Hauser Dam is a hydroelectric straight gravity dam on the Missouri River about 14 miles northeast of Helena, Montana, in the United States. The original dam, built between 1905 and 1907, failed in 1908 and caused severe flooding and damage downstream. A second dam comprises the present structure; the current Hauser Dam is 80 feet high. The reservoir formed by the dam, Hauser Lake is 25 miles long, has a surface area of 3,800 acres, has a storage capacity of 98,000 acre feet of water when full; the dam is a "run-of-the-river" dam because it can generate electricity without needing to store additional water supplies behind the dam. The powerhouse contains six generators, bringing Hauser dam's generating capacity to 17 MW; the first Hauser Dam was built by the Missouri River Power Company and its successor, the United Missouri River Power Company. Samuel Thomas Hauser, a former Territorial Governor of Montana from 1885 to 1887, enjoyed a lengthy career in banking, railroads and smelting, but encountered a series of financial setbacks after the Panic of 1893 which nearly ruined him financially.
In his early 60s, Hauser began to rebuild his finances by branching out into the new industry of hydroelectric power generation. In 1894, he formed the Missouri River Power Company, won the approval of the United States Congress to build a dam 2 miles below Stubbs' Ferry. In 1905, Hauser and other directors of the Missouri River Power Company formed the Helena Power Transmission Company; the two companies merged on February 1906, to form the United Missouri River Power Company. The dam was named for Samuel T. Hauser. Hauser Dam was a steel dam built on masonry footings on top of gravel, with the ends of the dam anchored in bedrock on either side of the river; the Wisconsin Bridge and Iron Company constructed the dam for the power company. J. F. Jackson, a Wisconsin Bridge and Iron engineer, designed the structure. Martin Gerry supervised the construction for the power company. Gerry and Wisconsin Bridge engineer James McKittrick argued several times over the dam's design, Gerry ordered a number of changes to the dam to strengthen it.
The dam was 75 feet high. Because 300 feet of the center section of the dam was built on a gravel riverbed and the rest on bedrock, sheet pilings were driven 35 feet into the riverbed and the steel of the dam attached to the pilings; the pilings were set at an angle of 1.5:1 to discourage sliding, a triangular masonry footing capped with concrete on the upstream side set against the pilings in the riverbed to support the dam. The upstream face of the dam was covered in concrete, a 20-foot deep layer of volcanic ash laid down on the upstream riverbed extending 300 feet from the dam to discourage seeping; the spillway was 13 feet deep. The 10 horizontal turbines in the powerhouse delivered 14,000 kilowatts of power; the total cost of the dam at that time was $1.5 million. The United Missouri Power declared Hauser Dam operational on February 12, 1907. On April 14, 1908, at about 2:30 p.m. Hauser Dam failed after water pressure undermined the masonry footings; the first sign of trouble was when silt-heavy water began gushing from the base of the dam near the powerhouse.
A power company employee, spotting the problem, ran into the powerhouse and told everyone to flee for their lives. About 15 minutes the masonry footings gave way, causing the upstream section of the dam to settle and a 30-foot wide breach to open in the dam; the water pouring through the breach further undermined the dam's footing, six minutes a 300-foot wide section of the dam tore loose. The powerhouse was only damaged. A surge of water 25 to 30 feet high swept downstream; the remaining sections of the dam, anchored to bedrock, helped hold back some of the water for a time, reducing the destructiveness of the flood. In the state capital of Helena at the time, Gerry received a telephone call from the dam operators alerting him to the dam's destruction, he sent telegrams to all towns and cities downstream, warning them of the coming flood. A Great Northern Railway locomotive was dispatched to the city of Great Falls, 70 miles downstream, warning stations along the way about the dam break; the warnings and the geology of the Missouri River below Hauser Dam helped save numerous lives.
The construction camp at Holter Dam was swept away. Future motion picture actor Gary Cooper and his family, living at the Seven Bar Nine Ranch, were notified in time and evacuated before the floodwaters tore across a portion of their property; the flood reached the small town of Craig, around 7:00 p.m. but the narrow canyons of the Missouri River above the town helped hold back part of the floodwaters and dissipated much of their energy. The residents of the town received plenty of warning, were evacuated. At first, the press reported that the town had been swept away, but this proved inaccurate as only a few shacks and the railroad station were uprooted; the famous iron Craig Bridge had more than 2 feet of water over its deck and was feared doomed, but it held. The Great Northern Railway tracks from Craig to Ulm, were under water. Workers at the Boston and Montana Smelter in Great Falls improvised a wing d
Pacific Northwest Trail
The Pacific Northwest Trail is a 1200-mile hiking trail running from the Continental Divide in Montana to the Pacific Ocean on Washington’s Olympic Coast. Along the way, the PNT crosses three national parks, seven national forests, two other national scenic trails, against the grain of several mountain ranges, including the Continental Divide, Whitefish Divide, Selkirks, Kettles and Olympics; the Pacific Northwest Trail was designated as the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail by Congress in 2009. The route was first conceived by Ron Strickland in 1970. Between 1970 and 1976, extensive fieldwork was performed by Strickland and others, including early supporters along the PNT corridor who lent extensive knowledge of local trail systems to the effort. In that time, the Pacific Northwest Trail was cobbled together using preexisting trails and Forest Service roads. In 1977, Strickland founded the Pacific Northwest Trail Association, an organization responsible for education and information and advocacy for the PNT.
That same year, the first five successful thru-hikes of the Pacific Northwest Trail were completed. Two of those hikers would appear on the cover of Backpacker Magazine, in a 1979 issue which introduced the Pacific Northwest Trail to an international audience. In 1979, the first short guide for the PNT was published by Signpost Magazine, which would become Washington Trails Association; the guide consisted of two pages that described the route, came unaccompanied by maps. In 1983, Ron Strickland would hike the entire length of the PNT alongside the PNTA's first cartographer, Ted Hitzroth, they used the information collected on their journey to develop the first full-length guidebook for the PNT, published in 1984. Throughout the 80's and 90's, the trail gained in popularity. Regional volunteer groups emerged to help the PNTA maintain and improve the PNT in their areas, including SWITMO in the Puget Sound area, the Yaak Trail Club, who helped select and maintain the route through northwest Montana's Yaak Valley.
In 2000, the Pacific Northwest Trail received its first federal designation, when the Clinton administration designated the trail as a Millennium Trail. More federal recognition would come in the following years. In 2002, the North Cascades National Park / Ross Lake National Recreation Area segment was designated a National Recreation Trail; the Olympic National Park segment received this designation in 2003, the Glacier National Park segment received the same designation in 2005. In 2008, Congressman Norm Dicks and Senator Maria Cantwell introduced Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail legislation to Congress; the marked up version of the legislation for the designation passed the full Natural Resource Committee of the US Senate on September 11, 2008, was inserted into the Public Lands Omnibus Bill. Congress passed the Omnibus Public Lands Management Act of 2009 on March 25 of that year, the Pacific Northwest Trail became the Pacific Northwest National Scenic Trail with President Obama's signature on March 30.
The Public Lands Omnibus Act of 2009 placed the trail under the management of the Department of Agriculture, with the United States Forest Service serving as the trail administrator. A comprehensive management plan for the Pacific Northwest Trail is under development. In 2017, the Pacific Northwest Trail Association celebrated its 40th anniversary, as well as the 40th anniversary of the first five thru-hikes of the trail. Beginning at Chief Mountain Customs on the United States–Canada border in central Montana, the Pacific Northwest Trail traverses the high mountains and valleys of Glacier National Park, where it shares mileage with the Continental Divide Trail, it enters Flathead National Forest, travels across the Flathead River into Polebridge, Montana, up the Whitefish Divide, into Kootenai National Forest, through the Ten Lakes Wilderness Study Area and Ten Lakes Scenic Area on its way to the Idaho state line. In Idaho Panhandle National Forest, the PNT crosses the Moyie River Valley, winds its way through the forest lands and farmlands of the Kootenai River Valley, up Parker Ridge to the Selkirk Crest down Lions Head and over Lookout Mountain to Upper Priest Lake.
From there, the trail climbs toward the Washington state line. In Washington, the PNT enters Colville National Forest in the Salmo-Priest Wilderness crosses the Pend Oreille River on the Metaline Falls Bridge, before continuing over Abercrombie Mountain and reaching the Columbia River, in the town of Northport. Next, the trail wanders along the Kettle Crest, through Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest and into the range lands and orchards of the Okanogan River Valley. From the city of Oroville, the PNT follows the Similkameen River to Palmer Lake, where the trail travels through Loomis State Forest, begins its ascent into the Pasayten Wilderness, where the PNT shares tread with the Pacific Crest Trail. After traversing the Pasayten, the trail crosses Ross Lake National Recreation Area and North Cascades National Park; the trail exits the park via Hannegan Pass, continues through the Mt. Baker Wilderness. From Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest, the trail uses a mix of federal and private timber lands to reach the shores of Puget Sound.
Along the dikes and through the farmlands of Skagit County, the trail traverses Fidalgo Island, crosses the bridge at Deception Pass State Park and continues across Whidbey Island to the Washington State Ferry Terminal in Coupeville, Washington. After a thirty-minute ferry ride, the trail picks up in the quaint seaside community of Port Townsend and the confluence of three trails: the Larry Scott Trail, the Olymp
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Pompeys Pillar National Monument is a rock formation located in south central Montana, United States. Designated a National Monument on January 17, 2001, managed by the U. S. Bureau of Land Management, it consists of only 51 acres, making it one of the smallest National Monuments in the U. S, it was designated a National Historic Landmark on July 25, 1965. The new Pompeys Pillar Interpretive Center opened in 2006. Exhibits in the 5,700-square foot center relate the journey of Captain William Clark and his detachment, including Sacagawea and her son Pomp, down the Yellowstone River Valley in 1806; the pillar itself stands 150 feet above the Yellowstone River and consists of sandstone from the late Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, 75 – 66 million years ago. The base of the pillar is 1 acre; the pillar features an abundance of Native American petroglyphs, as well as the signature of William Clark, co-leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Clark's inscription is the only remaining physical evidence found along the route, followed by the expedition.
The inscription consists of his signature and the date, July 25, 1806. Clark wrote that he climbed the sandstone pillar and "had a most extensive view in every direction on the Northerly Side of the river", he named the outcropping after Jean Baptiste Charbonneau—the son of expedition member Sacagawea—whom he nicknamed "Pompy". His original name for it was "Pompys Tower". Situated 25 miles northeast of Billings, along Interstate 94, the pillar gets 50,000 visitors annually. Archeological evidence suggests that the outcropping has been witness to 11,000 years of human involvement in the area. In addition to the pictographs and the signature of William Clark, hundreds of other people have carved their initials into the rock, including early pioneers to the area. Pompey's Pillar, Montana List of National Historic Landmarks in Montana National Register of Historic Places listings in Yellowstone County, Montana "Pompeys Pillar National Monument Official Website". U. S. Bureau of Land Management. Retrieved 2017-09-30.
"Pompeys Pillar National Monument". National Landscape Conservation System. Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Pompeys Pillar National Monument". The Wilderness Society. Archived from the original on 2006-07-10. Retrieved 2006-08-13. "Pompeys Pillar National Monument". Pompeys Pillar Historical Association. Retrieved 2006-08-13
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the agency include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations, the Research and Development branch. Managing 25% of federal lands, it is the only major national land agency, outside the U. S. Department of the Interior; the concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, due to concerns regarding Yellowstone National Park beginning as early as 1875. In 1876, Congress formed the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Franklin B. Hough was appointed the head of the office. In 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry; the Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the public domain as "forest reserves," managed by the Department of the Interior.
In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry. The Transfer Act of 1905 transferred the management of forest reserves from the General Land Office of the Interior Department to the Bureau of Forestry, henceforth known as the United States Forest Service. Gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt. Significant federal legislation affecting the Forest Service includes the Weeks Act of 1911, the Multiple Use – Sustained Yield Act of 1960, P. L. 86-517. L. 88-577. L. 94-588. L. 91-190. L. 95-313. L. 95-307. In February 2009, the Government Accountability Office evaluated whether the Forest Service should be moved from the Department of Agriculture to the Department of the Interior, which includes the National Park Service, the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Bureau of Land Management, managing some 438,000,000 acres of public land; as of 2009, the Forest Service has a total budget authority of $5.5 billion, of which 42% is spent fighting fires.
The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters, 737 law enforcement personnel, 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is "To sustain the health and productivity of the Nation's forests and grasslands to meet the needs of present and future generations." Its motto is "Caring for the land and serving people." As the lead federal agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nation's forest and aquatic ecosystems. The agency's ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current and future needs. Through implementation of land and resource management plans, the agency ensures sustainable ecosystems by restoring and maintaining species diversity and ecological productivity that helps provide recreation, timber, fish, wildlife and aesthetic values for current and future generations of people.
The everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, providing recreation. The work includes managing 193,000,000 acres of national forest and grasslands, including 59,000,000 acres of roadless areas. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007; the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry. Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions; the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, an appointee of the President confirmed by the Senate; the Chief's staff provides broad policy and direction for the agency, works with the Administration to develop a budget to submit to Congress, provides information to Congress on accomplishments, monitors activities of the agency.
There are five deputy chiefs for the following areas: National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five research stations, the Forest Products Laboratory, the International Institute of Tropical Forestry, in Puerto Rico. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief. Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States. There are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908; the system provides places for long-term science and management studies in major vegetation types of the 195 million acres of public land administered by the Forest Service. Individual sites range from 47 to 22,500 ha in size. Operations of Experimental Forests and Ranges are directed by local research teams for the individual sites, by Research Stations for the regions in which they are located, at the level of the Forest Service.
Major themes in
Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge
Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States located in central Montana. Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge is one of several satellite refuges in the region that are part of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Satellite refuges are unstaffed. Hailstone was established as an easement refuge in 1942 to provide a rest stop and breeding ground for migratory waterfowl; the United States Fish and Wildlife Service purchased the land in 1980. The refuge is located next to Hailstone Lake, a natural basin, enhanced to 300 acres in the 1930s under the Works Project Administration. An earthen dam was erected on this natural wetland that increased its size and turned it into a reservoir. Over the years heavy metals and salts accumulated in the reservoir and surrounding soil due to natural evaporation. In 2011 the dam was removed to restore flow to the contaminated waterway. Greasewoods grow in the saline soils. Soils with lower salinity host native grasses.
Wildlife on the refuge includes waterfowl, prairie dogs, horned lizards, snakes. Recreational activities on the refuge include hunting of big game and birds and wildlife observation. Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge is managed by refuge staff in Montana; this article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Media related to Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge at Wikimedia Commons Official website Hailstone National Wildlife Refuge. Montana Office of Tourism. Hailstone Basin, Montana. Topographic Map, USGS
Nez Perce National Historic Trail
The Nez Perce National Historic Trail follows the route taken by a large band of the Nez Perce Indian tribe in 1877 during their attempt to flee the U. S. get to Canada, to avoid being forced on to a reservation. The 1,170-mile trail was created in 1986 as part of the National Trails System Act and is managed by the U. S. Forest Service; the trail traverses through portions of the U. S. states of Oregon, Idaho and Montana and connects 38 separate sites across these four states that commemorate significant events that took place as the Nez Perce tried to escape capture by the U. S. Cavalry; the sites are part of the National Park Service's Nez Perce National Historical Park, managed overall by the National Park Service, with some sites managed by local and state affiliated organizations. A band of 750 Nez Perce warriors accompanied women and elders, they were parties to the Treaty of Walla Walla with the U. S. Government, fought numerous engagements with the 7th Cavalry, their maneuvers had several objectives: To avoid the initial violence they faced when trying to surrender to the 7th Cavalry and proceed to the reservation.
Beginning near 8d Lake in eastern Oregon, the Nez Perce headed east into Idaho. They crossed Lolo Pass into Montana and fought a major battle at what is now known as Big Hole National Battlefield. After that, the Nez Perce continued traveling south and east, back into Idaho and into Wyoming entering Yellowstone National Park near West Yellowstone, Montana; the tribe followed the Clarks Fork River back into Montana. From there the Nez Perce headed straight north for Canada and made it; the Nez Perce were near starvation and exhaustion after fighting their last battle north of the Bear Paw Mountains, less than 40 miles from the Canada–US border, when they surrendered to U. S. authorities. Chief Joseph is credited with leading the Nez Perce on this journey, he served as a camp supervisor and guardian, entrusted with handling the logistics of camp and travel, taking care of the women and children. At the time of the surrender, Chief Joseph was the most prominent surviving leader among the group. A few members of the tribe did reach Canada, but the vast majority were relocated to Kansas and Oklahoma for eight years before being allowed to relocate to the reservation in Idaho, near their ancestral home.
The trail passes through numerous National Park Service managed areas, National Forests, Bureau of Land Management Public Lands. While Oregon was a state, the other three states the trail now passes through were still territories. None of the forest lands were managed by the federal government, but Yellowstone National Park was created 5 years before the Nez Perce journey; the trail passes through owned property and it is best advised to obtain permission to enter these areas from local landowners. Little of the trail is a foot trail although much of the journey can be followed by roads. Attempts are underway to continue to preserve right of way to allow greater access for visitors. Nez Perce National Historical Park Nez Perce National Historic Trail map U. S. Forest Service. "Nez Perce National Historical Trail". Retrieved 2006-07-08. Nez Perce Trail Foundation
Protected areas of the United States
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state and local level authorities and receive varying levels of protection. Some areas are managed as wilderness, while others are operated with acceptable commercial exploitation; as of 2015, the 25,800 protected areas covered 1,294,476 km2, or 14 percent of the land area of the United States. This is one-tenth of the protected land area of the world; the U. S. had a total of 787 National Marine Protected Areas, covering an additional 1,271,408 km2, or 12 percent of the total marine area of the United States. Some areas are managed in concert between levels of government; the Father Marquette National Memorial is an example of a federal park operated by a state park system, while Kal-Haven Trail is an example of a state park operated by county-level government. As of 2007, according to the United Nations Environment Programme, the U. S. had a total of 6,770 terrestrial nationally designated protected areas. Federal level protected areas are managed by a variety of agencies, most of which are a part of the National Park Service, a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior.
They are considered the crown jewels of the protected areas. Other areas are managed by the United States Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service; the United States Army Corps of Engineers is claimed to provide 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands through lakes and waterways that they manage. The highest levels of protection, as described by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, are Level I and Level II; the United States maintains 12 percent of the Level II lands in the world. These lands had a total area of 210,000 sq mi. A confusing system for naming protected areas results in some types being used by more than one agency. For instance, both the National Park Service and the U. S. Forest Service operate areas designated National National Recreation Areas; the National Park Service, the U. S. Forest Service, the Bureau of Land Management operate areas called National Monuments. National Wilderness Areas are designated within other protected areas, managed by various agencies and sometimes wilderness areas span areas managed by multiple agencies.
There are existing federal designations of historic or landmark status that may support preservation via tax incentives, but that do not convey any protection, including a listing on the National Register of Historic Places or a designation as a National Historic Landmark. States and local zoning bodies may not choose to protect these; the state of Colorado, for example, is clear that it does not set any limits on owners of NRHP properties. Federal protected area designations National Park System National Parks National Preserves National Seashores National Lakeshores National Forest National Forests National Grasslands National Conservation Lands National Monuments National Conservation Areas Wilderness Areas Wilderness Study Areas National Wild and Scenic Rivers National Scenic Trails National Historic Trails Cooperative Management and Protection Areas Forest Reserves Outstanding Natural Areas National Marine Sanctuaries National Recreation Areas National Estuarine Research Reserves National Trails System National Wild and Scenic Rivers System National Wilderness Preservation System National Wildlife Refuge System International protected area designations UNESCO Biosphere Reserves in the USA Every state has a system of state parks.
State parks vary from urban parks to large parks that are on a par with national parks. Some state parks, like Adirondack Park, are similar to the national parks of England and Wales, with numerous towns inside the borders of the park. About half the area of the park, some 3,000,000 acres, is state-owned and preserved as "forever wild" by the Forest Preserve of New York. Wood-Tikchik State Park in Alaska is the largest state park by the amount of contiguous protected land. S. National Parks, with some 1,600,000 acres, making it larger than the state of Delaware. Many states operate game and recreation areas. Lists of state parks in the United States: Alabama, Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming List of U.
S. state and tribal wilderness areas Various counties, metropolitan authorities, regional parks, soil conservation districts and other units manage a variety of local level parks. Some of these are little more than picnic playgrounds. South Mountain Park in Phoenix, for example, is called the largest city park in the United States. Protected areas of American Samoa Protected areas of California Protected areas of Colorado Protected areas of Georgia Protected areas of Illinois Protected areas of Kentucky Protected areas of Michigan Protected areas of Ohio National Landscape Conservation System National Park Service National Wild and S