New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
W.E.B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite
The W. E. B. Du Bois Boyhood Homesite is a National Historic Landmark in Great Barrington, commemorating an important location in the life of African American intellectual and civil rights activist W. E. B. Du Bois; the site contains foundational remnants of the home of Du Bois' grandfather, where Du Bois lived for the first five years of his life. Du Bois was given the house in 1928, planned to renovate it, but was unable to do so, he sold it in 1954 and the house was torn down that decade. The site is located on South Egremont Road, west of the junction with Route 71. Plans to develop the site as a memorial to Du Bois in the late 1960s were delayed due to local opposition; the site's proponents attributed this in part to racism, but opposition opinions were expressed in terms of rejecting Du Bois' more radical politics in life. He did not return. On May 11, 1976 the site was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the site was donated to the state in 1987, is administered by the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
The Burghardt family was present in the vicinity of Great Barrington, Massachusetts in colonial times, with documented ownership of land in the area from the 1740s. Tom Burghardt was an African-American slave of the family, had Dutch, English and Native American ancestry, he earned his freedom by participating in the American Revolutionary War. Among his descendants was Mary Silvinia Burghardt, the mother of William Edward Burghardt Du Bois, born in 1868, he became a leading African American intellectual, civil rights activist, co-founder in 1909 of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. By the early 19th century, the "Black Burghardts" had settled in the Egremont Plain area a few miles outside the center of Great Barrington. After being abandoned by Du Bois' father, his mother moved with her infant son to the house of her parents, Othello Burghardt and his wife. In his 1928 article, "The House of the Black Burghardts", Du Bois described the house as "a delectable place — simple and low, with the great room of the fireplace, the flagged kitchen, half a step below, the lower woodshed beyond.
Steep strong stairs led to Sleep, while without was a brook, a well and a mighty elm." When Du Bois was five years old, his grandfather died, his widowed grandmother was forced to sell their house to settle debts. Du Bois' mother moved the family into Great Barrington. A gifted student, Du Bois attended Fisk University on scholarship and with funds raised by members of his First Congregational Church in town, he completed a second bachelor's degree at Harvard, as well as graduate work there and in Berlin, becoming the first African American to earn a doctorate at Harvard. He embarked on a distinguished career. Du Bois' birthplace was torn down around 1900. Over the next decades, Du Bois periodically returned to Great Barrington, his two children were born there. His son Burghardt died as an infant, he was buried in the local Mahaimea Cemetery. Du Bois had his wife Nina buried there. In 1906, after the Atlanta Race Riot, Du Bois sent his family to Great Barrington from where he was working at Atlanta University.
Du Bois expressed interest in purchasing his grandfather's property on a visit to Great Barrington in 1925. Three years the brothers Joel and Arthur Spingarn, both civil rights activists involved in the NAACP, raised funds and purchased the old Burghardt homestead as a gift to Du Bois for his sixtieth birthday. Du Bois had plans to develop the property as a middle-class summer retreat, but his financial difficulties and move in 1934 from New York City to Atlanta made it too difficult to accomplish that. Du Bois sold the property to a neighbor in 1954, who had the house torn down. In 1967 Walter Wilson and Edmund W. Gordon purchased two parcels of the old Burghardt lands, including the site of the former Burghardt house, that form a U shape around a private residence, they announced their intention to develop the property as a park to commemorate Du Bois, who died in Ghana in 1963. This plan met with local opposition. Wilson and Gordon were both outsiders: Wilson was a controversial area real estate developer from Tennessee, Gordon was from New York City.
Opposition was couched as criticism of Du Bois for his Communist sympathies and his alleged renunciation of American citizenship for that of Ghana late in life. He was buried there; this was a period in the United States of growing controversy related to the Vietnam War and tumultuous social changes, Du Bois' position was resented by veterans' organizations such as the Veterans of Foreign Wars. Wilson worked to support for civil rights, he noted that Benedict Arnold was memorialized at Saratoga for his role in the 1777 Battles of Saratoga despite his treason during the Revolution. Some supporters of the memorial suspected; the FBI was found to have considered planting a critical news story, but it concluded that local opposition was sufficient and did not intervene. Wilson felt that many opponents were motivated by racial issues, but no opposition was expressed in racial terms. After the achievements of the Civil Rights Movement in gaining national legislation, including
Francis Butler Simkins
Francis Butler Simkins was a historian and president of the Southern Historical Association. He is best known for his praised history of the Reconstruction Era in South Carolina, that gave fair coverage to all sides, for his used textbook The South and New and his monographs on South Carolina history, he was a colorful if eccentric professor at a small college in Virginia. He was a leading progressive in the 1920s and 1930s regarding race relations, but became more conservative in the 1950s and 1960s. Born in Edgefield, South Carolina, Simkins received his B. A. from the University of South Carolina in 1918 and his M. A. and Ph. D. from Columbia University in New York. He spent most of his academic career as a professor of history at the small Longwood College in Farmville, Virginia. Simkins taught at Louisiana State University, where he was a mentor of Charles P. Roland, another historian of the South and the Civil War. Simkins published eight history books, numerous scholarly articles, an abundance of miscellaneous work including book reviews and encyclopedia articles.
His obituary in The Journal of America History in 1966 said that Simkins was "an emancipated critic of the old order" and that "he came to stress the distinctive characteristics of'the everlasting South', to question the validity of much that passed for progress in the modern South." Simkins' most famous work covers South Carolina history. In South Carolina During Reconstruction he broke with the Dunning School and gave a well-balanced history. Howard K. Beale praised it: "With refreshing freedom from prejudice and special pleading, the authors picture honest, unselfish carpetbaggers, well-meaning scalawags, Negroes with intelligence and political ability." W. E. B. Du Bois wrote that the book "does not hesitate to give a fair account of the Negroes and of some of their work."In Pitchfork Ben Tillman Simkins covered the controversial politician Benjamin Tillman who served as the violently anti-black white supremacist governor of South Carolina from 1890 to 1894 and as a United States Senator from 1895 until his death in 1918, known for his numerous speeches.
Simkins in the 1920s could cross racial lines in his scholarship, challenge the "Lost Cause" theme in the 1930s, Yet when desegregation began in the 1950s Simkins discovered much he thought should be preserved, he became a spokesman for preserving it as a tradition. By 1964 David Potter says he was, "almost the only practicing historian of the South who defends the major and historic Southern institution of segregation." In 2015 after Harper Lee released her novel Go Set a Watchman, historian David B. Parker called him "The Historian Who Evolved the Same Way as Atticus Finch"; the contributions of Simkins in the field of southern history were extensive: 1926 - The Tillman Movement in South Carolina, a thesis published by Duke University, online 1926 - "The Tillman Movement in South Carolina," Journal of Negro History 11#3 pp. 538–539 in JSTOR read online 1927 - "The Ku Klux Klan in South Carolina, 1868-1871," Journal of Negro History 12#4 pp. 606–647 in JSTOR 1931 - South Carolina During Reconstruction ). won the Dunning Prize of 1931 as the first revisionist work on Reconstruction read online 1936 - The Women of the Confederacy — one of the first serious scholarly studies of women in southern history.
Reprinted: Scholarly Press, ISBN 0-403-01212-0 1937 - "Ben Tillman's View of the Negro," Journal of Southern History 3#2 pp. 161–174 in JSTOR "New Viewpoints of Southern Reconstruction," Journal of Southern History 5#1 pp 49–61 in JSTOR 1944 - Pitchfork Ben Tillman: South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 1-57003-477-X. Read online 1947 - "The Everlasting South," Journal of Southern History 13, 307-22. 1947 - The South Old and New: 1820-1947 - revised: A History of the South, Publisher: Random House. 1955 - "Tolerating the South's Past," Journal of Southern History 21#1 pp. 3–16 in JSTOR, his presidential address to the Southern Historical Association read online 1957 - Virginia: History, Geography - a textbook from which Simkins said bureaucrats made him remove some of the more embarrassing features like descriptions of the filth of the towns. OCLC 3512462 read online 1963 - The Everlasting South - a group of essays emphasizing the region's deep-rooted conservativism, OCLC 487841 The triennial Francis B.
Simkins Award is awarded by the Southern Historical Association for best first book about the South. In addition to the Dunning Prize, Simkins held research fellowships at the Social Science Research Council and the John Guggenheim Memorial Foundation, delivered the Fleming Lectures at LSU, the Centennial Lectures at the University of Mississippi, he was president of the Southern Historical Association in 1953-1954. Humphreys, James S. Francis Butler Simkins: A Life Parker, David. "Beyond Surrender: Marian Sims, Francis B. Simkins, Revisionism in Reconstruction South Carolina," Journal of the Georgia Association of Historians, Vol. 26, pp 17–38. Online Potter, David. "On Understanding the South: A Review Article," Journal of Southern History 30#4 pp. 451–462 in JSTOR Francis Butler Simkins Google excerpt from Pitchfork Ben Tillman by Simkins Francis B. Simkins Award at the Southern Historical Association
Albert Bushnell Hart
Albert Bushnell Hart was an American historian and editor based at Harvard University. One of the first generation of professionally trained historians in the United States, a prolific author and editor of historical works, Albert Bushnell Hart became, as Samuel Eliot Morison described him, "The Grand Old Man" of American history, looking the part with his "patriarchal full beard and flowing moustaches." Hart was born in Mercer County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from Harvard University in 1880, he was a member of Phi Beta Kappa and a classmate and friend of future U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, he studied at Paris and Freiburg, received his doctorate under Hermann Eduard von Holst at Freiburg in 1883. Harvard President Charles Eliot appointed Hart an instructor in 1883 to teach the only course in American history that the college offered, despite the fact that Edward Channing an assistant in European history, wanted to teach the course himself. Hart served as instructor in history from 1883–87, assistant professor from 1887–97, became a professor in 1897.
In 1910 he was appointed Eaton Professor of the Science of Government. He was on the Harvard faculty for 43 years, retiring in 1926. In retirement he continued to edit from a room in Widener Library, he maintained a summer home in New Hampshire near Mount Monadnock. Hart edited, along with Edward Channing, over the period from 1892 to 1895 a series of extracts from primary documents called the "American history leaflets. Hart was an editor of the Harvard Graduates' Magazine from 1894 to 1902, he served as president of the American Historical Association in 1909 and of the American Political Science Association in 1912. In 1914, he was appointed exchange professor at the University of Berlin. Hart authored Formation of the Union, Salmon Portland Chase, Essentials of American History and Abolition, many other books, he was editor of the "American Nation" series and other series on American history, of many source books and guides for the study of American history, with Andrew C. McLaughlin, of the Cyclopedia of American Government.
He was an editor of the American Historical Review for 14 years, president of both the American Historical Association and the American Political Science Association. Hart edited the American Year Book from 1911 to 1920 and from 1926 to 1932, he edited a five-volume history of Massachusetts in 1927-30 and worked as the official historian of the George Washington bicentennial commission from 1926 to 1932. In 1909, he played an important role in enabling his former student, W. E. B. Du Bois, to deliver his paper "Its Benefits" to the AHA in New York; this essay was elaborated as the book Black Reconstruction in America in 1935 and proved to be a seminal work in moving historical discussion of the Reconstruction period away from the views of the Dunning School. He served as a trustee of Howard University. Though a believer in the racial inferiority of African Americans, he opposed plans to deny black students places in the Freshman Halls at Harvard in the years following World War I. Aside from being the advisor for Du Bois' doctoral dissertation, Hart was the advisor for Carter G. Woodson's dissertation.
Hart was the initial doctoral advisor for another African-American historian, Charles H. Wesley, arranged for Wesley to receive the same Austin Scholar Graduate Fellowship that Du Bois had received thirty years earlier. However, since Hart was on academic leave that semester, Channing served as Wesley's dissertation advisor. A proponent of U. S. participation in World War I, he was accused of espionage in December 1918, but the charges were determined to be the work of German propagandists trying to undermine his pro-British stance. In 1922, The Progressive Magazine referred to Hart as an Anglomaniac. In the fall of 1915, he served on the Mooseheart Governing Board, remained in that role through 1928; the 1928 edition of Seniors' Book is dedicated in his honor. A discussion arose in 1923 as to the "Americanism" of his history textbooks Epochs of American History and National Ideals Historically Traced. An investigating committee suggested the removal of his School History of the United States from New York City schools.
Hart married Mary Putnam in 1889, they adopted twin boys in 1897. He died on July 16, 1943. Although Hart had agreed that all of his papers would go to Harvard after his death, his papers were sold by his sons through book dealers in Newburyport, the college attempted to recover as many as possible. Hart was a devoted friend and follower of Theodore Roosevelt and was elected as a Roosevelt delegate to the Republican convention of 1912, he became an enthusiastic trustee and supporter of the Roosevelt Memorial Association, now called the Theodore Roosevelt Association and said that from the time of TR's death he had the idea to "present in alphabetical arrangement extracts sufficiently numerous and comprehensive to display all the phases of Roosevelt's activities and opinions as expressed by him." This work would be called the Theodore Roosevelt Cyclopedia. Professor Hart wrote Herman Hagedorn of the Association: "What we are after is the crisp, biting sparks that flew from the Roosevelt brain."
Hart told the survivors of the Harvard Class of 1880 that editing the cycl
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th president of the United States from 1913 to 1921. A member of the Democratic Party, Wilson served as the president of Princeton University and as the 34th governor of New Jersey before winning the 1912 presidential election; as president, he oversaw the passage of progressive legislative policies unparalleled until the New Deal in 1933. He led the United States during World War I, establishing an activist foreign policy known as "Wilsonianism." Born in Staunton, Wilson spent his early years in Augusta and Columbia, South Carolina. After earning a Ph. D. in political science from Johns Hopkins University, Wilson taught at various schools before becoming the president of Princeton. As governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913, Wilson broke with party bosses and won the passage of several progressive reforms, his success in New Jersey gave him a national reputation as a progressive reformer, he won the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention.
Wilson defeated incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt to win the 1912 presidential election, becoming the first Southerner to serve as president since the American Civil War. During his first term, Wilson presided over the passage of his progressive New Freedom domestic agenda, his first major priority was the passage of the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered tariffs and implemented a federal income tax. Tax acts implemented a federal estate tax and raised the top income tax rate to 77 percent. Wilson presided over the passage of the Federal Reserve Act, which created a central banking system in the form of the Federal Reserve System. Two major laws, the Federal Trade Commission Act and the Clayton Antitrust Act, were passed to regulate and break up large business interests known as trusts. To the disappointment of his African-American supporters, Wilson allowed some of his Cabinet members to segregate their departments. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, Wilson maintained a policy of neutrality between the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.
He won re-election by a narrow margin in the presidential election of 1916, defeating Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes. In early 1917, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war against Germany after Germany implemented a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, Congress complied. Wilson presided over war-time mobilization but devoted much of his efforts to foreign affairs, developing the Fourteen Points as a basis for post-war peace. After Germany signed an armistice in November 1918, Wilson and other Allied leaders took part in the Paris Peace Conference, where Wilson advocated for the establishment of a multilateral organization known as the League of Nations; the League of Nations was incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles and other treaties with the defeated Central Powers, but Wilson was unable to convince the Senate to ratify that treaty or allow the United States to join the League. Wilson suffered a severe stroke in October 1919 and was incapacitated for the remainder of his presidency.
He retired from public office in 1921, died in 1924. Scholars rank Wilson as one of the better U. S. presidents, though he has received strong criticism for his actions regarding racial segregation. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was born to a Scots-Irish family in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856, he was the third of four children and the first son of Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow, who were slaveholders. Wilson's paternal grandparents had immigrated to the United States from Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland in 1807, settling in Steubenville, Ohio, his grandfather James Wilson published a pro-tariff and anti-slavery newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette. Wilson's maternal grandfather, Reverend Thomas Wodrow, migrated from Paisley, Scotland to Carlisle, before moving to Chillicothe, Ohio in the late 1830s. Joseph met Jessie while she was attending a girl's academy in Steubenville, the two married on June 7, 1849. Soon after the wedding, Joseph was ordained as a Presbyterian priest and assigned to serve as a pastor in Staunton.
Before he was two years old, Woodrow Wilson and his family moved to Georgia. Wilson's earliest memory was of standing near the front gate of the Augusta parsonage on an autumn day in 1860, when a strange passerby said that Abraham Lincoln had been elected and that a war was coming. By 1861, both of Wilson's parents had come to identify with the Southern United States and they supported the Confederacy during the American Civil War. Wilson's father was one of the founders of the Southern Presbyterian Church in the United States after it split from the Northern Presbyterians in 1861, he became minister of the First Presbyterian Church in Augusta, the family lived there until 1870. After the end of the Civil War, Wilson began attending a nearby school, where classmates included future Supreme Court Justice Joseph Rucker Lamar and future ambassador Pleasant A. Stovall. Though Wilson's parents placed a high value on education, he struggled with reading and writing until the age of thirteen because of developmental dyslexia.
From 1870 to 1874, Wilson lived in Columbia, South Carolina, where his father was a theology professor at the Columbia Theological Seminary. In 1873, Wilson became a communicant member of the Columbia First Presbyterian Church. Wilson attended Davidson College in North Carolina for the 1873–74 school year, but transferred as a freshman to the College of New Jersey, he studied political philosophy and history, joined t
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
W. E. B. Du Bois
William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was an American sociologist, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, author and editor. Born in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois grew up in a tolerant and integrated community, after completing graduate work at the University of Berlin and Harvard, where he was the first African American to earn a doctorate, he became a professor of history and economics at Atlanta University. Du Bois was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People in 1909. Before that, Du Bois had risen to national prominence as the leader of the Niagara Movement, a group of African-American activists who wanted equal rights for blacks. Du Bois and his supporters opposed the Atlanta compromise, an agreement crafted by Booker T. Washington which provided that Southern blacks would work and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic educational and economic opportunities. Instead, Du Bois insisted on full civil rights and increased political representation, which he believed would be brought about by the African-American intellectual elite.
He referred to this group as the Talented Tenth and believed that African Americans needed the chances for advanced education to develop its leadership. Racism was the main target of Du Bois's polemics, he protested against lynching, Jim Crow laws, discrimination in education and employment, his cause included people of color everywhere Africans and Asians in colonies. He was a proponent of Pan-Africanism and helped organize several Pan-African Congresses to fight for the independence of African colonies from European powers. Du Bois made several trips to Europe and Asia. After World War I, he surveyed the experiences of American black soldiers in France and documented widespread prejudice in the United States military. Du Bois was a prolific author, his collection of essays, The Souls of Black Folk, is a seminal work in African-American literature. Borrowing a phrase from Frederick Douglass, he popularized the use of the term color line to represent the injustice of the separate but equal doctrine prevalent in American social and political life.
He opens The Souls of Black Folk with the central thesis of much of his life's work: "The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line." He wrote one of the first scientific treatises in the field of American sociology, he published three autobiographies, each of which contains essays on sociology and history. In his role as editor of the NAACP's journal The Crisis, he published many influential pieces. Du Bois believed that capitalism was a primary cause of racism, he was sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his life, he advocated nuclear disarmament. The United States' Civil Rights Act, embodying many of the reforms for which Du Bois had campaigned his entire life, was enacted a year after his death. William Edward Burghardt Du Bois was born on February 23, 1868, in Great Barrington, Massachusetts, to Alfred and Mary Silvina Du Bois. Mary Silvina Burghardt's family was part of the small free black population of Great Barrington and had long owned land in the state.
She was descended from Dutch and English ancestors. William Du Bois's maternal great-great-grandfather was Tom Burghardt, a slave, held by the Dutch colonist Conraed Burghardt. Tom served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, which may have been how he gained his freedom during the late 18th century, his son Jack Burghardt was the father of Othello Burghardt, who in turn was the father of Mary Silvina Burghardt. William Du Bois claimed Elizabeth Freeman as his relative, but Freeman was 20 years older than Burghardt, no record of such a marriage has been found. It may have been Freeman's daughter, Betsy Humphrey, who married Burghardt after her first husband, Jonah Humphrey, left the area "around 1811", after Burghardt's first wife died. If so, Freeman would have been William Du Bois's step-great-great-grandmother. Anecdotal evidence supports Humphrey's marrying Burghardt. William Du Bois's paternal great-grandfather was James Du Bois of Poughkeepsie, New York, an ethnic French-American of Huguenot origin who fathered several children with slave women.
One of James' mixed-race sons was Alexander, born on Long Cay in the Bahamas in 1803. Alexander Du Bois traveled and worked in Haiti, where he fathered a son, with a mistress. Alexander returned to Connecticut. Sometime before 1860, Alfred Du Bois immigrated to the United States, he married Mary Silvina Burghardt on February 1867, in Housatonic. Alfred left Mary in 1870. Mary Du Bois moved with her son back to her parents' house in Great Barrington, they lived there until he was five, she worked to support her family. She died in 1885. Great Barrington had a majority European American community, who treated Du Bois well, he played with white schoolmates. As an adult, he wrote about racism which he felt as a fatherless child and t