Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalices
The Northern Mbundu or Ambundu are a Bantu people living in Angolas North-West, North of the river Kwanza. The Ambundu speak Kimbundu, and mostly the language of the country. They are the second biggest ethnic group in the country, with 2.4 million people in the latest count The Ambundu nowadays live in the region stretching to the East from Angolas capital city of Luanda. They are predominant in the Bengo and Malanje provinces and in neighbouring parts of the Cuanza Norte, the head of the main Mbundu kingdom was called a Ngola, which is the origin of the name of the country Angola. The Mbundu are one of the Bantu peoples, the Bantu peoples brought agriculture with them. They built permanent villages, and traded with the indigenous Pygmies, the Mbundu society consisted of local communities until the 14th century. Their society has always been matrilineal, land was inherited matrilineally, and the descent system was matrilineal as well. Boys used to go and live in the villages of their maternal uncles, the lineage was projected onto status, instead of individuals, which gave the system some flexibility.
This feature is not found with neighbouring peoples, like the Ovimbundu to the South, the name Mbundu was first used by the Bakongo, before it was adopted by the Mbundu themselves. The first king of Kongo occupied part of the Mbundu territories from 1370 and he made MBanza Kongo his capital there. Later on the Mbundu kingdom of Matamba became Kongos vassal, around 1500 C. E. Kongo had claims on NDongo and Kisama, near the Kwanza river. Kongo, which had been in contact with the Portuguese since 1482, when a NDongos leader, or ngola, tried to break this monopoly, this led to war, in which the Bakongo were defeated in 1556. NDongo was now independent, and directly confronted Portugals colonialism and it allied itself with Matamba against the country in 1590, but was defeated in 1614. Now, NDongo itself became a target for the slave trade, nZinga MBandi was a deceased NDongo ngolas sister. Bypassing the reigning ngola, she negotiated a treaty with the Portuguese. The treaty gave substantial trade and religious advantages to Portugal, after five years, she had to flee from Portuguese troops to Matamba.
She became queen of Matamba, a kingdom which was led by women, and turned it into the most powerful state in the region. Matamba, and neighboring Kasanje, had monopolies in the slave trade, the rise of a new trade in ivory and wax, which avoided the old monopolies, reduced the power of central authority in the Mbundu states in this century
Legend, for its active and passive participants, includes no happenings that are outside the realm of possibility, but may include miracles. Legends may be transformed over time, in order to keep fresh and vital. Many legends operate within the realm of uncertainty, never being believed by the participants. The Brothers Grimm defined legend as folktale historically grounded, a modern folklorists professional definition of legend was proposed by Timothy R. Legend is a loanword from Old French that entered English usage circa 1340. The Old French noun legende derives from the Medieval Latin legenda, in its early English-language usage, the word indicated a narrative of an event. The word legendary was originally a noun meaning a collection or corpus of legends and this word changed to legendry, and legendary became the adjectival form. By 1613, English-speaking Protestants began to use the word when they wished to imply that an event was fictitious, legend gained its modern connotations of undocumented and spurious, which distinguish it from the meaning of chronicle.
In 1866, Jacob Grimm described the tale as poetic. Questions of categorising legends, in hopes of compiling a series of categories on the line of the Aarne–Thompson folktale index. Compared to the highly structured folktale, legend is comparatively amorphous, in Einleitung in der Geschichtswissenschaft, Ernst Bernheim asserted that a legend is simply a longstanding rumour. Gordon Allport credited the staying-power of some rumours to the persistent cultural state-of-mind that they embody and capsulise, in the narrow Christian sense, legenda were hagiographical accounts, often collected in a legendary. Hippolyte Delehaye distinguished legend from myth, The legend, on the hand, has, of necessity. It refers imaginary events to some real personage, or it localizes romantic stories in some definite spot, stories that exceed the boundaries of realism are called fables. For example, the talking animal formula of Aesop identifies his brief stories as fables, the parable of the Prodigal Son would be a legend if it were told as having actually happened to a specific son of a historical father.
If it included a donkey that gave sage advice to the Prodigal Son it would be a fable, Legend may be transmitted orally, passed on person-to-person, or, in the original sense, through written text. Jacob de Voragines Legenda Aurea or The Golden Legend comprises a series of vitae or instructive biographical narratives and they are presented as lives of the saints, but the profusion of miraculous happenings and above all their uncritical context are characteristics of hagiography. The Legenda was intended to inspire extemporized homilies and sermons appropriate to the saint of the day, the vanishing hitchhiker is the best-known urban legend in America, traceable as far back as 1870, but it is found around the world including in Korea and Russia. In the legend, a girl in a white dress picked up alongside of the road by a passerby
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close. The open canopy allows sufficient light to reach the ground to support a herbaceous layer consisting primarily of grasses. Savannas maintain an open canopy despite a high tree density and it is often believed that savannas feature widely spaced, scattered trees. However, in savannas, tree densities are higher and trees are more regularly spaced than in forests. Savanna covers approximately 20% of the Earths land area, the word originally entered English in 1555 as the Latin Zauana, equivalent in the orthography of the times to zavana. Peter Martyr reported it as the name for the plain around Comagre. The accounts are inexact, but this is placed in present-day Madugandí or at points on the nearby Guna Yala coast opposite Ustupo or on Point Mosquitos. These areas are now given over to modern cropland or jungle. The common usage meaning to describe vegetation now conflicts with a simplified yet widespread climatic concept meaning, the divergence has sometimes caused areas such as extensive savannas north and south of the Congo and Amazon Rivers to be excluded from mapped savanna categories.
Barrens has been used almost interchangeably with savanna in different parts of North America, sometimes midwestern savanna were described as grassland with trees. Different authors have defined the limits of savanna tree coverage as 5–10%. Two factors common to all environments are rainfall variations from year to year. In the Americas, e. g. in Belize, Central America, savanna vegetation is similar from Mexico to South America, savannas are subject to regular wildfires and the ecosystem appears to be the result of human use of fire. For example, Native Americans created the Pre-Columbian savannas of North America by periodically burning where fire-resistant plants were the dominant species, pine barrens in scattered locations from New Jersey to coastal New England are remnants of these savannas. Aboriginal burning appears to have responsible for the widespread occurrence of savanna in tropical Australia and New Guinea. The maquis shrub savannas of the Mediterranean region were created and maintained by anthropogenic fire.
These fires are usually confined to the layer and do little long term damage to mature trees. However, these either kill or suppress tree seedlings, thus preventing the establishment of a continuous tree canopy which would prevent further grass growth
Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba
Queen Anna Nzinga, known as Njinga Mbande or Ana de Sousa Nzinga Mbande, was a 17th-century queen of the Ndongo and Matamba Kingdoms of the Mbundu people in Angola. She came to power as an ambassador after demonstrating an ability to tactfully defuse foreign crises, being the sister of the king, Ngola Mbande, she naturally had an influence on political decisions, when the king assigned her to represent him in peace negotiations with bordering countries. Nzinga assumed control as regent of his son, Kaza. Today she is remembered in Angola for her political and diplomatic acumen, a major street in Luanda is named after her, and a statue of her was placed in Kinaxixi on a square in 2002, dedicated by President Santos to celebrate the 27th anniversary of independence. Nzinga was born to ngola Kia Samba and Guenguela Cakombe around 1583, Queen Anna Nzinga was born in the Portuguese settlement of Angola. She was related to Nzinga Mhemba, who was baptized as Alfonso in 1491 by the Portuguese, Nzingas father, a dictator, was ruler of the Ndongo and Matamba kingdoms which governed the Mbundu people.
Nzinga had two sisters, Mubkumbu Mbande, or Lady Barbara and Kifunji, or Lady Grace, and Kifunji Mbande, known as Dona Barbara. When Kia Samba was dethroned some time in the 1610s, his son, took power. According to tradition, she was named Njinga because her umbilical cord was wrapped around her neck. It was said to be an indication that the person who had this characteristic would be proud and haughty, and a wise woman told her mother that Nzinga would become queen one day. According to her recollections in life, she was favoured by her father, who allowed her to witness as he governed his kingdom. She had a brother and two sisters and Mukambu and she lived during a period when the Atlantic slave trade and the consolidation of power by the Portuguese in the region were growing rapidly. In the 16th century, the Portuguese position in the trade was threatened by England. As a result, the Portuguese shifted their activities to the Congo. Mistaking the title of the ruler, for the name of the country, Nzinga first appears in historical records as the envoy of her brother, the ngiolssa Ngola Mbandi, at a peace conference with the Portuguese governor João Correia de Sousa in Luanda in 1622.
In 1557, the ruler of Ndongo, requested aid from the Portuguese. In 1560, an embassy led by Paulo Dias de Novais arrived but the new ruler of Ndongo, however, allowed Novais to return to Portugal under the condition to lend military aid. In 1575, Novais returned with an expedition of seven ships,700 settlers and 350 soldiers, the Portuguese expected conquered African kingdoms to pay them a tribute in slaves
Footprints are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking or running. Hoofprints and pawprints are those left by animals with hooves or paws rather than feet and they may either be indentations in the ground or something placed onto the surface that was stuck to the bottom of the foot. A trackway is set of footprints in soft earth left by a life-form, animal tracks are the footprints, Footprints can be followed when tracking during a hunt or can provide evidence of activities. Some footprints remain unexplained, with several stories from mythology. Others have provided evidence of life and behaviours. The print left behind at a scene can give vital evidence to the perpetrator of the crime. Shoes have many different prints based on the design and the wear that it has received – this can help to identify suspects. Photographs or castings of footprints can be taken to preserve the finding, analysis of footprints and shoeprints is a specialist part of forensic science. Some detective work is relatively immediate, with criminals being tracked by the footprints left in the snow leading from the crime scene to their home or hiding place.
This is usually reported as a story in news publications. Footprints can allow the detective to find the height from. The Foot tends to be approximately 15% of the average height. In some forensic cases, the need may arise to estimate body weight from the size of the footprints, Foot prints have been shown to have determine the height and the sex of the individual. Friction ridge skin present on the soles of the feet and toes is as unique in its ridge detail as are the fingers and palms. When recovered at crime scenes or on items of evidence and toe impressions can be used in the manner as finger. Footprint evidence has been admitted in courts in the United States since 1934, the footprints of infants, along with the thumb or index finger prints of mothers, are still commonly recorded in hospitals to assist in verifying the identity of infants. Often, the only identifiable ridge detail that can be seen on a foot is from the large toe or adjacent to the large toe. It is not uncommon for military records of flight personnel to include bare foot inked impressions, friction ridge skin protected inside flight boots tends to survive the trauma of a plane crash better than fingers
Malanje is the capital city of Malanje Province in Angola with a population of approximately 222,000. It is located 380 kilometres east of Angolas capital Luanda, near it are the spectacular Calandula waterfalls, the rock formations of Pungo Andongo, and the Capanda Dam. The climate is humid, with average temperatures between 20 and 24 °C and rainfall 900 to 130 millimetres in the rainy season. Portuguese settlers founded Malanje in the 19th century, the construction of the railway from Luanda to Malanje, in the fertile highlands, started in 1885. The environs of Malanje included the principal cotton-producing area of Portuguese West Africa, situated at an elevation of 1,134 metres, the town had a high-altitude tropical climate, ideal to several agricultural productions. The city developed as an important agricultural, manufacturing and its productions included cotton, coffee and corn, and among its facilities it had cinema, railway station and airport. The Cangandala National Park, was established by the Portuguese authorities on 25 June 1970, having previously been classified as an Integral Natural Reserve on 25 May 1963.
The withdrawal of the Portuguese in conjunction with Angola’s independence in 1975, later, Malanje was partially destroyed during the civil war, but reconstruction efforts in the years following the end of the conflict have rebuilt the city and its surroundings. Near the city is the Cangandala National Park, established by the Portuguese authorities on 25 June 1970, josé do Telhado was a white Angolan that in colonial days used to steal from rich whites and distribute to poor blacks. Worth visiting is the Forte de Cabatuquila in the city, Malanje Airport was built during the colonial era. Currently, there are no flights to the capital Luanda, the construction of the railway from Luanda to Malanje, in the fertile highlands, started in 1885. After the end of the war in 2002, it was expected to be the terminus of a railway from the capital city
Kalandula Falls are waterfalls in the municipality of Kalandula, Malanje Province, Angola. On the Lucala River, the falls are 105 meters high and 400 meters wide and they are one of the largest waterfalls by volume in Africa. The distance from Luanda is 360 km, a visit to the Kalandula Falls in Kacimbo Media related to Kalandula Falls at Wikimedia Commons
Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo, the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to themselves in the interior. As a Portuguese colony, Angola did not encompass its present borders until the early 20th century, following resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975 under a communist one-party state backed by the Soviet Union, the country soon descended into an even lengthier civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, Angolas economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nations wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union. A highly multiethnic country, Angolas 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and the Catholic Church, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, the toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo was a kingdom in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, nominally tributary to the king of Kongo but which was seeking greater independence during the 16th century, modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, following a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and they were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, some of whom likely originated in northwestern Nigeria.
Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large herds, to Angolas central highlands. During this time, the Bantu established a number of entities in most of what today comprises Angola. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was known as Dongo. The region now known as Angola was reached by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão in 1484, the year before, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and their predominant religion is Christianity, Portuguese people were a key factor to the Age of Exploration, discovering several lands unknown to the Europeans in the Americas, Africa and Oceania, helping to pave the way for Globalization. There are around 10 million native Portuguese in Portugal, out of a population of 10.34 million. A small minority of about 15,000 speak the Mirandese language, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, all of the speakers are bilingual with Portuguese. An even smaller minority of no more than 2,000 people speak Barranquenho, some people from the former colonies have been migrating to Portugal since the 1900s. More recently, a number of Slavs, especially Ukrainians, Moldovans and Russians. There is a Chinese minority, in addition, there is a small minority Gypsies of about 40,000 people, Muslims about 34,000 people and an even smaller minority of Jews of about 5,000 people.
Between 1886 and 1966, Portugal lost to more than any West European country except Ireland. From the middle of the 19th century to the late 1950s, about 40 million Brazilians have relatively recent Portuguese background, due to massive immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. About 1.2 million Brazilian citizens are native Portuguese, significant verified Portuguese minorities exist in several countries. Portuguese Sephardic Jews are in Israel, the Netherlands, the United States, Venezuela, Brazil, in Brazil many of the colonists were originally Sephardic Jews, converted, were known as New Christians. In the United States, there are Portuguese communities in New Jersey, the New England states, in the Pacific, Hawaii has a sizable Portuguese element that goes back 150 years and New Zealand have Portuguese communities. Canada, particularly Ontario and British Columbia, has developed a significant Portuguese community since 1940, argentina and Uruguay had Portuguese immigration in the early 20th century.
So has Chile where an estimated 50,000 descendants live, an estimated 800,000 Portuguese returned to Portugal as the countrys African possessions gained independence in 1975, after the Carnation Revolution, while others moved to Brazil and South Africa. Vincent and the Grenadines and Tobago, Equatorial Guinea, in 1989 some 4,000,000 Portuguese were living abroad, mainly in France, Brazil, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada and the United States. Portuguese constitute 13% of the population of Luxembourg, in areas such as Thetford and the crown dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey, the Portuguese form the largest ethnic minority groups at 30% of the population, 20% and 3% respectively. The British capital London is home to the largest number of Portuguese people in the UK, with the majority being found in the boroughs of Kensington and Chelsea and Westminster. The Portuguese diaspora communities still are very attached to their language, their culture and their national dishes, in colonial times, over 700,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, and most of them went there during the gold rush of the 18th century