Diamond Dreams (EP)
Diamond Dreams is an EP by American nu metalcore band Issues released on November 18, 2014. The majority of the band's members originated from ex-members of Woe, Is Me, being Tyler Carter, Michael Bohn, Cory Ferris and Ben Ferris. IssuesTyler Carter – vocals Michael Bohn – backing vocals AJ Rebollo – guitars Josh Manuel – drums, percussion Skyler Acord – bass Tyler "Scout" Acord – keyboards, programming, pianoAdditional musiciansBen Barlow - guest vocals on “Nlyf X Neck Deep” Nylo - guest vocals on “Tears on the Runway”
An extended play record referred to as an EP, is a musical recording that contains more tracks than a single, but is unqualified as an album or LP. Contemporary EPs contain a minimum of three tracks and maximum of six tracks, are considered "less expensive and time-consuming" for an artist to produce than an album. An EP referred to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play and LP, but it is now applied to mid-length CDs and downloads as well. Ricardo Baca of The Denver Post said, "EPs—originally extended-play'single' releases that are shorter than traditional albums—have long been popular with punk and indie bands." In the United Kingdom, the Official Chart Company defines a boundary between EP and album classification at 25 minutes of maximum length and no more than four tracks. EPs were released in various sizes in different eras; the earliest multi-track records, issued around 1919 by Grey Gull Records, were vertically cut 78 rpm discs known as "2-in-1" records. These had finer than usual grooves, like Edison Disc Records.
By 1949, when the 45 rpm single and 331⁄3 rpm LP were competing formats, seven-inch 45 rpm singles had a maximum playing time of only about four minutes per side. As an attempt to compete with the LP introduced in 1948 by rival Columbia, RCA Victor introduced "Extended Play" 45s during 1952, their narrower grooves, achieved by lowering the cutting levels and sound compression optionally, enabled them to hold up to 7.5 minutes per side—but still be played by a standard 45 rpm phonograph. These were 10-inch LPs split onto two seven-inch EPs or 12-inch LPs split onto three seven-inch EPs, either sold separately or together in gatefold covers; this practice became much less common with the advent of triple-speed-available phonographs. Some classical music albums released at the beginning of the LP era were distributed as EP albums—notably, the seven operas that Arturo Toscanini conducted on radio between 1944 and 1954; these opera EPs broadcast on the NBC Radio network and manufactured by RCA, which owned the NBC network were made available both in 45 rpm and 331⁄3 rpm.
In the 1990s, they began appearing on compact discs. RCA had success in the format with their top money earner, Elvis Presley, issuing 28 Elvis EPs between 1956 and 1967, many of which topped the separate Billboard EP chart during its brief existence. During the 1950s, RCA published several EP albums of Walt Disney movies, containing both the story and the songs; these featured the original casts of actors and actresses. Each album contained two seven-inch records, plus a illustrated booklet containing the text of the recording so that children could follow along by reading; some of the titles included Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and what was a recent release, the movie version of 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, presented in 1954. The recording and publishing of 20,000 was unusual: it did not employ the movie's cast, years a 12 in 33⅓ rpm album, with a nearly identical script, but another different cast, was sold by Disneyland Records in conjunction with the re-release of the movie in 1963.
Because of the popularity of 7" and other formats, SP records became less popular and the production of SPs in Japan was suspended in 1963. In the 1950s and 1960s, EPs were compilations of singles or album samplers and were played at 45 rpm on seven-inch discs, with two songs on each side. Other than those published by RCA, EPs were uncommon in the United States and Canada, but they were sold in the United Kingdom, in some other European countries, during the 1950s and 1960s. Record Retailer printed the first EP chart in 1960; the New Musical Express, Melody Maker and Music Echo and the Record Mirror continued to list EPs on their respective singles charts. The Beatles' Twist and Shout outsold most singles for some weeks in 1963; when the BBC and Record Retailer commissioned the British Market Research Bureau to compile a chart it was restricted to singles and EPs disappeared from the listings. In the Philippines, seven-inch EPs marketed as "mini-LPs" were introduced in 1970, with tracks selected from an album and packaging resembling the album they were taken from.
This mini-LP format became popular in America in the early 1970s for promotional releases, for use in jukeboxes. Stevie Wonder included a bonus four-song EP with his double LP Songs in the Key of Life in 1976. During the 1970s and 1980s, there was less standardization and EPs were made on seven-inch, 10-inch or 12-inch discs running either 331⁄3 or 45 rpm; some novelty EPs used odd shapes and colors, a few of them were picture discs. Alice in Chains was the first band to have an EP reach number one on the Billboard album chart, its EP, Jar of Flies, was released on January 25, 1994. In 2004, Linkin Park and Jay-Z's collaboration EP, Collision Course, was the next to reach the number one spot after Alice in Chains. In 2010, the cast of the television series Glee became the first artist to have two EPs reach number one, with Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna on the week of May 8, 2010, Glee: The Music, Journey to Regionals on the week of June 26, 2010. In 2010, Warner Bros. Records revived the format with their "Six-Pak" offering of six songs on a compact disc.
The first EPs were seven-inch vinyl records with more tracks than a normal single. Although they shared size and speed with singles, they were a recognizably different format than the seven-inch single. Alth
Derek Tyler Carter is an American singer, songwriter and record producer born in Habersham County, Georgia. He is the lead founding member of American metalcore band Issues. Carter began his musical career performing drums in local bands in Georgia. Following his underground success, he joined metalcore outfit Woe, Is Me, releasing their debut studio album, Number, in 2010, in which he left the following year. After departing from Woe, Is Me, he began amalgamating Issues with former members of Woe, Is Me, including vocalist Michael Bohn. With Issues, they released their debut extended Black Diamonds; the following year, the band released the stand-alone single, "Hooligans". In 2014, the group released their debut full-length studio album, Issues, to critical and commercial acclaim, charting at number-nine on the U. S. Billboard 200; the group released their second EP, Diamond Dreams, on November 18, 2014. The band released their second full-length studio album, Headspace, to positive acclaim, charting at number 20 on the U.
S. Billboard 200. Bohn departed from Issues in January 2018. Carter pursues a solo music career, having released one EP, Leave Your Love, one studio album, Moonshine, he has collaborated with various other musical artists and groups including blackbear, MAX, Jamie's Elsewhere, Breathe Carolina, Hands Like Houses, ONE OK ROCK, among others. He has collaborated with Luke Holland on a number of studio covers, including a cover of Paramore's 2013 single "Ain't It Fun" for Punk Goes Pop Vol. 6, Years & Years' 2015 single "King", Chris Brown's single 2013 single "Fine China". Carter has worked with longtime collaborator Tyler Acord. Derek Tyler Carter was born in Habersham County, Georgia, on December 30, 1991. Throughout his early life, he became inspired by R&B, soul music, finding a passion for singing at a young age. In junior high, he grew interested in alternative rock music, having grown an interest in performing drums and percussion instruments, he performed in a number of bands in Atlanta, Georgia during his time in junior high and high school.
Inspired by the likes of Underoath's Aaron Gillespie, Carter decided to pursue singing whilst continuing to rock out on drums. He moved his focus to only singing, where he went on to perform post hardcore, r&b inspired rock music. With deep roots in Country music, a passion for soul music, an obsession with boy bands, Carter has become a prominent voice in the metalcore industry, a face for the LGBTQ in rock music. Carter joined the metalcore band A Path Less Traveled in 2008, he began pursuing an interest in mixing post-hardcore and metalcore elements with electronic and pop influences, which would show in Carter's future musical projects. In A Path Less Traveled, he became acquainted with vocalist Michael Bohn, who would co-front bands with Carter in the future. A Path Less Traveled released their debut extended play, From Here On Out, in 2009, selling over 500 copies; the following year, Carter began working with Woe, Is Me. Tyler Carter joined the American electronicore band Woe, Is Me, in 2009 signing to Rise Records the same year.
With this seven-member line-up, the band recorded a three-song demo with producer Cameron Mizell. After releasing a studio cover of Kesha's 2009 single Tik Tok, on MySpace, the group wrote and recorded their debut studio album with Mizell, their debut studio album, was released on August 30, 2010, on Velocity Records, a subsidiary of Rise Records. With Carter and Bohn still members of Woe, Is Me, the group went on to release the single "Fame > Demise", the following year. Due to complications with the line-up stability and tensions within the group, Carter departed from Woe, Is Me on August 10, 2011. Tyler Carter debuted his solo career with a holiday-inspired song "I Hate the Holidays", featuring Mat Musto, on December 19, 2010, he featured on American rock band All Things Will End's song "There's No Turning Back", released on August 19, 2012. Carter appeared on Hands Like Houses' song "Lion Skin", alongside Jonny Craig, from the album Ground Dweller; the following year, he released another holiday song, "Make it Snow", featuring Tyler "Scout" Acord, on December 13.
Carter released his debut extended play, Leave Your Love, on January 13, 2015, on Velocity and Rise Records. On the album, Carter worked with producers blackbear, Ty "Scout" Acord and Igloo, he featured on post-hardcore band Jamie's Elsewhere's 2014 single "The Illusionist". Carter performed live with American rock band PVRIS at the 2015 Alternative Press Music Awards, performing the song "My House". On December 23, 2015, he released a studio cover of Adele's 2015 single "Hello". On July 8, 2016, American singer MAX released the Sokko remix of the single "Basement Party", featuring Tyler Carter. On December 20, Carter and Issues drummer Josh Manuel released a cover of "Pokémon Theme", entitled "Gotta Catch'Em All", featuring Jackie Vincent. Carter released the solo single, "Forget You", featuring Lophiile, on July 15, 2016. Two years he released the single "Pressure", on June 29, 2018, he released a second single, titled "Focus", on August 17. A third single, "Moonshine", was released on September 27, accompanied with its music video.
His debut studio album, Moonshine, is set to be released on February 2019, on Rise Records. In support of the album, he embarked on a headlining U. S. tour with musician Riley in January 2019. Following his departure with Woe, Is Me, Tyler Carter began forming together another metalcore musical project. After trying to pursue a solo musical career, Carter expressed his interest in forming a rock band with former me
Boyfriend (Justin Bieber song)
"Boyfriend" is a song by Canadian recording artist Justin Bieber, taken from his third studio album Believe. Bieber explained that the track would surprise people in different ways, since it is a musical departure from his previous material. A snippet of "Boyfriend" was previewed on The Ellen DeGeneres Show on March 1, 2012, Bieber's 18th birthday; the song was announced as a single on the same day, was released on March 26, 2012. The cover art was revealed on March 19, 2012. Musically, "Boyfriend" is a R&B influenced song that features pop beats reminiscent of American record producer Pharrell Williams and boy band'N Sync; the instrumentation is kept in a lower sound to highlight Bieber's vocals. However, critics dismissed the lyrics as silly. "Boyfriend" was a commercial failure, debuting at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 after selling a total of 521,000 digital units of the single. The song has the fifth-highest-ever debut digital sales week in the United States and has charted at number 9 on the Pop Songs component chart.
It debuted at number one in Canada and number two in the United Kingdom. Island Records commissioned a music video to be directed by Colin Tilley; as part of promotion for the song, Bieber performed "Boyfriend" in a number of live appearances, including at the second-season finale of The Voice, at the 2012 Billboard Music Awards. The rapping duo Ying Yang Twins released a remixed version of the track with new verses added. Another remix of "Boyfriend" features Mac Miller and Asher Roth. In late 2011, Bieber confirmed to radio network Capital FM that he was recording material for his third studio album, going to be released in early 2012, he spoke to MTV News and revealed that Believe would surprise people in different ways, since it musically is a departure from his previous works. "Boyfriend" was written by Michael Posner, Mason D. Levy and Mat Musto. During an interview with radio DJ Bootleg Kev, Posner revealed that he was impressed with Bieber's work ethic, further commented, "he's super talented.
At first I didn't know what to expect because he's super young, but dude can write." Posner said that people would "flip" over the beat and that radio stations would want to play the song. Levy commented on the track, described it as "definitely edgier, it's more grown-up, it's more developed and it's sexier." Prior to the song's release, it had been previewed by several industry insiders, including radio host Mick Lee of WZFT, who said that the song was "so much different than his previous music. On March 1, 2012, Bieber was featured as a guest on The Ellen DeGeneres Show, where he announced that the song would be released on March 26, he said, "My big announcement is that on March 26, my first single is coming out and it's called'Boyfriend.' The song, it's I'm talking to this girl, if I was your boyfriend, I would never let you go. We wrote it, the verses I'm talking/ rapping and on the hook I'm singing. It's a awesome song." Bieber previewed the song's introduction on the show. Through his Twitter account, the singer released a poll in which fans were allowed to choose between two artworks for the single.
Jessica Sager of Pop Crush noted that Bieber sports a mature look on both covers, using Elvis Presley's hair style and wearing a white t-shirt underneath a short sleeved and white plaid button down with a thin chain necklace. The winning artwork was revealed on March 19, 2012. "Boyfriend" is a R&B influenced track that lasts for two minutes and 50 seconds, which incorporates elements of, while still having club beats. The song was written in the key of B♭ minor and its tempo is 54 beats per minute; the song opens with Bieber using a lower-register and breathy vocals while rapping, "If I was your boyfriend, I’d never let you go/ I can take you places you ain’t never been before/ Baby, take a chance or you’ll never know/ I got money in my hands that I’d like to blow/ Swag, swag on you/ Chillin' by the fire while we eatin’ fondue." As the chorus follows, he adopts a Michael Jackson similar falsetto, sings about being "everything you want". The instrumentation, produced by Posner and Levy, infuses hand claps and Pharrell Williams similar style beats, and, as noted by Pop Crush reviewer Amy Sciaretto, "is kept to a minimum, allowing The Biebs’ voice, which has strengthened and deepened as he matures and grows up, to shine and take center stage."
Sciaretto thought that "Boyfriend" is similar to Timberlake's song "Cry Me a River", while it was perceived by Robbie Daw of Idolator as a homage to the early 1990s. Jody Rosen of Rolling Stone dismissed the lyrical content, summarized it as "Justin Has Actually Had Sexual Intercourse – But He Won't Harm Your Nine-Year-Old." Spin writer Marc Hogan said that the lyrics have references to several tracks, including Beyoncé's "Party", Britney Spears' "Till the World Ends", Janet Jackson's "If". Andrew Hampp of Billboard said that "the club-ready beat and guitar-plucked chorus" recalls'N Sync's final single "Girlfriend", compared it to early songs by Justin Timberlake and Usher. "Boyfriend" has received mixed reviews. Andrew Hampp of Billboard rated it 82 out of 100, stating that Bieber sounds more adult than but noted that most of his fans are still 12-year-old girls. Amy Sciaretto of Pop Crush praised the track, said that the result of trying new music styles resulted on "a more mature, more well-rounde
Woe, Is Me
Woe, Is Me was an American metalcore band from Atlanta, Georgia. Formed in 2009, the group was signed to its subsidiary, Velocity Records, their debut album, was released on August 31, 2010 and charted at number 16 on Billboard's Top Heatseekers chart. Due to many lineup changes and conflicts, the only original member who remained in the band through its entire run was guitarist Kevin Hanson; the band broke up in September 2013. Woe, Is Me was founded during the fall of 2009 in Atlanta by former Of Machines drummer Austin Thornton, who started the band along with Kevin Hanson, Cory Ferris, Ben Ferris, who were all of a local Atlanta-based band named Cheyne Stokes. Tim Sherrill, who played lead guitar of another local group named Shooter McGavin joined in; these five members recruited vocalists Michael Bohn and Tyler Carter for unclean and clean vocal positions after Michael's and Tyler's departure from A Path Less Traveled, another local group. With this seven-member lineup, the band recorded a three-song demo with producer Cameron Mizell containing the songs "Hell, or High Water", "I" and "If Not, for Ourselves" which were released to their Myspace profile.
The group recorded and released a cover of the Kesha song "Tik Tok" showcased online within a few months of being a band. Soon after these recordings were released, The Artery Foundation took notice of them. Rise Records, along with their imprint label, Velocity Records, signed Woe, Is Me before playing their first show, they recorded Number during the same month that they were signed. It was subsequently released on August 31, 2010, it reached position No. 16 on Billboard's Top Heatseekers chart. The band's debut tour, the Pyknic Partery tour, was shared with Drop Dead, From First to Last, Sleeping with Sirens, Abandon All Ships, For All Those Sleeping, Attila. Clean vocalist Tyler Carter's soul-influenced voice garnered comparisons to Jonny Craig, who provides guest appearances on the album; the group held an album release show in Georgia for Number on September 2, 2010 with pop punk band Veara as a supporting act. In September, the band recorded a cover of the Katy Perry song "Hot n Cold" for the compilation album, Punk Goes Pop 3.
In an interview with radio station The Gunz Show, Carter stated that the band would be recording a music video for " Delinquents" in September 2010. The group embarked on a Canadian tour supporting Abandon All Ships from October 1, 2010 to the 28th of that month. From November 4, 2010 to November 28, 2010, the band was included on a US tour entitled Average Guys with Exceptional Hair Tour in support of A Skylit Drive, along with For All Those Sleeping, Scarlett O'Hara, Motionless in White; the music video for " Delinquents" was released on the first of December of that year. By the end of 2010, lead guitarist Tim Sherrill parted ways with Woe. Geoffrey Higgins took up the position in March 2011. Soon after, the group released "Fame > Demise" through the iTunes Store on March 21, 2011. Carter explained that the song is and would only remain as a single, would not be part of the band's second album. An acoustic version of the song was released. In June 2011, lead guitarist Geoffrey Higgins departed from the band.
The group began their performances on Warped Tour with only Hanson performing the rhythm guitar parts to where leads were backtracked during performances for the time being due to their lack of a lead guitarist. With the band yet again searching for a lead guitar player, the conclusion of their search was made weeks afterward where Abandon All Ships' drummer and guitarist and Andrew Paiano were kicked from the band. Afterward, it was announced that Andrew would be joining Woe, Is Me to play lead guitar. On August 10, 2011, clean vocalist, Tyler Carter left the band, he cited an interest in following newer and different objectives than being in a band and went on to state that " and what it consists of just isn't for me anymore" as the reason for his departure. On September 15, 2011, Woe, Is Me announced via-video update their new singer, Hance Alligood. Alligood was once a part of a local Atlanta band, "Oh, Manhattan". Along with this update, the group played various clips from a new single entitled, "Vengeance", released on September 27.
On March 7, 2012, Michael Bohn and both Ferris brothers left the band due to personal and musical differences "It came to a point where we could either continue on the path they saw fit, or we could create our own path and find happiness in our own ways," said Bohn and the Ferris brothers in a statement made shortly after their departure from the band. They have since reconciled with former bandmate, Tyler Carter, created a new band named Issues with their friend, Case Snedecor. On April 16, 2012, touring members Doriano Magliano and bassist Brian Medley announced they had joined Woe, Is Me, so with Jeremy added to the group, the band set to enter the studio throughout summer 2012 with a release set sometime this year. On April 19, 2012, Woe, Is Me were announced as part of the "Scream It Like You Mean It 2012" tour alongside headliner Attack Attack! with We Came as Romans, The Acacia Strain, Like Moths to Flames, Close to Home, Impending Doom, Abandon All Ships, Volumes, For All Those Sleeping, The Chariot, Glass Cloud, At The Skylines, Texas in July, In Fear and Faith, Hands Like Houses.
On March 8, 2013 the band released a statement that they had parted ways with drummer and founding member Austin Thornton, due to personal differences. As of Thornton's departure, Kevin Hanson
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
The phonograph is a device for the mechanical recording and reproduction of sound. In its forms, it is called a gramophone or, since the 1940s, a record player; the sound vibration waveforms are recorded as corresponding physical deviations of a spiral groove engraved, incised, or impressed into the surface of a rotating cylinder or disc, called a "record". To recreate the sound, the surface is rotated while a playback stylus traces the groove and is therefore vibrated by it faintly reproducing the recorded sound. In early acoustic phonographs, the stylus vibrated a diaphragm which produced sound waves which were coupled to the open air through a flaring horn, or directly to the listener's ears through stethoscope-type earphones; the phonograph was invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison. While other inventors had produced devices that could record sounds, Edison's phonograph was the first to be able to reproduce the recorded sound, his phonograph recorded sound onto a tinfoil sheet wrapped around a rotating cylinder.
A stylus responding to sound vibrations produced an down or hill-and-dale groove in the foil. Alexander Graham Bell's Volta Laboratory made several improvements in the 1880s and introduced the graphophone, including the use of wax-coated cardboard cylinders and a cutting stylus that moved from side to side in a zigzag groove around the record. In the 1890s, Emile Berliner initiated the transition from phonograph cylinders to flat discs with a spiral groove running from the periphery to near the center, coining the term gramophone for disc record players, predominantly used in many languages. Improvements through the years included modifications to the turntable and its drive system, the stylus or needle, the sound and equalization systems; the disc phonograph record was the dominant audio recording format throughout most of the 20th century. In the 1980s, phonograph use on a standard record player declined due to the rise of the cassette tape, compact disc, other digital recording formats. However, records are still a favorite format for some audiophiles, DJs and turntablists, have undergone a revival in the 2010s.
The original recordings of musicians, which may have been recorded on tape or digital methods, are sometimes re-issued on vinyl. Usage of terminology is not uniform across the English-speaking world. In more modern usage, the playback device is called a "turntable", "record player", or "record changer"; when used in conjunction with a mixer as part of a DJ setup, turntables are colloquially called "decks". In electric phonographs, the motions of the stylus are converted into an analogous electrical signal by a transducer converted back into sound by a loudspeaker; the term phonograph was derived from the Greek words φωνή and γραφή. The similar related terms gramophone and graphophone have similar root meanings; the roots were familiar from existing 19th-century words such as photograph and telephone. The new term may have been influenced by the existing words phonographic and phonography, which referred to a system of phonetic shorthand. Arguably, any device used to record sound or reproduce recorded sound could be called a type of "phonograph", but in common practice the word has come to mean historic technologies of sound recording, involving audio-frequency modulations of a physical trace or groove.
In the late-19th and early-20th centuries, "Phonograph", "Gramophone", "Graphophone", "Zonophone", the like were still brand names specific to various makers of sometimes different machines. "Talking machine" had earlier been used to refer to complicated devices which produced a crude imitation of speech, by simulating the workings of the vocal cords and lips – a potential source of confusion both and now. In British English, "gramophone" may refer to any sound-reproducing machine using disc records, which were introduced and popularized in the UK by the Gramophone Company. "gramophone" was a proprietary trademark of that company and any use of the name by competing makers of disc records was vigorously prosecuted in the courts, but in 1910 an English court decision decreed that it had become a generic term. The term "phonograph" was restricted to machines that used cylinder records. "Gramophone" referred to a wind-up machine. After the introduction of the softer vinyl records, 33 1⁄3-rpm LPs and 45-rpm "single" or two-song records, EPs, the common name became "record player" or "turntable".
The home record player was part of a system that included a radio and might play audiotape cassettes. From about 1960, such a system began to be described as a "hi-fi" or a "stereo". In American English, "phonograph", properly specific to machines made by Edison, was sometimes used in a generic sense as early as the 1890s to include cylinder