Black Belt is a physical geography term referring to a crescent-shaped geological formation of dark fertile soil in the Southern United States It is about 300 miles long and up to 25 miles wide in central Alabama and northeast Mississippi. During the Cretaceous period, about 145 to 66 million years ago, most of what are now the central plains and the Southeastern United States were covered by shallow seas. Tiny marine plankton grew in those seas, their carbonate skeletons accumulated into massive chalk formations; that chalk became a fertile soil suitable for growing crops. The Black Belt arc was the shoreline of one of those seas, where large amounts of chalk had collected in the shallow waters. Before the 19th century, this region was a mosaic of oak-hickory forest. In the 1820s and 1830s, the region was identified as prime land for upland cotton plantations. Short-staple cotton did well here, its profitable processing was made possible by invention of the cotton gin, it grew better in the upland regions.
After 1865, the phrase was sometimes used to describe a geopolitical region, much as the terms snow belt, rust belt, sun belt and bible belt are used today. Booker T. Washington wrote in his 1901 autobiography I have been asked to define the term "Black Belt." So far as I can learn, the term was first used to designate a part of the country, distinguished by the colour of the soil. The part of the country possessing this thick and rich soil was, of course, the part of the South where the slaves were most profitable, they were taken there in the largest numbers, and since the war, the term seems to be used wholly in a political sense—that is, to designate the counties where the black people outnumber the white. Since the 1920s the term Black Belt fell out of favor as a term outside of the specialized field of physical geology, but various authors have written about the fact that the Black Belt geographical formation contained a large number of slaves before the American Civil War many of whom worked the cotton plantations.
Some publications still use the phrase to refer to the geopolitical region. Webster, Gerald R. and Bowman, Jerrod "Quantitatively Delineating the Black Belt Geographic Region", Southeastern Geographer Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 3–18 Winemiller,Terance L. "Black Belt Region in Alabama" Encyclopedia of Alabama "Black Belt Prairie" NASA Earth Observatory
Dr. Jean Marie Bahr is a hydrogeologist who examines how the physical and chemical composition of groundwater and how that controls the mass transportation of groundwater, she is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Wisconsin Madison in the department of geosciences. Bahr is the daughter of Rudolph R. Bahr and Jane W. Bahr, her interest in environmental issues peaked in high school where she attended a fair on Earth Day in 1970 at Stanford University. Bahr earned her Bachelor of Arts in Geology and Geophysics from Yale in 1976, she obtained her Master of Science from Stanford in Applied Earth Sciences in 1985 and earned her Doctor of Philosophy from Stanford in Applied Earth Sciences in 1987. After earning her Bachelor of Arts from Yale, Bahr served in a geotechnical firm and worked on hydrogeology projects, she worked in Western Africa for two years. After her four-year career in this firm, she realized her passion for hydrology and went to pursue a graduate degree in the field of hydrogeology.
From 1987 up to present, Bahr has been serving as a faculty member at the University of Wisconsin Madison where she is now an emeritus professor. Bahr has been involved in many aspects of the university from being the Department Chair of Geosciences from 2005-2008 to participating in programs at the University of Wisconsin Madison including the Geological Engineering Program and the Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. Within the Nelson Institute, Bahr was the chair of the Water Resources Management Program from 1995–1999, she served as faculty co-director of the undergraduate Women in Science and Engineering Residential Learning Community from 2003–2005. Bahr's research focuses on physical and biogeochemical controls on the movement of groundwater, she looks at solute transport and transformation processes. Bahr studies core and outcrop studies that show the geochemical properties and hydrological properties of aquifers, she looks at anthropogenic contaminants in shallow and deeper aquifers as well as groundwater as a resource.
Chair of the federal Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board 2017–present Editor for the AGU journal Water Resources Research President of the Geological Society of America 2009-2010 President of the American Geosciences Institute 2016-2017
East Delhi Municipal Corporation is one of the municipal corporations in Delhi, India created after the former Municipal Corporation of Delhi was divided into three. It is one of five local bodies in the National Capital Territory of Delhi, the others being North Delhi Municipal Corporation, South Delhi Municipal Corporation, New Delhi Municipal Council and Delhi Cantonment Board. Prior to trifurcation, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi was a mega Municipal Corporation, an autonomous body that used to govern 8 of the 9 Districts of Delhi in the state of Delhi, India; the MCD was among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services to more than estimated population of 11 million citizens in the capital city. The unified municipal corporation used to cover an area of 1,397.3 km². Official website