with a couple of visiting cards stuck on it than anything else". Gustav Hamel was the first competitor to start, but after misjudging a turn on the first lap he crashed spectacularly, throwing him out of the aircraft.
Miraculously, he only sustained minor injuries. The second aircraft, flown by Alfred Leblanc finished second, his time of 73 minutes 40.2 seconds putting him just over two minutes behind Charles Weymann, who won the event. Data from Opdycke 1990, p.56General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 7.62 m Wingspan: 7.16 m Before reduction in span Wing area: 9 m2 Before reduction in span Powerplant: 1 × Gnome Omega Omega 14-cylinder two-row air cooled rotary engine, 75 kW Propellers: 2-bladed Opdycke, Leonard E. French Aeroplanes Before the Great War. Atglen, PA: Schiffer, 1999. ISBN 0-7643-0752-5 Villard, Henry Serrano Blue Ribbon of the Air. Washington: Smithsonian Press, 1987. ISBN 0-87474-942-5
The Blériot 125 was a unusual French airliner of the early 1930s. Displayed at the 1930 Salon de l'Aéronautique in Paris, it featured accommodation for twelve passengers in separate twin fuselages. Between them, these pods shared a high wing; the centre section of wing joined the fuselage pods and carried a nacelle that contained an engine at either end and the crew compartment in the middle. When flown the following year, it displayed poor flight characteristics and although attempts to improve it continued on into 1933, certification could not be achieved and the sole prototype was scrapped the following year. General characteristics Crew: two pilots and one navigator Capacity: 12 passengers Length: 13.83 m Wingspan: 29.4 m Height: 4.0 m Wing area: 100.0 m2 Empty weight: 4,440 kg Gross weight: 7,260 kg Powerplant: 2 × Hispano-Suiza 12Hbr, 410 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 220 km/h Range: 1,000 km Armament Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 162.
"Aircraft With Twin Cabins Carries Larger Loads", September 1931, Popular Mechanics "Cabins Under Wings Of Plane For Passenger Service" Popular Mechanics, August 1933 "Report on Paris Air Show"l Flight 12 Dec 1930
Blériot Aéronautique was a French aircraft manufacturer founded by Louis Blériot. It made a few motorcycles between 1921 and 1922 and cyclecars during the 1920s. Louis Blériot was an engineer who had developed the first practical headlamp for cars and had established a successful business marketing them. In 1901 he had built a small unmanned ornithopter, but his serious involvement with aviation began in April 1905 when he witnessed Gabriel Voisin's first experiments with a floatplane glider towed behind a motorboat on the river Seine. A brief partnership with Voisin followed, but after the failure of the Blériot III and its modified version, the Blériot IV, the partnership was dissolved and Blériot set up his own company, "Recherches Aéronautique Louis Blériot". Unlike the business started by Gabriel Voisin, a straightforward design and manufacturing concern with Voisin acting as aircraft designer, Bleriot's establishment was, as its name suggests a funded research establishment, employing various engineers and designers.
Owing to this it is difficult to establish the extent of Blériot's involvement in the actual design of the aircraft which bear his name. Over the next few years a series of aircraft of varying configurations were produced, each one marginally more successful than its predecessor, culminating in the Type XI with which he became famous for being the first to fly across the English Channel in 1909; the publicity gained by this achievement brought the company orders for large numbers of the Type XI, several hundred were made. This commercial success enabled the research side of the business to expand and in the years before the First World War a startlingly heterogeneous collection of aircraft were produced, although none came close to being as successful as the Type XI. In late 1909 Blériot established a flying training school for pilots at Etampes near Rouen, early the next year a second school was opened at Pau, Between 1910 and 1914 these schools trained around 1,000 pilots: nearly half of the pilots holding an Aero Club de France brevet at the outbreak of the First World War had been trained by the Blériot schools.
In September 1910 another flying school was opened at the newly established Hendon aerodrome near London. In July 1914 Bleriot opened another flying school at Brooklands in Surrey and a small factory there, managed by Norbert Chereau and produced about 20 Bleriot Monoplane Trainers. In 1913 Blériot acquired the assets of the Deperdussin company, following the arrest on fraud charges of its founder Armand Deperdussin; the name of the company was changed from Société de Production des Aéroplanes Deperdussin to Société Pour L'Aviation et ses Dérivés referred to by its acronym SPAD. This company became successful during World War I with its mass production in French factories and worldwide exports. Production licenses were sold in several countries, including a larger British factory, established near Brooklands at Addlestone, Surrey by 1917, a production line at the Curtiss Elmwood plant in August 1917. During the First World War Blériot Aéronautique was concerned with manufacturing aircraft designed by others.
The only aircraft produced under the Blériot name was a series of prototype multi-engined heavy bombers, none of which entered service. The Allied victory in 1918 resulted in difficult times for the aircraft industry. During the war a large manufacturing capability had been built up, but the end of the war resulted in the disappearance of the market for military aircraft, commercial aviation was as yet undeveloped. Bleriot liquidated SPAD, selling its factories and bringing key workers, including the head of design André Herbemont, to the Blériot works at Suresnes. On 6 April 1919 Blériot, in association with other leading French aircraft manufacturers, established the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, a prototype 28-seat airliner, the Type 75 Mammoth, based on the earlier Type 74 bomber, was exhibited at the Aero Salon in Paris in December 1919, along with three SPAD designs, the S.27, S.29 and S.30. The Type 75 proved unsuccessful, but 10 examples of the S.27 were ordered by CMA, a five-seat development, the S.33 was produced, first flying at the end of 1920.
This was followed by the larger S.46. Attempts were made to diversify: a contract to build fishing boats was accepted, another for a motorcycle, produced at Suresnes. At the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, the company was promoting a motorcycle in 1921 a stylish little cyclecar with a 2-cylinder 750cc two-stroke engine and shaft drive; the French Blériot cyclecars are sometimes confused with the Blériot-Whippet chain-driven cycle cars made at the Blériot-owned factory in Addlestone, but in fact the two vehicles had "little save size in common". In 1922 Blériot Aéronautique, a private company became a limited-liability company, Blériot Aéronautique S. A.. Although a single company, aircraft were produced using both the Blériot and SPAD names, the former being used for the larger multi-engined aircraft, while the smaller single-engined aircraft bore the SPAD name, it was these that were most successful; the only aircraft produced under the Blériot name to be produced in any quantity was the Type 127 designed in 1925 as the Type 117 escort fighter, adapted to become a bomber.
42 examples were bought by the French air force. The last aircraft built under the Blériot name was a large flying boat designed in response to a French Air Ministry requirement for an aircraft for a transatlantic mail service between Dakar and Natal in Brazil; the resulting aircraft, the Blériot 5190 first flew in August 1933, thi