Common green magpie
The common green magpie is a member of the crow family about the size of the Eurasian jay or smaller. It is a vivid green in colour lighter on the underside and has a thick black stripe from the bill to the nape. Compared to the other members of its genus, the white-tipped tail is quite long; this all contrasts vividly with the red fleshy eye rims and legs. The wings are reddish maroon; when dead, the colour of the bird changes into blue. It is found from the lower Himalayas in north eastern India in a broad south easterly band down into central Thailand, Malaysia and northwestern Borneo in evergreen forest and scrub; this bird seeks food both on the ground and in trees, takes a high percentage of animal prey from countless invertebrates, small reptiles and young birds and eggs. It will take flesh from a killed carcass; the nest is built in trees, large shrubs and in tangles of various climbing vines. There are 4–6 eggs laid; the voice is quite varied but a harsh peep-peep. It frequently whistles and chatters
There are two species of passerine birds called chough that constitute the genus Pyrrhocorax of the Corvidae family of birds. These are the red-billed chough, the Alpine chough; the white-winged chough of Australia, despite its name, is not a true chough but rather a member of the family Corcoracidae and only distantly related. The choughs have black plumage and brightly coloured legs and bills, are resident in the mountains of southern Eurasia and North Africa, they perform spectacular aerobatics. Both species pair for life and display fidelity to their breeding sites, which are caves or crevices in a cliff face, they lay three to five eggs. They feed in flocks, on short grazed grassland, taking invertebrate prey, supplemented by vegetable material or food from human habitation in winter. Changes in agricultural practices, which have led to local population declines and range fragmentation, are the main threats to this genus, although neither species is threatened globally; the first member of the genus to be described was the red-billed chough, named as Upupa pyrrhocorax by Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae in 1758.
His genus Upupa contained species that had a short blunt tongue. These included the northern bald ibis and the hoopoe, birds now known to be unrelated to the choughs; the Alpine chough was described as Corvus graculus by Linnaeus in the 1766 edition of the Systema Naturae. Although Corvus is the crow genus to which the choughs' relatives belong, they were considered sufficiently distinctive to be moved to the new genus, Pyrrhocorax, by English ornithologist Marmaduke Tunstall in his 1771 Ornithologia Britannica, The genus name is derived from Ancient Greek purrhos and korax. "Chough" was an alternative onomatopoeic name for the jackdaw, Corvus monedula, based on its call. The similar red-billed chough particularly common in Cornwall, became known as "Cornish chough" and just "chough", the name transferring from one species to the other; the fossil record from the Pleistocene of Europe includes a form similar to the Alpine chough, sometimes categorised as an extinct subspecies of that bird, a prehistoric form of the red-billed chough, P. p. primigenius.
There are eight recognised extant subspecies of red-billed chough, two of Alpine, although all differ only from the nominate forms. The greater subspecies diversity in the red-billed species arises from an early divergence of the Asian and geographically isolated Ethiopian races from the western forms; the closest relative of the choughs as indicated by a study of molecular phylogeny is the ratchet-tailed treepie and they form a clade, sister to the remaining living members of the corvidae. The genus Pyrrhocorax species differ from Corvus in that they have brightly coloured bills and feet, not scaled tarsi and short, dense nasal feathers. Choughs have uniformly black plumage; the two Pyrrhocorax are the main hosts of two specialist chough fleas, Frontopsylla frontalis and F. laetus, not found on other corvids. The Australian white-winged chough, Corcorax melanorhamphos, despite its similar shape and habits, is only distantly related to the true choughs, is an example of convergent evolution.
Choughs breed in mountains, from Morocco and Spain eastwards through southern Europe and the Alps, across Central Asia and the Himalayas to western China. The Alpine chough is found in Corsica and Crete, the red-billed chough has populations in Ireland, the UK, the Isle of Man, two areas of the Ethiopian Highlands. Both species are non-migratory residents throughout their range, only wandering to neighbouring countries; these birds are mountain specialists, although red-billed choughs use coastal sea cliffs in Ireland, Great Britain, Brittany, feeding on adjacent short grazed grassland or machair. The red-billed chough more breeds in mountains above 1,200 m in Europe, 2,000 m in North Africa and 2,400 m in the Himalayas. In that mountain range it reaches 6,000 metres in the summer, has been recorded at 7,950 metres altitude on Mount Everest; the Alpine chough breeds above 1,260 m in Europe, 2,880 m in Morocco, 3,500 m in the Himalayas. It has nested at 6,500 m, higher than any other bird species, it has been observed following mountaineers ascending Mount Everest at an altitude of 8,200 m.
Where the two species occur in the same mountains, the Alpine species tends to breed at a higher elevation than its relative, since it is better adapted for a diet at high altitudes. The choughs are medium-sized corvids; these birds have black plumage similar to that of many Corvus crows, but they are distinguished from members of that genus by their brightly coloured bills and legs. The Alpine chough has a yellow bill and the red-billed chough has a long, red bill; the sexes are similar, but the juvenile of each species has a duller bill and legs than the adult and its plumage lacks the glossiness seen in older birds. Other physical distinctions are summarised in the table below
Cyanolyca is a genus of small jays found in humid highland forests in southern Mexico, Central America and the Andes in South America. All are blue and have a black mask, they possess black bills and legs and are skulking birds. They join mixed-species flocks of birds
The treepies comprise four related genera of long-tailed passerine birds in the family Corvidae. There are 11 species of treepie. Treepies are similar to magpies. Most treepies are black, gray or brown, they are found in Southeast Asia. They live in tropical forests, they are arboreal and come to the ground to feed. Following Ericson et al. the black magpie is placed with the treepies: Ericson, Per G. P.. Journal of Avian Biology 36: 222-234. PDF fulltext Treepie videos on the Internet Bird Collection
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies; this name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time. A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used a name, one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name. Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is named more than once, independently.
They may arise when existing taxa are changed, as when two taxa are joined to become one, a species is moved to a different genus, a variety is moved to a different species, etc. Synonyms come about when the codes of nomenclature change, so that older names are no longer acceptable. To the general user of scientific names, in fields such as agriculture, ecology, general science, etc. A synonym is a name, used as the correct scientific name but, displaced by another scientific name, now regarded as correct, thus Oxford Dictionaries Online defines the term as "a taxonomic name which has the same application as another one, superseded and is no longer valid." In handbooks and general texts, it is useful to have synonyms mentioned as such after the current scientific name, so as to avoid confusion. For example, if the much advertised name change should go through and the scientific name of the fruit fly were changed to Sophophora melanogaster, it would be helpful if any mention of this name was accompanied by "".
Synonyms used in this way may not always meet the strict definitions of the term "synonym" in the formal rules of nomenclature which govern scientific names. Changes of scientific name have two causes: they may be taxonomic or nomenclatural. A name change may be caused by changes in the circumscription, position or rank of a taxon, representing a change in taxonomic, scientific insight. A name change may be due to purely nomenclatural reasons, that is, based on the rules of nomenclature. Speaking in general, name changes for nomenclatural reasons have become less frequent over time as the rules of nomenclature allow for names to be conserved, so as to promote stability of scientific names. In zoological nomenclature, codified in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names of the same taxonomic rank that pertain to that same taxon. For example, a particular species could, over time, have had two or more species-rank names published for it, while the same is applicable at higher ranks such as genera, orders, etc.
In each case, the earliest published name is called the senior synonym, while the name is the junior synonym. In the case where two names for the same taxon have been published the valid name is selected accorded to the principle of the first reviser such that, for example, of the names Strix scandiaca and Strix noctua, both published by Linnaeus in the same work at the same date for the taxon now determined to be the snowy owl, the epithet scandiaca has been selected as the valid name, with noctua becoming the junior synonym. One basic principle of zoological nomenclature is that the earliest published name, the senior synonym, by default takes precedence in naming rights and therefore, unless other restrictions interfere, must be used for the taxon. However, junior synonyms are still important to document, because if the earliest name cannot be used the next available junior synonym must be used for the taxon. For other purposes, if a researcher is interested in consulting or compiling all known information regarding a taxon, some of this may well have been published under names now regarded as outdated and so it is again useful to know a list of historic synonyms which may have been used for a given current taxon name.
Objective synonyms refer to taxa with same rank. This may be species-group taxa of the same rank with the same type specimen, genus-group taxa of the same rank with the same type species or if their type species are themselves objective synonyms, of family-group taxa with the same type genus, etc. In the case of subjective synonyms, there is no such shared type, so the synonymy is open to taxonomic judgement, meaning that th