Sony Mobile Communications Inc. is a multinational telecommunications company founded on October 1, 2001 as a joint venture between Sony and Ericsson, headquartered in Tokyo and wholly owned by Sony. It was incorporated as Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications, headquartered in London, until Sony acquired Ericsson's share in the venture on February 16, 2012. Sony Mobile has development facilities in Lund, Sweden. At its peak in 2007, Sony Ericsson held a 9 percent global market share making it the fourth largest vendor at the time; as of 2017 Sony Mobile held 4.8 % in Europe and 16.3 % in Japan. Since the current ownership structure, Sony Mobile create Android-powered smartphones under the Xperia sub-brand name - it currently or developed tablet computers and fitness trackers, alongside accessories and software for the devices; the current flagship device is the Sony Xperia 1. Swedish company Ericsson had been making mobile cell phones since the 1980s, their first handheld device being the Hotline Pocket introduced in 1987.
In the United States, Ericsson partnered with General Electric in the early nineties as Ericsson Mobile Communications to establish a US presence and brand recognition. General Electric left the joint venture. Ericsson had decided to obtain chips for its phones from a single source—a Philips facility in New Mexico. On March 17, 2000, a fire at the Philips factory contaminated the sterile facility. Philips assured Nokia that production would be delayed for no more than a week; when it became clear that production would be compromised for months, Ericsson was faced with a serious shortage. Nokia had begun to obtain parts from alternative sources, but Ericsson's position was much worse as production of current models and the launch of new ones was held up. Ericsson, in the mobile phone market for decades, was the world's third largest cellular telephone handset maker at the time behind Nokia and Motorola, was struggling with huge losses and decreasing market share; this was due to this fire as well as its inability to produce cheaper phones or fashionably-designed phones like Nokia managed to do.
Speculation began about a possible sale by Ericsson of its mobile phone division, but the company's president, Kurt Hellström, said it had no plans to do so. Hellström said, "Mobile phones are a core business for Ericsson. We wouldn't be as successful if we didn't have phones". Sony was a marginal player in the worldwide mobile phone market with a share of less than 1 percent in 2000. By August 2001, the two companies had finalised the terms of the merger announced in April. Ericsson contributed a majority of the Ericsson Mobile Communications company, excluding a minor part spun off as Ericsson Mobile Platforms. Sony contributed its entire handset division; the company was to have an initial workforce of 3,500 employees. Sony Ericsson's strategy was to release new models capable of digital photography as well as other multimedia capabilities such as downloading and viewing video clips and personal information management capabilities. To this end, it released several new models which had built-in digital camera and colour screen which were novelties at that time - examples include the Sony Ericsson T610, the P800 UIQ smartphone, the K700 handset.
The joint venture continued to make bigger losses in spite of booming sales - however it paid off as Sony Ericsson made its first profit in 2003 and in the following years increased handset sales. The joint venture was regarded to have been a success. In 2005, Sony Ericsson introduced the K750i with a 2 megapixel camera, as well as its platform mate, the W800i, the first of the Walkman phones capable of 30 hours of music playback. In 2005, Sony Ericsson agreed to become the global title sponsor for the WTA Tour in a deal worth $88 million US dollars over 6 years; the women's pro tennis circuit was renamed the Sony Ericsson WTA Tour. Just over a month on June 7, it announced sponsorship of West Indian batsmen Chris Gayle and Ramnaresh Sarwan. In October 2005, Sony Ericsson presented the first mobile phone based on UIQ 3, the P990. In 2007, the company's first 5-Megapixel camera phone, the Sony Ericsson K850i, was announced followed in 2008 by the C905, the world's first 8.1-Megapixel camera phone.
At Mobile World Congress 2009, Sony Ericsson unveiled the first 12-Megapixel camera phone, named Satio. On January 2, 2009, Sony Ericsson announced in Stockholm that it would have some of its mobile phones made in India, that its two outsourcing partners and Foxconn would manufacture ten million mobile phones per year by 2009. CEO Miles Flint announced at a press conference held with India's communications minister Dayanidhi Maran in Chennai that India was one of the fastest growing markets in the world and a priority market for Sony Ericsson with 105 million users of GSM mobile telephones. Sony Ericsson's handset shipments fell from a high of 30.8m in Q4 1999 to only 8.1m in Q1 2003. The company had made net losses in six of the 15 quarters and seen its cash reserves shrink from €2.2bn to €599m, after taking a €375m cash injection from its joint owners. The eclipse of the Symbian operating system by Apple's iPhone, by Google's Android, has affected Sony Ericsson's position in the market; the company struggled following the launch of Apple's iPhone in the third quarter of 2007.
Sony Ericsson was overtaken by its South Korean rival LG Electronics in Q1 2008. Sony Ericsson's company's profits fell sig
Cyber-shot is Sony's line of point-and-shoot digital cameras introduced in 1996. Cyber-shot model names use a DSC prefix, an initialism for "Digital Still Camera". Many Cyber-shot models feature Carl Zeiss trademarked lenses, while others use Sony, or Sony G lenses. All Cyber-shot cameras accept Sony's proprietary Memory Memory Stick PRO Duo flash memory. Select models have supported CompactFlash. Current Cyber-shot cameras support Memory Stick PRO Duo, SD, SDHC, SDXC. From 2006 to 2009, Sony Ericsson used the Cyber-shot brand in a line of mobile phones; the current lineup consists of: QX series – lens-type compact cameras designed for use with smartphones R and RX series – state-of-the-art, large-sensor compact cameras DSC-RX100/DSC-RX100 II – pocketable camera with the largest 1" sensor of all cameras of its size DSC-RX10 — zoom lens 1" 24-200mm equivalent 35mm bridge camera with constant widest aperture F2.8 DSC-RX1/DSC-RX1R – the world's smallest full-frame camera T Series – rugged, slimline cameras with touchscreens H series and HX series – bridge cameras with long superzoom lenses W series – entry-level cameras WX series entry level cameras with CMOS sensors.
The W and T-series use Sony N-type batteries While most H-series use G-type batteries. Some Cyber-shot models can take 3D stills by shooting two images using two different focus settings; the technology uses one lens only for the process, users can see the images on a 3D TV or on a regular 2D screen. The cameras have been available since 2010. Cyber-Shot models such as the DSC-HX20V and the DSC-HX200V have a built-in GPS so the user can have their photos automatically geotagged as they are being taken; the feature can serve as a compass as it shows the user's position on the camera screen. Tru Black is a technology developed by Sony which allows a better visualization of the screen when there is too much light, it enables LCD screens to automatically change the display contrast in order to enhance the controlling reflectance. In other words, when light hits a display with Tru Black technology, the screen turns opaque as a means to improve the visualization of the content. All current Cyber-shot cameras are equipped with a panoramic technology branded as Sweep Panorama, which enables the user to capture wide format photographs using only one lens.
The photos can be taken and displayed in 2D or 3D. Sony Alpha Sony QX-series Sony Picture Motion Browser
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
The British Council is a British organisation specialising in international cultural and educational opportunities. It works in over 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the United Kingdom and the English language; the British Council is governed by a Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are near Trafalgar Square. Its chairman is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and its chief operating officer is Adrian Greer. 1934: British Foreign Office officials created the "British Committee for Relations with Other Countries" to support English education abroad, promote British culture and fight the rise of fascism. The name became British Council for Relations with Other Countries. 1936: The organisation’s name was shortened to the British Council. 1938: The British Council opens its first four offices in Bucharest, Cairo and Warsaw. The offices in Portugal are the oldest in continuous operation in the world.
1940: King George VI granted the British Council a Royal Charter for promoting "a wider knowledge of and the English language abroad and developing closer cultural relations between and other countries". 1942: The British Council undertook a promotion of British culture overseas. The music section of the project was a recording of significant recent compositions by British composers: E. J. Moeran's Symphony in G minor was the first work to be recorded under this initiative, followed by recordings of Walton's Belshazzar's Feast, Bliss's Piano Concerto, Bax's Third Symphony, Elgar's The Dream of Gerontius. 1944: In August, after the liberation of Paris, Austin Gill was sent by the council to reestablish the Paris office, which soon had tours by the Old Vic company, Julian Huxley and T. S. Eliot. 2007: The Russian Foreign Ministry ordered the British Council to close its offices outside Moscow. The Ministry alleged that it had violated Russian tax regulations, a move that British officials claimed was a retaliation over the British expulsion of Russian diplomats involved with the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko.
This caused the British Council to cease carrying out all English-language examinations in Russia from January 2008. In early 2009, a Russian arbitration court ruled that the majority of the tax claims, valued at $6.6 million, were unjustified. 2011: On 19 August, a group of armed men attacked the British Council office in the Afghanistan capital, killing at least 12 people – none of them British – and temporarily took over the compound. All the attackers were killed in counter-attacks by forces guarding the compound; the British Council office was relocated to the British Embassy compound, as the British Council compound was destroyed in the suicide attack. 2013: The British Council in Tripoli, was targeted by a car bomb on the morning of 23 April. Diplomatic sources were reported as saying that "the bombers were foiled as they were preparing to park a rigged vehicle in front of the compound gate"; the attempted attack was simultaneous with the attack on the French Embassy in Tripoli on the same day that injured two French security guards and wounded several residents in neighbouring houses.
A jihadist group calling itself the Mujahedeen Brigade was suspected linked to Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. The British Council is organised into seven Regions; the British Council has offices in: Argentina, Canada, Colombia, Jamaica, Peru, The United States of America, Uruguay and Costa Rica. The British Council has offices in: Nepal, Brunei, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand and New Zealand; the British Council has offices in: Austria, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Ireland, Latvia, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Spain. The British Council has offices in: Egypt, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen; the British Council has offices in: Afghanistan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka. The British Council has offices in: Botswana, Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe and Uganda; the British Council has offices in: Albania, Azerbaijan and Herzegovina, Israel, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Turkey and Uzbekistan.
The British Council is a charity governed by Royal Charter. It is a public corporation and an executive nondepartmental public body, sponsored by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, its headquarters are off London. Its chair is Christopher Rodrigues, its CEO is Sir Ciarán Devane and chief operating officer Adrian Greer; the British Council’s total income in 2014–15 was £973 million principally made up of £154.9 million grant-in-aid received from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The British Council works in more than 100 countries: promoting a wider knowledge of the UK and the English language.
Blu-ray or Blu-ray Disc is a digital optical disc data storage format. It was designed to supersede the DVD format, is capable of storing several hours of video in high-definition and ultra high-definition resolution; the main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, Xbox One. The name "Blu-ray" refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs; the plastic disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs. Triple-layer discs and quadruple-layer discs are available for BD-XL re-writer drives. High-definition video may be stored on Blu-ray discs with up to 2160p resolution and at up to 60 frames per second.
DVD-Video discs were limited to a maximum resolution of 576p. Besides these hardware specifications, Blu-ray is associated with a set of multimedia formats; the BD format was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group representing makers of consumer electronics, computer hardware, motion pictures. Sony unveiled the first Blu-ray disc prototypes in October 2000, the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan. Afterwards, it continued to be developed until its official release on June 20, 2006, beginning the high-definition optical disc format war, where Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. Toshiba, the main company supporting HD DVD, conceded in February 2008, released its own Blu-ray Disc player in late 2009. According to Media Research, high-definition software sales in the United States were slower in the first two years than DVD software sales. Blu-ray faces competition from the continued sale of DVDs. Notably, as of January 2016, 44% of U. S. broadband. The information density of the DVD format was limited by the wavelength of the laser diodes used.
Following protracted development, blue laser diodes operating at 405 nanometers became available on a production basis, allowing for development of a more-dense storage format that could hold higher-definition media. Sony started two projects in collaboration with Panasonic, TDK, applying the new diodes: UDO, DVR Blue, a format of rewritable discs that would become Blu-ray Disc; the core technologies of the formats are similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000 by Sony. A trademark for the "Blue Disc" logo was filed February 9, 2001. On February 19, 2002, the project was announced as Blu-ray Disc, Blu-ray Disc Founders was founded by the nine initial members; the first consumer device arrived in stores on April 10, 2003: the Sony BDZ-S77, a US$3,800 BD-RE recorder, made available only in Japan. But there was no standard for prerecorded video, no movies were released for this player. Hollywood studios insisted that players be equipped with digital rights management before they would release movies for the new format, they wanted a new DRM system that would be more secure than the failed Content Scramble System used on DVDs.
On October 4, 2004, the name "Blu-ray Disc Founders" was changed to the Blu-ray Disc Association, 20th Century Fox joined the BDA's Board of Directors. The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were completed in 2004. In January 2005, TDK announced that they had now developed an ultra-hard yet thin polymer coating for Blu-ray discs. Cartridges used for scratch protection, were no longer necessary and were scrapped; the BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006. AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004, had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed, delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns. At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba and Samsung, an interim standard was published that did not include some features, such as managed copy; the first BD-ROM players were shipped in mid-June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them to market by a few months.
The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006: 50 First Dates, The Fifth Element, House of Flying Daggers, Underworld: Evolution, xXx, MGM's The Terminator. The earliest releases used the same method used on standard DVDs; the first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC formats were introduced in September 2006. The first movies using 50 GB dual-layer discs were introduced in October 2006; the first audio-only albums were released in May 2008. The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006, it recorded both single and dual-layer BD-Rs as well as BD-REs and had a suggested retail price of US $699. As of June 2008, more than 2,500 Blu-ray Disc titles were available in Australia
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Memory Stick is a removable flash memory card format launched by Sony in late 1998. In addition to the original Memory Stick, this family includes the Memory Stick PRO, a revision that allows greater maximum storage capacity and faster file transfer speeds; as a proprietary format, Sony used Memory Stick on its products in the 2000s such as Cyber-shot digital cameras, Handycam digital camcorders, WEGA and Bravia TV sets, VAIO PCs and the PlayStation Portable handheld game console, with the format being licensed to a few other companies early in its lifetime. With increasing popularity of SD card, in 2010 Sony started to support the SD card format, seen as a Sony loss in the format war. Despite this, Sony continued to support Memory Stick on certain devices; the original Memory Stick, launched in October 1998, was available in sizes up to 128 MB. In October 1999 Sony licensed the technology to Fujitsu, Sanyo, Sharp and Kenwood, in a bid to avoid a repetition of the Betamax failure. Other companies were licensees to the format.
Some early examples of Memory Stick usage by third-party companies include Sharp's MP3 players, Alpine's in-dash players, Epson's printers. The format had a lukewarm reception, but it soon increased in popularity after the licensing deal. In spring 2001, Memory Stick attained 25% market share, up from 7% a year earlier. By May 2001, total shipment of Memory Stick units surpassed 10 million; however the SD card, jointly developed by Toshiba and SanDisk, became popular among companies and soon became the most popular flash format - by November 2003 it held 42% market share in the United States, ahead of CompactFlash's 26% and Memory Stick with 16%. Sony itself became the only company to support the format. Sony was criticized for the Memory Stick, as they were deemed to be expensive compared to other formats; as of January 2010, it appears that Sony is beginning to combine support for SD/SDHC and Memory Stick formats in their products. All digital cameras and camcorders announced by Sony at the 2010 Consumer Electronics Show can use SD and SDHC cards as well as Memory Sticks.
Furthermore, Sony is releasing its own line of SD cards. Many claim this development as the end of the format war between SD card. However, Sony did not abandon the format at this time, has indicated it will continue development of the format for the foreseeable future. A prime example is the development of WiFi transfers through a special Memory Stick Pro-Duo, still in development as of 2011. Memory Stick cards were entirely produced by Sony itself. SanDisk and Lexar were among few third-party Memory Stick producers. Memory Sticks are used as storage media for a portable device, in a form that can be removed for access by a personal computer. For example, Sony digital compact cameras use Memory Stick for storing image files. With a Memory Stick-capable Memory card reader a user can copy the pictures taken with the Sony digital camera to a computer. Sony included Memory Stick reader hardware in its first-party consumer electronics, such as digital cameras, digital music players, PDAs, cellular phones, the VAIO line of laptop computers, TV sets under the WEGA and Bravia names, Sony's handheld gaming device, the PlayStation Portable.
A special Memory Stick can be inserted in the hindquarters of Sony's AIBO robot pet, to enable the use of Aiboware—software intended for use on AIBOs. The Sticks include; these are referred to programming. Only 8 MB and 16 MB versions are available. Memory Sticks include a wide range including three different form factors; the original Memory Stick is the size and thickness of a stick of chewing gum. It was available in sizes from 4 MB to 128 MB, it was available both without MagicGate support. The MagicGate supporting memory sticks; the original Memory Stick is no longer manufactured. In response to the storage limitations of the original Memory Stick, Sony introduced the Memory Stick Select at CES 2003 on January 9; the Memory Stick Select was two separate 128 MB partitions which the user could switch between using a switch on the card. This solution was unpopular, but it did give users of older Memory Stick devices more capacity, its physical size was still the same as the original Memory Stick.
The Memory Stick PRO, introduced on January 9, 2003 as a joint effort between Sony and SanDisk, would be the longer-lasting solution to the space problem. Most devices that use the original Memory Sticks support both the original and PRO sticks since both formats have identical form factors; some readers that were not compatible could be upgraded to Memory Stick PRO support via a firmware update. Memory Stick PROs have a marginally higher transfer speed and a maximum theoretical capacity of 32 GB, although it appears capacities higher than 4 GB are only available in the PRO Duo form factor. High Speed Memory Stick PROs are available, newer devices support this high speed mode, allowing for faster file transfers. All Memory Stick PROs larger than 1 GB support this High Speed mode, High Speed Memory Stick Pros are backwards-compatible with devices that don't support the High Speed mode. High capacity memory Sticks such as the 4 GB versions are expensive compared to other types