In geology, a massif is a section of a planet's crust, demarcated by faults or flexures. In the movement of the crust, a massif tends to retain its internal structure while being displaced as a whole; the term refers to a group of mountains formed by such a structure. In mountaineering and climbing literature, a massif is used to denote the main mass of an individual mountain; the massif is a smaller structural unit of the crust than a tectonic plate and is considered the fourth largest driving force in geomorphology. The word is taken from French, where it is used to refer to a large mountain mass or compact group of connected mountains forming an independent portion of a range. One of the most notable European examples of a massif is the Massif Central of the Auvergne region of France; the Face on Mars is an example of an extraterrestrial massif. Massifs may form underwater, as with the Atlantis Massif. Adrar des Ifoghas – Mali Aïr Massif – Niger Bongo Massif – Central African Republic Marojejy Massif – Madagascar Mulanje Massif – Malawi Waterberg Biosphere – South Africa Virunga Massif – border shared by Uganda, Rwanda and DR Congo Kilimanjaro Massif – border of Kenya and Tanzania Oban Massif – Nigeria Borg Massif Craddock Massif Cumpston Massif Vinson Massif Otway Massif Annapurna – Nepal Chu Pong Massif – Vietnam Dhaulagiri – Nepal Gasherbrum – Pakistan Hazaran – Iran Kholeno – Iran Kangchenjunga – Nepal Knuckles Massif – Sri Lanka Kondyor Massif – Russia Kugitangtau Ridge – Turkmenistan Logar ultrabasite massif – Logar Province, Afghanistan Mount Ararat – Turkey Mount Everest massif – border of Nepal and Tibet Mount Kinabalu – Malaysia Mount Tomuraushi – Japan Nanga Parbat – Pakistan Nun Kun – India Panchchuli – India Shillong – Meghalaya, India Alpilles – France Aravis Range – France Ardennes Massif – France/Belgium/Luxembourg Areskutan – Sweden Armorican Massif – Brittany, France Bauges Massif – France Beaufortain Massif – France Ben Nevis massif – Scotland, United Kingdom Bohemian Massif – Czech Republic Bornes Massif – France Calanques Massif Ceahlău Massif – Romania Cerces Massif Chablais Massif – France Chartreuse Massif – France Cornubian Massif – United Kingdom Dévoluy Massif – France Massif des Écrins – France Gotthard Massif – Switzerland Jungfrau Massif – Switzerland Jura Mountains – France Lauzière massif L'Esterel Massif Long Mynd – England, United Kingdom Lubéron – France Massif Central – France Massiccio del Matese - Italy Mangerton Mountain – Ireland Mercantour – France Montgris – Spain Montserrat – Spain Mont Blanc massif – Italy/France/Switzerland Massiccio del Pollino - Italy Rila - Rhodope Massif – Bulgaria/Greece Sila Massif – Italy Snowdon Massif – Wales, United Kingdom Taillefer Massif – France Troodos – Cyprus Untersberg – Germany/Austria Queyras Massif – France Vanoise Massif – France Vercors Plateau – France Vitosha Massif – Bulgaria Vosges Mountains – France Adirondack Massif – New York, USA Mount Cayley massif – British Columbia, Canada Laurentian Massif – Quebec, Canada Le Massif – Canada Denali – Alaska, USA Level Mountain – Canada Mount Edziza – Canada Mount Juneau – Alaska, USA Mount Le Conte – Tennessee, USA Mount Logan – Yukon, Canada Mount Meager massif – Canada Mount Septimus – Canada Mount Shuksan – Washington, USA Teton Range – Wyoming, USA Big Ben – Heard Island Ahipara Gumfields – New Zealand Massif de la Hotte – Haiti Valle Nuevo Massif – Dominican Republic Brasilia Massif – Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay.
Neblina massif – Venezuela–Brazil border Colombian Massif – Colombia North Patagonian Massif – Argentina Deseado Massif – Argentina Atlantis Massif – part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean Tamu Massif — the largest volcano on Earth
Llangors is a small village and electoral ward in southern Powys, in the historic county of Brecknockshire, within the Brecon Beacons National Park. Llangors lies a few miles east of Brecon, between Bwlch and Brecon on the B4560, just off the A40, is home to the largest natural lake in southern Wales, Llangorse Lake. Nant Cwy, a small stream, runs through the village before emptying into the lake. Llangors is a popular tourist destination and offers visitors a variety of activities: boating, sailing, coarse fishing, bird watching, pony trekking, hill walking and indoor climbing. There has been a long history of settlement at Llangorse. A dug-out canoe dating from around AD 800 is now on display in Brecon Museum; the church, St. Paulinus, dates back to the 15th century, but the font has been dated to around 1300 and the earliest records of a church building on the site date back to 1121. Today the village has a primary school which serves a number of surrounding villages, a community centre, two pubs.
The church of St Paulinus is a grade II* listed building. The Llangors community includes the small villages and settlements of Llanfihangel Talyllyn, Pennorth, Llangasty Talyllyn and Llanywern. Llangors is an electoral ward for Powys County Council. It's boundaries are coterminous with those of Llangors community. One county councillor is elected from the ward. Between 1995 and 2012 the seat was held by the Liberal Democrats, until an Independent candidate won the seat in May 2012. At the May 2017 election Llangors became the first council seat in Powys to be won by the Green Party, with Cllr Emily Durrant elected. Llangors has a community council, with up to ten community councillors elected or co-opted from two community wards, of Llangors and Llanfihangel Talyllyn. Llangorse Lake The Welsh Crannog Centre Llangorse Multi Activity Centre Llangorse Holiday Cottage Mynydd Troed & Mynydd Llangorse www.geograph.co.uk: photos of Llangors and surrounding area
Monmouth is the historic county town of Monmouthshire, Wales and a community. It is situated where the River Monnow meets the River Wye, within 2 miles of the border with England; the town is 30 miles northeast of Cardiff, 113 miles west of London. It is within the Monmouthshire local authority, the parliamentary constituency of Monmouth. Monmouth's population in the 2011 census was 10,508, rising from 8,877 in 2001; the town was the site of a small Roman fort and became established after the Normans built a castle here after 1067. Its medieval stone gated; the castle came into the possession of the House of Lancaster, was the birthplace of King Henry V in 1387. In 1536, it became the county town of Monmouthshire. Monmouth became a tourist centre at the heart of the Wye Valley, as well as a market town, it now serves as a shopping and service centre, as a focus of educational and cultural activities for its surrounding rural area. The name Monmouth is an English contraction of'Monnow-mouth'; the Welsh name for the river, which may have meant "fast-flowing", was anglicised as Monnow.
The town was known in Welsh as Abermynwy, replaced by Trefynwy by the 1600s. Excavations undertaken by the Monmouth Archaeological Society on sites along Monnow Street have uncovered a wealth of information about the early history of the town. Indeed, the Council for British Archaeology have designated Monmouth as one of the top ten towns in Britain for archaeology. Evidence of a Bronze Age boat building community, including three 100 feet long channels adjoining the site of a now-vanished lake, was discovered in September 2013, during archaeological investigations by the Monmouth Archaeological Society of the Parc Glyndwr housing development site north-west of the town; the excavations revealed the remains of a Neolithic crannog. The dwelling was constructed on stilts on a man-made island away from the lake shore in water up to 10 feet deep. Oak timbers had been "skillfully" cut with stone or flint axes to form stilts, of posts and poles, which "probably" rested on three parallel fully-grown tree'sleeper beams', up to 3 feet 3 inches wide, laid horizontally on the lakebed.
Timbers from the structure were radiocarbon dated to 4867 years before present. The first recorded settlement at Monmouth was the small Roman fort of Blestium, one of a network of military bases established on the frontiers of the Roman occupation; this was connected by road to the larger Roman towns at Isca Augusta. Archaeologists have found Roman pottery and coins within the modern town centre. During the Roman period, between the 2nd and late 4th centuries, it appears to have been a centre for iron working, using the local iron ores and charcoal worked at nearby Gobannium and Ariconium. After the end of Roman rule in Britain, the area was at the southern edge of the Welsh kingdom of Ergyng; the only evidence of continuing settlement at Monmouth is a record of a 7th-century church, at an unknown location within the town, dedicated to the Welsh saint Cadoc. In 1056, the area was devastated by the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, on his way with an army of Welsh and Danes to defeat Ralph, Earl of Hereford and sack the Saxon burh at Hereford, 18 miles to the north.
Following the Norman conquest of England in 1066, the earldom of Hereford was given to William FitzOsbern of Breteuil, one of King William's closest allies, responsible for defending the area against the Welsh. A new castle was built at Monmouth, holding commanding views over the surrounding area from a sound defensive site and exerting control over both river crossings and the area's important resources of farmland and minerals, it would have been a motte and bailey castle rebuilt in stone, refortified and developed over time. A town grew up around it, a Benedictine priory was established around 1075 by Withenoc, a Breton who became lord of Monmouth after Roger, the son of William fitzOsbern, was disgraced; the priory may have once been the residence of the monk Geoffrey of Monmouth, born around 1100 and is best known for writing the chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae. The town was recorded in the Domesday Book, expanded thereafter. There was early burgage development along Monnow Street, the suburb of Overmonnow, west of the river and protected by a defensive moat called the Clawdd-du or Black ditch, began to develop by the 12th century.
Charters from the period refer to the town's trade in iron, to forges making use of local ore and charcoal. The cinders produced by the forges formed heaps, were used in building foundations. During the period of turmoil between the supporters of King Henry III and the barons who sought to curtail his power, the town was the scene of a major battle in 1233, in which the king's forces were routed by the troops of Richard Marshal, Earl of Pembroke; the castle was extended by Henry's son Edmund Crouchback, after he became Earl of Lancaster in 1267. In about 1300, town walls were built, the bridge over the Monnow was fortified; the bridge, now pedestrianised, remains in place today, the only such fortified bridge in Britain and reputedly one of only three similar crossings in Europe. King Edward II was imprisoned at Monmouth Castle in 1326 after being overthrown by his wife Isabella and
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platy clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering; this finely bedded material that splits into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification. Mud rocks such as mudstone and shale account for some 65% of all sedimentary rocks. Mudstone looks like hardened clay and, depending upon the circumstances under which it was formed, it may show cracks or fissures, like a sun-baked clay deposit. Mudstone can be separated into these categories: Siltstone — more than half of the composition is silt-sized particles. Claystone — more than half of the composition is clay-sized particles.
Mudstone — hardened mud. Mudstone can include: Shale -- exhibits fissility. Argillite — has undergone low-grade metamorphism. In the Dunham classification system of limestones, a mudstone is defined as a mud-supported carbonate rock that contains less than 10% grains. Most this definition has been clarified as a matrix-supported carbonate-dominated rock composed of more than 90% carbonate mud component. A recent study by Lokier and Al Junaibi has highlighted that the most common problems encountered when describing a mudstone is to incorrectly estimate the volume of'grains' in the sample - in consequence, misidentifying mudstone as wackestone and vice versa; the original Dunham classification defined the matrix as clay and fine-silt size sediment <20 μm in diameter. This definition was redefined by Embry & Klovan to a grain size of less than or equal to 30 μm. Wright proposed a further increase to the upper limit for the matrix size in order to bring it into line with the upper limit for silt.
On December 13, 2016, NASA reported further evidence supporting habitability on the planet Mars as the Curiosity rover climbed higher, studying younger layers, on Mount Sharp. Reported, the soluble element boron was detected for the first time on Mars. In June 2018, NASA reported that Curiosity had detected kerogen and other complex organic compounds from mudstone rocks 3.5 billion years old. Mudstone on planet Mars Aeolis quadrangle Composition of Mars Timeline of Mars Science Laboratory Tonstein – A hard, compact sedimentary rock, composed of kaolinite or, less other clay minerals
Crickhowell is a small town and community in southeastern Powys, Wales between Abergavenny and Brecon. In the historic county of Brecknockshire; the name Crickhowell is taken from that of the nearby Iron Age hill fort of Crug Hywel above the town, the Welsh language name being anglicised by map-makers and local English-speaking people. The town lies on the River Usk, on the southern edge of the Black Mountains and in the eastern part of the Brecon Beacons National Park. Significant parts of the surrounding countryside, over 20,000 acres form part of the Glanusk Park estate. Many public services in Crickhowell are provided by Powys County Council and to a lesser extent by Crickhowell Town Council. Planning matters fall to the Brecon Beacons National Park Authority. There are two schools – primary and secondary – which act as a central point for a large catchment area. There is some light industry on the outskirts of Crickhowell at the Elvicta Industrial Estate; the town centre includes a variety of traditional businesses.
Other facilities in Crickhowell include a library, two play areas, public toilets and the CRiC building, which houses a tourist information centre, an internet cafe, an art gallery and a local history archive. There are a number of pubs, cafes and hotels, such as "The Bear" hotel and "The Dragon". There are several churches in Crickhowell including St Edmund's Church which holds a service every Sunday, a Baptist church, an evangelical church and a Catholic church. Crickhowell & Penmyarth Golf Club was played on a course at Glanusk Park; the club and course disappeared in the late 1960s. In 2015, Crickhowell appeared in a TV documentary, claiming it as the first British settlement to purposely use similar tax avoidance tactics used by multinational businesses to avoid paying taxes themselves, in protest at the way large corporations use legal loopholes to avoid paying UK corporation tax. A market and fair have been recorded since 1281. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward includes The Vale of Grwyney community and has a total population of 2,801 as taken at the 2011 census.
Today, Crickhowell is a popular tourist destination. In 2005 a Tourist Information centre was built in the centre of town and during summer the town is notably busier. Most people visit Crickhowell to see the Black Mountains and the Brecon Beacons, maybe enjoy some mountain-biking, hillwalking, rock climbing, fly-fishing, hang-gliding, caravanning or tour the area by car staying at Bed-and-breakfasts; the Green Man Festival takes place annually in mid-August at nearby Glanusk Park. Notable features in Crickhowell include the seventeenth-century stone bridge over the River Usk with its odd arches and its seat built into the walls, the 14th-century parish church of St Edmund, the ruins of Crickhowell Castle on the green "tump" beside the A40 Brecon to Abergavenny road. Crickhowell's Market Hall on The Square dates from 1834, nowadays with market stalls on the ground floor and a cafe in the first floor old courtroom. In 2007 Powys County Council handed over responsibility of the hall to a charity, the Market Hall Trust.
The stone building, raised on twin doric columns, is Grade II* listed. The market hall has been changed over The years, the addition and removal of decroative glass frontage the notable addition of a lift for disabled access to the courtroom chambers above. Crickhowell High School is the town's secondary school with 700 pupils. In 2000, it was ranked 77th in Wales in terms of its GCSE results but in 2014 was the best performing secondary school in Powys. George Everest, the namesake of Mount Everest, may have been born near Crickhowell, his father had an estate there called "Gwernvale Manor". This is now a hotel, known as'The Manor'). There is a street in Crickhowell named after him; the current Lord and Lady of the Manor of Gwernvale are Stephen and Ruth Berrow who still reside in the town of Crickhowell. Admiral John Gell died here in 1806 after serving over 30 years in the Royal Navy; the Glanusk Park estate was the childhood home of the former royal nanny Tiggy Legge-Bourke, who still lives near the town as proprietor of Tŷ'r Chanter bed and breakfast lodgings.
Cwmdu Glangrwyney Llanbedr Llangattock Llangenny Llangynidr Tretower, home to a 12th Century castle and a medieval Manor House, still in good condition. Nearby is Cwrt y Gollen, a British Army training base. Crickhowell visitor website David John Addis BBC feature on Crickhowell castle Photos of Crickhowell and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, 419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous, 358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied; the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to be dubbed the "Age of Fishes." The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placoderms began dominating every known aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral and pelvic fins evolved into legs.
In the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Late Ordovician. The first ammonites, species of molluscs, appeared. Trilobites, the mollusc-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common; the Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, the early formation of the small continent of Euramerica in between; the period is named after Devon, a county in southwestern England, where a controversial argument in the 1830s over the age and structure of the rocks found distributed throughout the county was resolved by the definition of the Devonian period in the geological timescale. The Great Devonian Controversy was a long period of vigorous argument and counter-argument between the main protagonists of Roderick Murchison with Adam Sedgwick against Henry De la Beche supported by George Bellas Greenough.
Murchison and Sedgwick named the period they proposed as the Devonian System. While the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous 358.9 Mya. In nineteenth-century texts the Devonian has been called the "Old Red Age", after the red and brown terrestrial deposits known in the United Kingdom as the Old Red Sandstone in which early fossil discoveries were found. Another common term is "Age of the Fishes", referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, the latter three of which are placed in the Devonian; the Devonian has erroneously been characterised as a "greenhouse age", due to sampling bias: most of the early Devonian-age discoveries came from the strata of western Europe and eastern North America, which at the time straddled the Equator as part of the supercontinent of Euramerica where fossil signatures of widespread reefs indicate tropical climates that were warm and moderately humid but in fact the climate in the Devonian differed during its epochs and between geographic regions.
For example, during the Early Devonian, arid conditions were prevalent through much of the world including Siberia, North America, China, but Africa and South America had a warm temperate climate. In the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common; the Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions. The rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early DevonianThe Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ± 2.8 to 407.6 ± 2.5, was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began, 393.3± 2.7 million years ago. During this time, the first ammonoids appeared. Ammonoids during this time period differed little from their nautiloid counterparts; these ammonoids belong to the order Agoniatitida, which in epochs evolved to new ammonoid orders, for example Goniatitida and Clymeniida.
This class of cephalopod molluscs would dominate the marine fauna until the beginning of the Mesozoic era. Middle DevonianThe Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions: first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387.7± 2.7 million years ago. During this time the jawless agnathan fishes began to decline in diversity in freshwater and marine environments due to drastic environmental changes and due to the increasing competition and diversity of jawed fishes; the shallow, oxygen-depleted waters of Devonian inland lakes, surrounded by primitive plants, provided the environment necessary for certain early fish to develop such essential characteristics as well developed lungs, the ability to crawl out of the water and onto the land for short periods of time. Late DevonianFinally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian, 382.7 ± 2.8 to 372.2 ± 2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the fossil record in the ensuing Famennian subdivisi