Farmington, New Mexico
Farmington is a city in San Juan County in the U. S. state of New Mexico. As of the 2013 population estimate from the United States Census Bureau the city had a total population of 45,426 people. Farmington makes up one of the four Metropolitan Statistical Areas in New Mexico; the U. S. Census Bureau's population estimate in 2011 for Farmington was about 45,256. Farmington is located at the junction of the San Juan River, the Animas River, the La Plata River, is located on the Colorado Plateau. Farmington is the largest city of San Juan County, one of the geographically largest counties in the United States covering 5,538 square miles; the county seat and the other city in San Juan County is Aztec. Farmington serves as the commercial hub for most of northwestern New Mexico and the Four Corners region of four states. Farmington lies at or near the junction of three important highways: U. S. Highway 550, U. S. Highway 64, New Mexico Highway 371, it is on the Trails of one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways.
The primary industries of San Juan County are the production of petroleum, natural gas, coal. Major coal mines are the Navajo and San Juan mines, operated by BHP Billiton 15 to 19 miles southwest of Farmington; the coal mined from the Navajo and San Juan mines is used for fuel for the nearby Four Corners Generating Station and San Juan Power Plant to produce electric power. Farmington is known across New Mexico and throughout the southwest for its baseball tournaments, Ricketts Park is the home of the Connie Mack World Series. Farmington High School claimed the AAAA Baseball State Championship four years in a row from 2005 through 2008. Piedra Vista High School in Farmington claimed the AAAA Baseball State Championship in 2010 and 2011; the area, now Farmington was settled by Ancestral Pueblo people in the 7th Century. Ruins can be visited at Aztec Ruins; when the Ancestral Puebloans left the area, the Navajos, Jicarilla Apaches, Utes moved into the area. A key part of the region was known in Navajo as Tóta' which means "where three rivers meet".
Although Spanish and American mineral prospecting happened in the area, there were few permanent settlements. In 1868, the Navajo Nation was created. Six years the U. S. government offered territory in the rest of San Juan County to the Jicarilla Apache but they refused. As a result, the area was opened for settlement and a number of settlers moved into the region from Southern Colorado; the area was known as "Junction City" because of the access to the three rivers. In 1901 the town was incorporated and named Farmington with a population of 548. By September 19, 1905, the railroad was finished connecting Farmington to Durango, expanding economic and settlement opportunities, it was unusual in that it was a standard gauge railroad that connected to the Denver & Rio Grande Western narrow gauge lines of southwestern Colorado. The railroad converted the line to narrow gauge in 1923; the line was abandoned in 1968 and the line was dismantled to Durango in 1969. In addition, in the 1920s there was significant investment in natural gas and oil in the area, although actual production remained low until the 1950s.
With construction of a developed road connecting Farmington to U. S. Route 66 and Albuquerque in the 1940s and the construction of the San Juan Basin Natural Gas Pipeline in 1953 – a venture led by Tom Bolack – the population expanded significantly, it grew from 3,637 in 1950 to 35,000 in 1953 and the expansion continued after that. However, the significant connection to the energy industry made the economics of the town vulnerable to international market fluctuations during the 1970s energy crisis and resulted in some economic diversification. In 1967, as part of a joint U. S. Government-El Paso Electric operation, an underground nuclear detonation occurred 50 miles east of Farmington and about 25 miles south of Dulce, New Mexico in present-day Carson National Forest; this pilot project of Operation Plowshare, code-named Project Gasbuggy, was an attempt to fracture a large volume of underground bedrock to make more natural gas available for extraction by gas wells. The people of Farmington have been the subject of several civil rights investigations, including the 2005 report, The Farmington Report: Civil Rights for Native Americans 30 Years Later.
On March 18, 1950, Farmington was the site of a mass UFO sighting in which over half the town's population was reported to have seen large saucers in the sky flying at rapid speeds. On June 7, 2006, a chemical spill at Halliburton's Farmington facility created a toxic cloud that forced more than 200 people to evacuate their homes. Farmington is located at 36°45′6″N 108°11′23″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Farmington has a total area of 32.0 square miles, of which 31.5 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. The Navajo Nation is west of Farmington, the Ute Mountain Indian Reservation is to the northwest, the Southern Ute Indian Reservation is northeast of the city. Prehistoric Native American ruins are located nearby. Aztec Ruins National Monument and the Salmon Ruins are ancient dwellings located just to the northeast and the east of Farmington. Mesa Verde National Park lies about 40 miles to the northwest, Chaco Culture National Historical Park is about 50 miles to the southeast.
Farmington has a semi-arid climate. The city can experience cold winters with low precipitation throughout the year; the average annual snowfall is 12.3 inches. As of the census of 2010, there were 45,895 people and 17,548 housing unit
The Carrizo Mountains is a small circular mountain range 15 to 20 km in diameter located on the Colorado Plateau in northeastern Arizona. The range is about 20 km southwest of the Four Corners; the highest summit, Pastora Peak, is 2,869 m in elevation, whereas elevations on the surrounding plateau are near 1,800 m. The mountains are within the Navajo Nation. Teec Nos Pos, the closest community, is adjacent at the northern foothills, on Teec Nos Pos Wash, from Pastora Peak, about 5-mi miles to the north from the mountain's perimeter; the Carrizo Mountains consist of igneous rocks that intruded Permian through Cretaceous marine strata. The most common igneous rock type is porphyritic hornblende diorite. Intrusive forms include laccoliths, stocks and dikes. Ages of the igneous rocks range from 70 to 74 million years. Similar igneous-cored ranges of the Colorado Plateau, including the Henry Mountains, Abajo Mountains and La Sal Range, formed ca. 31 to 20 million years ago, making them distinctly younger than the late Cretaceous intrusions of the Carrizo Mountains.
Radiometric ages of igneous intrusions in Sleeping Ute Mountain are identical to those of the diorite intrusions in the Carrizos. Both the Carrizo Mountains and Sleeping Ute Mountain are located along the southwest extension of the Colorado Mineral Belt, a 250-mile long lineament characterized by igneous rocks associated with abundant ore deposits. Large ore deposits have not been found in the igneous rocks of the Carrizo Mountains, although small deposits of uranium, vanadium and silver have been found in the sedimentary rocks of the Morrison Formation. Arizona DeLorme Atlas & Gazetteer, 5th Edition, c. 2002, 76 pages. Steven C. Semken and William C. McIntosh, 40Ar/39Ar age determinations for the Carrizo Mountains laccolith, Navajo Nation, Arizona. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, p. 75-80, 1997. Virginia T. McLemore and William L. Chenoweth, Occurrence of copper and silver at the Carrizo copper mine in the Carrizo Mountains, Apache County, Arizona. New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook, 48th Field Conference, p. 269-272, 1997
Four Corners Monument
The Four Corners Monument marks the quadripoint in the Southwestern United States where the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah meet. It is the only point in the United States shared by four states, leading to the area being named the Four Corners region; the monument marks the boundary between two semi-autonomous Native American governments, the Navajo Nation, which maintains the monument as a tourist attraction, the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation. The origins of the state boundaries marked by the monument occurred just prior to, during, the American Civil War, when the United States Congress acted to form governments in the area to combat the spread of slavery to the region; when the early territories were formed, their boundaries were designated along meridian and parallel lines. Beginning in the 1860s, these lines were marked; these early surveys included some errors, but so, the markers placed became the legal boundaries, superseding the written descriptions of geographical meridians and parallels.
This includes the Four Corners Monument, established as the corner of the four states. The monument where "visitors can straddle the territory of four states" is maintained as a tourist attraction by the Navajo Nation Parks and Recreation Department. Unlike many other attractions based on what are political boundaries, such as the Berlin Wall, Four Corners Monument is an example of a political boundary, a tourist destination in its own right; the monument consists of a granite disk embedded with a smaller bronze disk around the point, surrounded by smaller, appropriately located state seals and flags representing both the states and tribal nations of the area. Circling the point, starting from north, the disk reads with two words in each state "Here meet in freedom under God four states". Around the monument, local Navajo and Ute artisans sell souvenirs and food. An admission fee is required to photograph the monument; the monument is a popular tourist attraction despite isolated location. As early as 1908, people traveled long distances to take pictures of family and friends at the monument in Twister-like poses, sitting on the disk, in a circle of friends or family around the disk, or for couples to kiss directly over the disk.
The monument is located on the Colorado Plateau west of U. S. Highway 160 40 miles southwest of Cortez, Colorado; the monument is centered at 36°59′56.31″N 109°02′42.62″W. In addition to the four states, two semi-autonomous American Indian tribal governments have boundaries at the monument, the Navajo Nation and the Ute Mountain Ute Tribe Reservation, with the Ute Mountain tribal boundaries coinciding with Colorado's boundaries at the monument. Located in the Colorado Plateau desert region of the Southwestern United States, The Four Corners Monument has a strong cold desert climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Winters are sunny, while summers are hot and dry; the record high temperature of 105 °F was observed five times, on June 19, 29 and 30, 1974, July 14, 2003, July 21, 2005. The record low temperature of −18 °F was observed on January 3, 1974; the area now called Four Corners was American Indian land and beginning in the 16th century it was claimed by Spain as part of New Spain.
After Mexico gained independence from Spain in 1821, the area was governed by Mexico until being ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 following the United States' victory in the Mexican–American War. The first boundary which would become part of the monument was set as part of the Compromise of 1850, which created the New Mexico Territory and Utah Territory; the border between the two territories was congressionally defined as the 37th parallel north by the 31st United States Congress. In 1861, the 36th United States Congress transferred land allocated to the Utah Territory, to the newly created Colorado Territory; the Colorado Territory's southern border would remain as the 37th parallel north, but a new border—between the Colorado and Utah Territories—was declared to be the 32nd meridian west from Washington. This line was derived from the reference used at the Washington meridian. In 1860, just prior to the outbreak of the American Civil War, a group of people in the southern portion of New Mexico Territory passed a resolution condemning the United States for creating such a vast territory with only a single, small government in place at Santa Fe.
They claimed by doing so the U. S. had ignored the needs of the southern portion, left them without a functional system of law and order, allowed the situation to deteriorate into a state of chaos and near anarchy. The group declared secession from the United States and announced their intent to join the Confederate States of America under the name of the Arizona Territory; the U. S. Congress responded in 1863 by creating another Arizona Territory with different, but overlapping boundaries; the Confederate boundaries split New Mexico along an east–west line, the 34th parallel north, allowing for a single state connection from Texas to the Colorado River. This would give the Confederacy access to the Pacific coast; the Union definition split New Mexico along a north–south line, the 32nd meridian west from Washington, which extended the boundary between Colorado and Utah southward. The Union plan became reality, this created the quadripoint at the modern Four Corners. After the split, New Mexico resembled its modern form, with only slight differences.
After the Civil War, efforts began to mark the actual borders. In 1868, the General Land Office had Ehud N. Darling survey and set ma
Kayenta is a U. S. census-designated place, part of the Navajo Nation and is in Navajo County, Arizona. The population was 5,189 at the 2010 census. Kayenta is located 25 miles south of Monument Valley and contains a number of hotels and motels which service visitors to Monument Valley. Like other places on the Navajo Nation, it is illegal to serve alcohol. Arizona does not observe Daylight Time. Kayenta Township is the only municipal-style government on the Navajo Nation, it is regarded as a political sub-division of the Navajo Nation. It is managed by a five-member elected town board. Kayenta is the name for the Chapter, as well as the township. Kayenta Chapter encompasses land in both Arizona. Thus, the Navajo Nation's census figures for Kayenta Chapter are different from those of Kayenta proper. Kayenta is located at 36°42′43″N 110°15′00″W, at an elevation of 5,700 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.2 square miles, all of it land. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Kayenta has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps.
As of the census of 2010, there were 5,189 people. The population density was 393.1 people per square mile with a total of 1,375 housing units. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.27% Native American, 4.56% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.08% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 2.51% from two or more races. 1.97% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 38.9% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 11.9% from 25 to 34, 33.2% from 35 to 64, 4.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. The Kayenta Fourth of July Rodeo is an annual multi-day event taking place from July 1–4. Various events take place daily, while the "Best of the Best" and a fireworks show take place on the fourth; the Kayenta Fourth of July Rodeo has been recognized six times as the Rodeo of the Year and twice as the Outstanding Rodeo by the All Indian Rodeo Cowboys Association, making it one of the premier rodeos to attend in the Southwest.
Kayenta is served by the Kayenta Unified School District. There are several schools. Kayenta Elementary School, Kayenta Middle School, Monument Valley High School are the public schools. Kayenta Community School, part of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, is a boarding school serving both day and dorm students. Kayenta is the home of several sit down and fast food restaurants, most of which are located at the junction between the 160 and the 163. In terms of fast food, Kayenta has a Burger King, Sonic Drive-In, Subway restaurant, McDonald's; the Burger King uniquely houses a small museum dedicated to the Navajo Code Talkers of World War II. For casual dining there is the Golden Rice Bowl Chinese restaurant, Pizza Edge, Amigo Cafe, The Blue Coffee Pot. A Bashas' Diné Market is located in Kayenta. Found here are an Ace Hardware, a Video Plus movie rental store, as well as a Navajo Arts and Craft store. Kayenta does lack any kind of general merchandise store, like Wal-Mart or Target, that sells clothing and other amenities.
The closest place with those is Arizona. Kayenta has three hotels serving passers by; the latter two being on US-160. Kayenta has a large recreation center dedicated to serving the local community. Just outside the Recreation Center is a skating park, as well as an outdoor park with several playgrounds for children. Kayenta has a movie theater, the Black Mesa Twin Cinema. On the east side of the community is a paved landing strip that can handle small single engine and twin engine aircraft used for air tours and air ambulance services. Many religious organizations are represented in Kayenta. There are churches for Baptists, Presbyterian Church, Lamb of God Pentecostal Church, Potter's House Christian Church, Kayenta Church of Christ, The Living Word Assembly of God Church Assemblies of God, Catholic Church, a meetinghouse for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a Kingdom Hall for Jehovah's Witnesses. There is a Bible church located on the hill of Kayenta. In terms of banking, there is a Wells Fargo located in Kayenta, as well as a Western Union, an H&R Block.
There is a U. S. post office in Kayenta. There is one movie rental location, a NAPA auto and truck parts store, an Urban Trendz haircut place. An abridged depiction of Kayenta is featured in the 2016 Czech video game, American Truck Simulator Kayenta Formation Monument Valley Film Festival All Indian Rodeo Cowboys Association Kayenta Chapter website Navajo Nation website Kayenta Fourth of July Rodeo
Window Rock, Arizona
Window Rock is a small city that serves as the seat of government and capital of the Navajo Nation, the largest territory of a sovereign Native American nation in North America. It lies within the boundaries of the St. Michaels Chapter, adjacent to the Arizona and New Mexico state line. Window Rock hosts the Navajo Nation governmental campus which contains the Navajo Nation Council, Navajo Nation Supreme Court, the offices of the Navajo Nation President and Vice President, many Navajo government buildings. Window Rock's population was 2,712 at the 2010 census, but is estimated to reach around 20,000 during weekdays when tribal offices are open. Window Rock's main attraction is the window formation of sandstone; the Navajo Nation Museum, the Navajo Nation Zoological and Botanical Park, the Navajo Nation Code Talkers World War II memorial are located in Window Rock. Until 1936, the area was sparsely populated and known only by its ceremonial name Niʼ Ałníiʼgi. John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, chose the site to establish the seat of the Navajo Central Agency.
His proposal to make the ceremonial name the official name met with resistance and Navajos soon ridiculed it as "ni ałnííʼgóó". Due to this, the name of the major local landmark, the rock-with-hole-through-it was chosen and rendered in English as "Window Rock". Tségháhoodzání, north of the Navajo governmental administration buildings, is important in the traditional Navajo Water Way Ceremony, it was one of the four places where Navajo medicine men go with their traditional woven water jugs to get water for the ceremony, held for the abundance of rainfall. Window Rock is the capital of the Navajo Nation government which houses the Navajo Nation President and Vice President, Navajo Nation Supreme Court, the 24-member Navajo Nation Council, Navajo government administration buildings; as a district within the St. Michaels Chapter, Window Rock is served by a Navajo Council Delegate and Chapter President and Vice President. Window Rock is located at 35°40′22″N 109°3′44″W; the Arizona/New Mexico state line marks the town's eastern edge, some of the town's buildings are located a few feet from the state line.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the Window Rock CDP has a total area of 5.3 square miles, all land. The area is atop the Defiance Plateau. Window Rock is categorized as being within the 6a USDA hardiness zone, meaning the average yearly low temperature is between -10° and -5° F; the city is cooler than most of Arizona due to its high elevation. The greater Window Rock area comprises the Fort Defiance and St. Michaels chapters, the hamlets of Hunter's Point and the Summit, Tse Bonito on the New Mexico side of the border with Arizona; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,059 people, 876 households, 713 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 589.3 people per square mile. There were 998 housing units at an average density of 192.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 95.46% Native American, 3.17% White, 0.42% Asian, 0.16% African American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.07% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.44% of the population.
There were 876 households out of which 51.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.7% were married couples living together, 29.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 15.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.42 and the average family size was 3.81. In the CDP, the age distribution of the population shows 36.3% under the age of 18, 10.9% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 4.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $36,885, the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $27,266 versus $26,902 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,122. About 24.6% of families and 24.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.6% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.
Window Rock is a part of the Window Rock Unified School District, which serves the greater Fort Defiance and St. Michaels chapters population center. Window Rock is served by: Window Rock Elementary School Tse Ho Tso Middle School Window Rock High School located in the Fort Defiance Chapter; the community is served by the private Saint Michael Indian School, a K-12 private, Catholic school established by Katharine Drexel in 1902. Saint Michael Indian School is a member of the National Catholic Education Association and the Diocese of Gallup Catholic School System; the surrounding community is served by the Hilltop Christian School, operated by the Western Indian Ministries offering pre-K through 6th grade learning curriculum. In addition, the Saint Michaels Association for Special Education, Inc. school serves the greater Navajo Nation in Arizona and New Mexico. A non-profit school, founded by Sister Marijane Ryan in 1970 serves as an educational and residential center for individuals with disabilities of all ages.
Tourism is an integral part of the local economy. Window Rock attracts a large number of tourists and visitors due to its close proximity to many national parks and sites and Navajo government; the area is a popular base of commerce for the regional people as well. Window Roc
Mount Wilson (Arizona)
Mount Wilson is a mountain in Mohave County, Arizona, U. S. At 5,456 feet, it is the second highest point of the Black Mountains after Mount Perkins. "Mount Wilson". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. "Mount Wilson". SummitPost.org. Media related to Mount Wilson at Wikimedia Commons
Apache County, Arizona
Apache County is located in the northeast corner of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census its population was 71,518; the county seat is St. Johns. Part of the county is assigned to the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Apache County was formed during the Tenth Territorial Legislation in 1879 out of the eastern section of Yavapai County. By 1895, Navajo County and parts of Graham and Gila Counties were formed from this land; the county seat was placed in the town of Snowflake, but was moved a year to St. Johns. From 1880 to 1882, the county seat was temporarily in Springerville before being returned to St. Johns. A history of the area, written in 1896, records the following about the county: Apache County was created in 1879 and lies in the northeastern corner of the Territory; until March, 1895, it embraced what is now Navajo County, but at that date the latter was set apart and established as a separate county. Apache County is justly noted for its great natural advantages, it is destined some day in the early future to have a large agricultural population.
Now, immense herds of cattle and flocks of sheep roam over its fertile valleys. The Navajo Indians occupy the northern part of the county-in fact, occupy much of the remainder of the county, as they refuse to remain on their reservation, preferring to drive their sheep and cattle on lands outside their reservation, where the grazing is better; the southern part is a fine grazing country, while the northern part is cut up into picturesque gorges and canons by the floods of past centuries. In the late 1880s, the county sheriff was an Old West gunfighter legend. At that time, the county covered more than 21,177 square miles in territory. In September 1887, near Holbrook in what is now Navajo County, Owens was involved in one of the Old West's most famous gunfights, when he killed three men and wounded a fourth while serving a warrant on outlaw Andy Blevins/Andy Cooper, an active participant in a raging range war dubbed the Pleasant Valley War. In 2015, Apache County had the highest rate of death due to motor vehicles in the United States, with 82.5 deaths per 100,000 people.
The Fort Apache Indian Reservation occupies part of the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 11,218 square miles, of which 11,198 square miles is land and 21 square miles is water; the county is the third-largest county by area in Arizona and the sixth-largest in the United States. Apache County contains parts of the Navajo Indian Reservation, the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, Petrified Forest National Park. Canyon de Chelly National Monument is within the county. Apache County is one of two U. S. counties to border two counties of the same name, neither of, in the same state as the county itself. Apache County has the most land designated as Indian reservation of any county in the United States; the county has 68.34 percent of its total area. The reservations are, in descending order of area within the county, the Navajo Nation, the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, the Zuni Indian Reservation, all of which are located within the county. Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest Canyon de Chelly National Monument Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Petrified Forest National Park As of the census of 2000, there were 69,423 people, 19,971 households, 15,257 families residing in the county.
The population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 31,621 housing units at an average density of 3 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.88% Native American, 19.50% White, 0.25% Black or African American, 0.13% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.75% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races. 4.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 58.39 % reported speaking Navajo at home, while 38.39 % speak 2.71 % Spanish. There were 19,971 households out of which 43.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.30% were married couples living together, 21.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.60% were non-families. 21.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.41 and the average family size was 4.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 38.50% under the age of 18, 9.40% from 18 to 24, 25.10% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, 8.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $23,344, the median income for a family was $26,315. Males had a median income of $30,182 versus $22,312 for females; the per capita income for the county was $8,986. About 33.50% of families and 37.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 42.80% of those under age 18 and 36.50% of those age 65 or over. The county's per-capita income makes it one of the poorest counties in the United States. Apache County is one of only 38 county-level census divisions of the United States where the most spoken language is not English and one of only 3 where it is neither English nor Spanish. 58.32% of the population speak Navajo at home, followed by English at 38.34% and Spanish at 2.72%. In 2000, the largest denominational group was the Catho