A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Chester Borough, New Jersey
Chester is a borough in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 1,649, reflecting an increase of 14 from the 1,635 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 421 from the 1,214 counted in the 1990 Census. Chester Township was established as a separate political entity on April 1, 1799, including the area of both the Township and the downtown settlement which came to be the Borough; the Borough of Chester was incorporated by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 3, 1930, based on the results of a referendum held on April 25, 1930, is today a separate municipality surrounded by Chester Township. The borough's name is derived from the township, named for Chestershire in England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.596 square miles, including 1.594 square miles of land and 0.002 square miles of water. The borough is surrounded by Chester Township, making it part of 21 pairs of "doughnut towns" in the state, where one municipality surrounds another.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,649 people, 615 households, 437.880 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,034.8 per square mile. There were 647 housing units at an average density of 406.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 90.78% White, 1.03% Black or African American, 0.49% Native American, 2.30% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 3.21% from other races, 2.18% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.46% of the population. There were 615 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.0% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.8% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.17. In the borough, the population was spread out with 27.5% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 28.7% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 43.1 years. For every 100 females there were 97.5 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 96.4 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $86,705 and the median family income was $133,250. Males had a median income of $84,167 versus $50,341 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $48,565. About 0.0% of families and 2.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.0% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 1,635 people, 609 households, 426 families residing in the borough; the population density was 1,063.0 people per square mile. There were 627 housing units at an average density of 407.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94.68% White, 0.80% African American, 1.71% Asian, 2.02% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.85% of the population. There were 609 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.9% were non-families.
23.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.15. In the borough the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 25.8% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $80,398, the median income for a family was $106,260. Males had a median income of $76,772 versus $45,833 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $42,564. About 2.1% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.5% of those under age 18 and 5.8% of those age 65 or over. Dense forests and hiking trails surround the town of Chester, it was named one of the top ten most beautiful towns in New Jersey in 2016.
There are various recreational state parks, such as Hacklebarney State Park and Black River Country Park, which contains a popular tourist site called the Cooper Mill. These parks serve as quintessential family activities going on hikes and observing the foliage during the fall. On the outskirts of Chester, Willowwood Arboretum, operated by the Morris County Park Commission, covers 130 acres of gardens and walking / hiking trails. Chester is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The Borough form of government used by Chester, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at
Pottersville, New Jersey
Pottersville is an unincorporated community split between Bedminster Township in Somerset County, Tewksbury Township in Hunterdon County and Washington Township in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. The area is served as United States Postal Service ZIP Code 07979; as of the 2010 United States Census, the population for ZIP Code Tabulation Area 07979 was 589. The Purnell School, a private all-girls boarding high school founded in 1963, is located in Pottersville. Pottersville was first called Lamington and afterwards Potters Mills. There were mills here as early as 1756 owned by William Willet. One Mill still stands on the left side of County Route 512 heading towards Califon, it was used for weaving woolen goods and turned into a grist mill. The first grist mill was built along the Black River but no longer stands. A commemorative plaque has taken its place. William Willet owned a day book in which he recorded sales to the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, his main consideration became supplying the Continental Army.
He was paid in Continental currency. He was ruined financially and was forced to sell both mills to Serrin Potter in 1783, which led to the community's name. In 1887 upwards of 200,000 baskets of peaches were shipped from Pottersville and New Germantown by wagons to Chester and other area communities; the profitable peach growing industry led the Rockaway Valley Railroad to build a spur to Pottersville in 1888. Black River Falls in Pottersville prompted the railroad to run excursions to the falls; the land around the glen were made into an amusement park. There was a dance pavilion and refreshment stand; some visitors came from Jersey City, N. J. and stayed at the Pottersville Hotel. Failure of the peach crop resulted in the end of the Rockaway Railroad. One town resident remembers the park open as late as 1920. People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise associated with Pottersville include: Harriet Adams, author of some 200 books, including nearly 50 in the Nancy Drew series
Morristown, New Jersey
Morristown is a town and the county seat of Morris County, New Jersey, United States. Morristown has been called "the military capital of the American Revolution" because of its strategic role in the war for independence from Great Britain. Today this history is visible in a variety of locations throughout the town that collectively make up Morristown National Historical Park. According to British colonial records, the first permanent European settlement at Morristown occurred in 1715, when a settlement was founded as New Hanover by migrants from New York and Connecticut. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county, Morristown itself, was named for the popular Governor of the Province, Lewis Morris, who championed benefits for the colonists. Morristown was incorporated as a town by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 6, 1865, within Morris Township, it was formally set off from the township in 1895; as of the 2010 United States Census, the town's population was 18,411, reflecting a decline of 133 from the 18,544 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,355 from the 16,189 counted in the 1990 Census.
The area was inhabited by the Lenni Lenape Native Americans for up to 6,000 years prior to exploration of Europeans. The first European settlements in this portion of New Jersey were established by the Swedes and Dutch in the early 17th century, when a significant trade in furs existed between the natives and the Europeans at temporary posts, it became part of the Dutch colony of New Netherland, but the English seized control of the region in 1664, granted to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton, as the Province of New Jersey. Morristown was settled around 1715 by English Presbyterians from Southold, New York on Long Island and New Haven, Connecticut as the village of New Hanover; the town's central location and road connections led to its selection as the seat of the new Morris County shortly after its separation from Hunterdon County on March 15, 1739. The village and county were named for Lewis Morris, the first and sitting royal governor of a united colony of New Jersey.
By the middle of the 18th century, Morristown had 250 residents, with two churches, a courthouse, two taverns, two schools, several stores, numerous mills and farms nearby. George Washington first came to Morristown in May 1773, two years before the Revolutionary War broke out, traveled from there to New York City together with John Parke Custis and Lord Stirling. In 1777, General George Washington and the Continental Army marched from the victories at Trenton and Princeton to encamp near Morristown from January to May. Washington had his headquarters during that first encampment at Jacob Arnold's Tavern located at the Morristown Green in the center of the town. Morristown was selected for its strategic location, it was between Philadelphia and New York and near New England while being protected from British forces behind the Watchung Mountains. It was chosen for the skills and trades of the residents, local industries and natural resources to provide arms, what was thought to be the ability of the community to provide enough food to support the army.
The churches were used for inoculations for smallpox. That first headquarters, Arnold's Tavern, was moved.5 miles south of the green onto Mount Kemble Avenue to become All Souls Hospital in the late 19th century. It suffered a fire in 1918, the original structure was demolished, but new buildings for the hospital were built directly across the street. From December 1779 to June 1780 the Continental Army's second encampment at Morristown was at Jockey Hollow. Washington's headquarters in Morristown was located at the Ford Mansion, a large mansion near what was the'edge of town.' Ford's widow and children shared the house with Martha Washington and officers of the Continental Army. The winter of 1780 was the worst winter of the Revolutionary War; the starvation was complicated by extreme inflation of lack of pay for the army. The entire Pennsylvania contingent mutinied and 200 New Jersey soldiers attempted to emulate them. During Washington's second stay, in March 1780, he declared St. Patrick's Day a holiday to honor his many Irish troops.
Martha Washington traveled from Virginia and remained with her husband each winter throughout the war. The Marquis de Lafayette came to Washington in Morristown to inform him that France would be sending ships and trained soldiers to aid the Continental Army; the Ford Mansion, Jockey Hollow, Fort Nonsense are all preserved as part of Morristown National Historical Park managed by the National Park Service, which has the distinction among historic preservationists of being the first National Historical Park established in the United States. During Washington's stay, Benedict Arnold was court-martialed at Dickerson's Tavern, on Spring Street, for charges related to profiteering from military supplies at Philadelphia, his admonishment was made public, but Washington promised the hero, Arnold, to make it up to him. Alexander Hamilton courted and wed Elizabeth Schuyler at a residence where Washington's personal physician was billeted. Locally known as the Schuyler-Hamilton House, the Dr. Jabez Campfield House is listed on both the New Jersey and National Register of Historic Places.
The Morristown Green has a statue commemorating the meeting of George Washington, the young Marquis de LaFayette, young Alexander Hamilton depicting them discussing forthcoming aid of French tall ships and troops being sent by King Louis XVI of France to aid the Continental Army. Morristown's Burnham Park has a statue of the "Father of the American Revolution", Thomas Paine, who wr
Black River County Park
The Black River County Park is a public park in Morris County, New Jersey operated by the Morris County Park Commission. The park covers an area of 560 acres along the eastern shore of the Black River and is located between Long Valley and Chester, its land represents some of its tributaries. The park is home to the Cooper Mill, the Elizabeth D. Kay Environmental Center, the Bamboo Brook Outdoor Education Center, the Willowwood Arboretum; the land was mined for iron ore during the 19th centuries, within the park is an old iron mine. In 1883 the Hacklebarney Branch of the High Bridge Railroad part of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, was built to serve the local iron mines; the railway was abandoned in 1900. The railway trestle has in part become part of a hiking trail along the river; when Alfred and Elizabeth Kay moved from Pittsburgh to the area in 1924 they consolidated land to establish the Hidden River Farm. The park is used for hiking, bird watching as well as for activities through its educational centers.
A list of its botanical offering has been collected. Other parks in the Black River valley are the Black River Wildlife Management Area and the Hacklebarney State Park. Morris County Park Commission, official site that has separate sections for the four educational site of the park: Cooper Mill, Elizabeth D. Kay Environmental Center, Bamboo Brook Outdoor Education Center, Willowwood Arboretum List of plants in the Black River County Park Hacklebarney State Park Trail Details and Info NY-NJTC: Black River County Park Trail Details and Info
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Morris County, New Jersey
Morris County is a county located in the U. S. state of New Jersey, about 25 mi west of New York City. According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 492,276, up from the 470,212 at the 2000 Census, As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 499,693, making it the state's 10th-most populous county, marking a 1.5% increase from 2010. The county is part of the New York Metropolitan Area, its county seat is Morristown; the most populous place was Parsippany-Troy Hills Township, with 53,238 residents at the time of the 2010 Census, while Rockaway Township covered 45.55 square miles, the largest total area of any municipality. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $86,582, the highest in New Jersey and ranked 24th of 3,113 counties in the United States. Morris County, as of the 2000 Census, was the sixth-wealthiest county in the United States by median household income at $77,340, sixth in median family income at $89,773 and ranked tenth by per capita income at $36,964.
The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 16th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States as of 2009. The county ranked third in the New York Metropolitan area in terms of median income. Morris County was named after Colonel Lewis Morris, governor of New Jersey in 1738/9, the year the county was named; the Wisconsin Glacier covered the northern section of Morris County from about 23,000 B. C. to 13,000 B. C. After the Wisconsin Glacier melted around 13,000 B. C. Paleo Indians moved into the area from the south in search of small game as well as plants; the area was first tundra with grasses growing. Rabbits and fox moved into the area from the south; the area of Morris County was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans prior to the arrival of European settlers around the year 1000. They came from the Mississippi River area, they lived along the rivers and hunted game, collected plants and nuts. Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River area in 1609, which the Dutch did surveys of the area.
From 1611 to 1614, the Dutch established the colony of New Netherland, which claimed territory between the 40th and 45th parallel north, a zone which included northern New Jersey. Dutch forts were established along the Hudson River beginning in 1613; as the years went by, more forts were established to trade with Native Americans. The Native Americans traded furs and food with the Dutch for various goods. In return the Dutch gave the Native Americans metal pots, guns and blankets. Trading with the Native Americans occurred until 1643 when a series of wars broke out between the Dutch and Native Americans. There were hostile relations between the Dutch and Native Americans between 1643 and 1660; this prevented colonization by the Dutch of the Morris County region, technically included in their claimed "New Netherland." On August 27, 1664, three English ships approached Fort Amsterdam and the fort was surrendered to the English. The English now controlled New Netherland and Morris County was now under control of the colony of New York.
Relations with the Native Americans improved for a while. There was a war with the Dutch ten years later; the Dutch re-took control of New Amsterdam but after a year returned it to the English. Relations with the Native Americans and English improved for a while. European settlements began in the early 18th century. Native Americans were still in the area at that time. Land was purchased from the Native Americans for various things such as blankets, rum, knives and gunpowder; the Native Americans' concept of selling land was different than that of the Europeans. Colonization moved inland; the first settlement in the area today known as Morris County occurred in Pompton Plains by the Dutch in 1695. From 1710 to 1730, various iron mines and forges were established; the first was in Whippany in 1710 and in Succasunna in 1713. By 1750, nearly all Native Americans had left New Jersey; this was due to land purchases from the Native Americans, diseases that the Native Americans contracted from Europeans, due to starvation from the Little Ice Age, during which Native American corn crops failed and rivers froze, preventing fishing.
Snow storms made them difficult to find. Nut crops such as oak, beech, walnut and butternut failed some years due to late frosts in spring. Due to all the events that happened, Native Americans went to eastern Canada and others went to the Ohio Valley; the Walking Purchase in September 1737, prevented Native Americans from going to eastern Pennsylvania. At that time, European settlement grew swiftly as there was now land to be settled. Morris County was part of Burlington County, established in 1694, it became part of Hunterdon County, which separated from Burlington County in 1714. Morris County was created on March 1739, from portions of Hunterdon County; the county was named for the Governor of the Province of Colonel Lewis Morris. In years Sussex County and, after the revolution, Warren County were carved out of what had been the original area of Morris County under English rule; the county was the site of the winter camp of the Continental Army after the Battles of Trenton and Princeton during the winter of 1777, as well as another winter camp at Jockey Hollow during an cold winter of 17