Tablets often come equipped with sensors, including digital cameras, a microphone, and an accelerometer so images on screens are always displayed upright. The touchscreen display uses the recognition of finger or stylus gestures to replace the mouse, tablets are typically larger than smartphones or personal digital assistants with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally. However much of a tablets functionality resembles that of a modern smartphone, tablets can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards. Slates and booklets do not have a keyboard, and usually accept text. Hybrids, and 2-in-1s do have physical keyboards, yet they make use of virtual keyboards. Some 2-in-1s have processors and operating systems like a full laptop, most tablets can use separate keyboards connected using Bluetooth. The format was conceptualized in the century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In April 2010, Apple released the iPad, the first mass-market tablet to achieve widespread popularity, thereafter in the 2010s, tablets rapidly rose in ubiquity and became a large product category used for both personal and workplace applications.
The tablet computer and its operating system began with the development of pen computing. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, a device more powerful than todays tablets appeared briefly in Jerry Pournelle and Larry Nivens The Mote in Gods Eye. Adults could use a Dynabook, but the audience was children. In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus, renamed ST-Pad, the ST-Pad was based on the TOS/GEM Atari ST Platform and prototyped early handwriting recognition. Shiraz Shivjis company Momentus demonstrated in the time a failed x86 MS-DOS based Pen Computer with its own GUI. In 1994, the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke, Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the NewsPad, the project ended in 1997. During the November 2000 COMDEX, Microsoft used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating, all three products were based on extended versions of the MS-DOS operating system.
In 1992, IBM announced and shipped to developers the 2521 ThinkPad, based on PenPoint was AT&Ts EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&Ts own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the Apple Newton personal digital assistant in 1993 and it utilised Apples own new Newton OS, initially running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had specifically co-developed with Acorn Computers. The operating system and platform design were licensed to Sharp and Digital Ocean, in 1996, Inc. released the first of the Palm OS based PalmPilot touch and stylus based PDA, the touch based devices initially incorporating a Motorola Dragonball CPU
Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. According to scientists who studied it, open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration, a 2008 report by the Standish Group states that adoption of open-source software models has resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year to consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other, eventually the open source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar and this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscapes act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundations free software ideas, the new term they chose was open source, which was soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim OReilly, Linus Torvalds, and others. The Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term, a Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that open source is an intellectual property destroyer.
I cant imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business, IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in todays competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS, the free software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression which is less ambiguous. Software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, the Open Source Definition, presents an open-source philosophy, and further defines the terms of usage and redistribution of open-source software. Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition, the open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7,1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscapes January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator.
They used the opportunity before the release of Navigators source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the free in English. Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open source movement, the Free Software Foundation, started in 1985, intended the word free to mean freedom to distribute and not freedom from cost. Since a great deal of free software already was free of charge, such software became associated with zero cost. The Open Source Initiative was formed in February 1998 by Eric Raymond and they sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and they wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens attempted to open source as a service mark for the OSI. The Open Source Initiatives definition is recognized by governments internationally as the standard or de facto definition, OSI uses The Open Source Definition to determine whether it considers a software license open source
Software release life cycle
Usage of the alpha/beta test terminology originated at IBM. As long ago as the 1950s, IBM used similar terminology for their hardware development, a test was the verification of a new product before public announcement. B test was the verification before releasing the product to be manufactured, C test was the final test before general availability of the product. Martin Belsky, a manager on some of IBMs earlier software projects claimed to have invented the terminology, IBM dropped the alpha/beta terminology during the 1960s, but by it had received fairly wide notice. The usage of beta test to refer to testing done by customers was not done in IBM, rather, IBM used the term field test. Pre-alpha refers to all activities performed during the project before formal testing. These activities can include requirements analysis, software design, software development, in typical open source development, there are several types of pre-alpha versions. Milestone versions include specific sets of functions and are released as soon as the functionality is complete, the alpha phase of the release life cycle is the first phase to begin software testing.
In this phase, developers generally test the software using white-box techniques, additional validation is performed using black-box or gray-box techniques, by another testing team. Moving to black-box testing inside the organization is known as alpha release, alpha software can be unstable and could cause crashes or data loss. Alpha software may not contain all of the features that are planned for the final version, in general, external availability of alpha software is uncommon in proprietary software, while open source software often has publicly available alpha versions. The alpha phase usually ends with a freeze, indicating that no more features will be added to the software. At this time, the software is said to be feature complete, named after the second letter of the Greek alphabet, is the software development phase following alpha. Software in the stage is known as betaware. Beta phase generally begins when the software is complete but likely to contain a number of known or unknown bugs.
Software in the phase will generally have many more bugs in it than completed software, as well as speed/performance issues. The focus of beta testing is reducing impacts to users, often incorporating usability testing, the process of delivering a beta version to the users is called beta release and this is typically the first time that the software is available outside of the organization that developed it. Beta version software is useful for demonstrations and previews within an organization
In computer science, a microkernel is the near-minimum amount of software that can provide the mechanisms needed to implement an operating system. These mechanisms include low-level address space management, thread management, If the hardware provides multiple rings or CPU modes, the microkernel may be the only software executing at the most privileged level, which is generally referred to as supervisor or kernel mode. Traditional operating system functions, such as drivers, protocol stacks. In terms of the code size, as a general rule microkernels tend to be smaller than monolithic kernels. The MINIX3 microkernel, for example, has approximately 12,000 lines of code, in 1967, Regnecentralen was installing a RC4000 prototype in a Polish fertilizer plant in Puławy. The computer used a small operating system tailored for the needs of the plant. Brinch Hansen and his team became concerned with the lack of generality and reusability of the RC4000 system and they feared that each installation would require a different operating system so they started to investigate novel and more general ways of creating software for the RC4000.
In 1969, their effort resulted in the completion of the RC4000 Multiprogramming System and its nucleus provided inter-process communication based on message-passing for up to 23 unprivileged processes, out of which 8 at a time were protected from one another. Besides these elementary mechanisms, it had no strategy for program execution. This strategy was to be implemented by a hierarchy of running programs in which parent processes had complete control over child processes, microkernels were first developed in the 1980s as a response to changes in the computer world, and to several challenges adapting existing mono-kernels to these new systems. New device drivers, protocol stacks, file systems and other systems were being developed all the time. This code was located in the monolithic kernel, and thus required considerable work. This would not only allow these services to be easily worked on. Moreover, it would allow entirely new operating systems to be built up on a common core, microkernels were a very hot topic in the 1980s when the first usable local area networks were being introduced.
The same mechanisms that allowed the kernel to be distributed into user space allowed the system to be distributed across network links. The first microkernels, notably Mach, proved to have disappointing performance, during this time the speed of computers grew greatly in relation to networking systems, and the disadvantages in performance came to overwhelm the advantages in development terms. As of 2012, the Mach-based GNU Hurd is functional and included in testing versions of Arch Linux, although major work on microkernels had largely ended, experimenters continued development. Microkernels are closely related to exokernels, early operating system kernels were rather small, partly because computer memory was limited
The runtime supports installable applications on Windows, OS X and mobile operating systems like Android, iOS and BlackBerry Tablet OS. It originally ran on Linux, but support was discontinued as of version 2.6 in 2011, AIR applications have unrestricted access to local storage and file systems, while browser-based applications only have access to individual files selected by users. Adobe AIR internally uses the Flash Player rendering engine and ActionScript 3.0 as the programming language. HTML5 applications may run on the WebKit engine included in AIR, according to Adobe, over 100,000 unique applications were built on AIR, and over 1 billion installations of the same were logged from users across the world, as of May 2014. Adobe AIR was voted as the Best Mobile Application Development product at the Consumer Electronics Show for two consecutive years, using AIR, developers can access the full Adobe Flash functionality, including text, vector graphics, raster graphics, audio and microphone capability.
Clipboard access – Programmatically copy or paste text, bitmaps or files into the system clipboard, drag-and-drop – Allows users to drag text, bitmaps or files into AIR applications. In 2011, the addition of Stage3D to the Flash Player allowed Flash, several third-party frameworks have been developed to build upon the functionality of Stage3D, including the Starling Framework and Away3D. These frameworks are compatible with AIR, and provide vital performance improvements to AIR apps published for mobile devices. AIR apps can be augmented in functionality with the usage of AIR Native Extensions, Native extensions may be developed by anyone using publicly available tools, some are distributed for free or even as open source, while others are sold commercially. Native extensions may be programmed in the language on each platform. AIR is a technology and AIR applications can be repackaged with few or no changes for many popular desktop. Different installation options exist for each platform, AIR applications may be published with or without the AIR runtime.
Applications packaged with the AIR runtime are larger in file size, if the runtime is not embedded in the app, it must be installed separately
BlackBerry 10 is a proprietary mobile operating system for the BlackBerry line of smartphones, both developed by BlackBerry Limited. BlackBerry 10 is based on QNX, a Unix-like operating system that was developed by QNX Software Systems until the company was acquired by BlackBerry in April 2010. It supports the application framework Qt and features an Android runtime to run Android applications, prior to version 10.3.1, BlackBerry 10 supported the Adobe AIR runtime. It supports hardware keyboards, including ones which support touch input, on October 26,2015, BlackBerry announced that there are no plans to release new APIs and software development kits or adopt Qt version 5. Future updates, like versions 10.3.3 and 10.3.4, would focus on security, the company has not released a compatible device since the BlackBerry Leap smartphone, released in 2015. It has not ruled out any future devices, on November 12,2012, CEO Thorsten Heins announced a January 30,2013, launch of the BlackBerry 10 operating system version 10.0 and the first smartphones running it.
The operating system, as well as two devices, the Z10, and the Q10, were announced simultaneously around the world on January 30,2013, the company announced that the BlackBerry PlayBook tablet would receive an update to BlackBerry 10 in 2013. BlackBerry has continued to support and develop the PlayBook with its separate Tablet OS, on 14 May 2013 BlackBerry OS10.1 was launched. This brought improvements to many features requested by users, on 13 September 2013, in Asia, BlackBerry announced the launch of BlackBerry OS10.2 and a new BlackBerry 10 device, the Z30, providing performance increases over the previous BlackBerry 10 devices. On June 18,2014, BlackBerry announced a relationship with Amazon. com. The touchscreen is the predominant input method of BlackBerry 10, in addition to hardware keyboard for devices that have one, users can use gestures and keyboard shortcuts to navigate around the system. For instance, a user can unlock the device or return to the screen by swiping from the bottom to the top.
Some gestures offer additional modes of interaction when they are used differently, when the finger is moved from the bottom to the right in a curved motion, the user can enter BlackBerry Hub immediately. Devices with a keyboard can use keyboard shortcuts to reach applications or perform specific functions more quickly. When a user returns to the screen from within an application. An Active Frame is a window of the application which keeps running in the background. A user can return to such an application by tapping on the Active Frame or close it by tapping on the X icon, Active Frames can have widget-like functionality and show small bits of information, similar to widgets on Android. For instance, the application can show upcoming events and meetings
The BlackBerry Q5 is the third BlackBerry 10 smartphone, unveiled at the BlackBerry Live 2013 Keynote on May 14,2013. The Q5 is targeted largely at emerging markets because of its lower end specifications and it is available in black, red and grey. Like the BlackBerry Q10, it has a QWERTY keyboard, while typing, there is the option to type using the keyboard on the touchscreen. The keyboard has more space between the individual keys allowing for ease of typing, the touchscreen is small in size with a high resolution allowing the user to be able to read and view images with ease. However, the camera on the device is only five megapixels, exclusive features include BlackBerry Hub, which allows users to view email and social network updates with a swipe to the side while using any application. Time Shift Mode creates perfect photos by taking photos and this allows the user to isolate a single part of the photo. The BlackBerry Q5 was first available in the United Arab Emirates, the phone is available now in India and Canada.
The target regions for this product are Europe, the Middle East, Asia, India is the first country in Asia Pacific where this product was launched. In 2014, BlackBerry had a portion of the smartphone market in India. BlackBerry 10 List of BlackBerry 10 devices Official website
ARM, originally Acorn RISC Machine, Advanced RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments. It designs cores that implement this instruction set and licenses these designs to a number of companies that incorporate those core designs into their own products, a RISC-based computer design approach means processors require fewer transistors than typical complex instruction set computing x86 processors in most personal computers. This approach reduces costs and power use and these characteristics are desirable for light, battery-powered devices—including smartphones and tablet computers, and other embedded systems. For supercomputers, which large amounts of electricity, ARM could be a power-efficient solution. ARM Holdings periodically releases updates to architectures and core designs, some older cores can provide hardware execution of Java bytecodes. The ARMv8-A architecture, announced in October 2011, adds support for a 64-bit address space, with over 100 billion ARM processors produced as of 2017, ARM is the most widely used instruction set architecture in terms of quantity produced.
Currently, the widely used Cortex cores, older classic cores, the British computer manufacturer Acorn Computers first developed the Acorn RISC Machine architecture in the 1980s to use in its personal computers. Its first ARM-based products were coprocessor modules for the BBC Micro series of computers, according to Sophie Wilson, all the tested processors at that time performed about the same, with about a 4 Mbit/second bandwidth. After testing all available processors and finding them lacking, Acorn decided it needed a new architecture, inspired by white papers on the Berkeley RISC project, Acorn considered designing its own processor. Wilson developed the set, writing a simulation of the processor in BBC BASIC that ran on a BBC Micro with a 6502 second processor. This convinced Acorn engineers they were on the right track, Wilson approached Acorns CEO, Hermann Hauser, and requested more resources. Hauser gave his approval and assembled a team to implement Wilsons model in hardware. The official Acorn RISC Machine project started in October 1983 and they chose VLSI Technology as the silicon partner, as they were a source of ROMs and custom chips for Acorn.
Wilson and Furber led the design and they implemented it with a similar efficiency ethos as the 6502. A key design goal was achieving low-latency input/output handling like the 6502, the 6502s memory access architecture had let developers produce fast machines without costly direct memory access hardware. The first samples of ARM silicon worked properly when first received and tested on 26 April 1985, Wilson subsequently rewrote BBC BASIC in ARM assembly language. The in-depth knowledge gained from designing the instruction set enabled the code to be very dense, the original aim of a principally ARM-based computer was achieved in 1987 with the release of the Acorn Archimedes. In 1992, Acorn once more won the Queens Award for Technology for the ARM, the ARM2 featured a 32-bit data bus, 26-bit address space and 27 32-bit registers
A software license is a legal instrument governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in code as object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain, most distributed software can be categorized according to its license type. Two common categories for software under copyright law, and therefore with licenses which grant the licensee specific rights, are proprietary software and free, unlicensed software outside the copyright protection is either public domain software or software which is non-distributed, non-licensed and handled as internal business trade secret. Contrary to popular belief, distributed unlicensed software is copyright protected. Examples for this are unauthorized software leaks or software projects which are placed on public software repositories like GitHub without specified license. As voluntarily handing software into the domain is problematic in some international law domains, there are licenses granting PD-like rights.
Therefore, the owner of a copy of software is legally entitled to use that copy of software. Hence, if the end-user of software is the owner of the respective copy, as many proprietary licenses only enumerate the rights that the user already has under 17 U. S. C. §117, and yet proclaim to take away from the user. Proprietary software licenses often proclaim to give software publishers more control over the way their software is used by keeping ownership of each copy of software with the software publisher. The form of the relationship if it is a lease or a purchase, for example UMG v. Augusto or Vernor v. Autodesk. The ownership of goods, like software applications and video games, is challenged by licensed. The Swiss based company UsedSoft innovated the resale of business software and this feature of proprietary software licenses means that certain rights regarding the software are reserved by the software publisher. Therefore, it is typical of EULAs to include terms which define the uses of the software, the most significant effect of this form of licensing is that, if ownership of the software remains with the software publisher, the end-user must accept the software license.
In other words, without acceptance of the license, the end-user may not use the software at all, one example of such a proprietary software license is the license for Microsoft Windows. The most common licensing models are per single user or per user in the appropriate volume discount level, Licensing per concurrent/floating user occurs, where all users in a network have access to the program, but only a specific number at the same time. Another license model is licensing per dongle which allows the owner of the dongle to use the program on any computer, Licensing per server, CPU or points, regardless the number of users, is common practice as well as site or company licenses
Telkomsel is a brand name of a GSM and UMTS Mobile phone network operator which operates in Indonesia. It was founded in 1995, and is a subsidiary of Telkom Indonesia, the company currently has 122 million subscribers. Telkomsel Operates in Indonesia with GSM 900–1800 MHz, 3G network, as of 31 March 2015, Telkomsel has the leading mobile market share in Indonesia with 46. 0% of the total number of mobile customers. The company was incorporated in 1995 and is based in Jakarta, PT Telekomunikasi Selular is a majority owned subsidiary of PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk. In November 1997, Telkomsel became the first cellular operator in Asia to introduce rechargeable GSM pre-paid services. In September 2006, Telkomsel became the first operator in Indonesia to launch 3G services, on 20 March 2009, Telkomsel and Apple Inc. South Asia Pte. Ltd. launched iPhone 3G in Indonesia with customised price plans for all of Telkomsels customers, in addition, it has worked with operators in neighbouring countries to offer the co-branded simPATI Kangen product for Indonesians in those countries.
Telkomsel nowadays deploys more than 54,000 Base Transceiver Stations that reach 97% of the Indonesian population, as the 7th world’s largest cellular operator, Telkomsel is the market leader in Indonesias telecommunication industry and serves more than 122 million subscribers. This year Telkomsel provides broadband network in 200 major cities in Indonesia, to serve customers, Telkomsel is supported by more than 430 service centres and 24 hours contact centre throughout Indonesia. This makes it the only operator in Indonesia that has coverage in all of the provinces and regencies. The company offers GSM Dual Band, GPRS, Wi-Fi, EDGE, 3G and 4G Technology
A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix-like application is one that behaves like the corresponding Unix command or shell, there is no standard for defining the term, and some difference of opinion is possible as to the degree to which a given operating system or application is Unix-like. The Open Group owns the UNIX trademark and administers the Single UNIX Specification and they do not approve of the construction Unix-like, and consider it a misuse of their trademark. Other parties frequently treat Unix as a genericized trademark, in 2007, Wayne R. Gray sued to dispute the status of UNIX as a trademark, but lost his case, and lost again on appeal, with the court upholding the trademark and its ownership. Unix-like systems started to appear in the late 1970s and early 1980s, many proprietary versions, such as Idris, UNOS, and UniFlex, aimed to provide businesses with the functionality available to academic users of UNIX.
These largely displaced the proprietary clones, growing incompatibility among these systems led to the creation of interoperability standards, including POSIX and the Single UNIX Specification. Various free, low-cost, and unrestricted substitutes for UNIX emerged in the 1980s and 1990s, including 4. 4BSD, some of these have in turn been the basis for commercial Unix-like systems, such as BSD/OS and OS X. The various BSD variants are notable in that they are in fact descendants of UNIX, the BSD code base has evolved since then, replacing all of the AT&T code. Since the BSD variants are not certified as compliant with the Single UNIX Specification, dennis Ritchie, one of the original creators of Unix, expressed his opinion that Unix-like systems such as Linux are de facto Unix systems. Eric S. Raymond and Rob Landley have suggested there are three kinds of Unix-like systems, Genetic UNIX Those systems with a historical connection to the AT&T codebase. Most commercial UNIX systems fall into this category, so do the BSD systems, which are descendants of work done at the University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
Some of these systems have no original AT&T code but can trace their ancestry to AT&T designs. Trademark or branded UNIX These systems—largely commercial in nature—have been determined by the Open Group to meet the Single UNIX Specification and are allowed to carry the UNIX name, many ancient UNIX systems no longer meet this definition. Around 2001, Linux was given the opportunity to get a certification including free help from the POSIX chair Andrew Josey for the price of one dollar. Some non-Unix-like operating systems provide a Unix-like compatibility layer, with degrees of Unix-like functionality. IBM z/OSs UNIX System Services is sufficiently complete to be certified as trademark UNIX, cygwin and MSYS both provide a GNU environment on top of the Microsoft Windows user API, sufficient for most common open source software to be compiled and run. Subsystem for Unix-based Applications provides Unix-like functionality as a Windows NT subsystem, Windows Subsystem for Linux provides a Linux-compatible kernel interface developed by Microsoft and containing no Linux code, with Ubuntu user-mode binaries running on top of it
The BlackBerry Q10 is a touchscreen-based QWERTY smartphone developed by BlackBerry, previously known as RIM. The BlackBerry Q10 is the second of two BlackBerry smartphones unveiled at the BlackBerry 10 event on January 30,2013 and its screen displays at 720x720px resolution at 328ppi. New is a HDMI port to connect a TV or monitor to the cellphone, in the United Kingdom, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by 3, O2 and Vodafone. In the United States, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by the providers, Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile. In Canada, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by the carriers, Bell Mobility, Rogers Wireless, Virgin Mobile, Koodo. Later released for PC Mobile, Wind and Mobilicity, in Mexico and Movistar offer the BlackBerry Q10. In Australia, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by Telstra, in Malaysia, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by Maxis and Celcom. The first Blackberry Q10 to be launched in Asia, diGi Telecommunications offer the Q10, but they do not advertise it online and it is only available for in-store purchase from Digi Centers.
Strangely, the model sold by Digi is the SQN100-1 which is meant for North American markets, in Germany, the BlackBerry Q10 has been announced for release by Deutsche Telekom, O2 Germany and Vodafone Germany. In India, the BlackBerry Q10 has been launched on 6 June 2013, in Slovenia, the BlackBerry Q10 has been released by Telekom Slovenije. In Serbia, the BlackBerry Q10 has been released by Telenor Serbia, in Bulgaria, the BlackBerry Q10 has been released by Vivacom and Mobiltel. In Poland, the BlackBerry Q10 has been released by T-Mobile, amosu has made 25 diamond encrusted BlackBerry Q10s available. Like most other phones sold in Russia, there is no SIM lock, BlackBerry 10 List of BlackBerry 10 devices Q10 official website Manuales de configuración