Bessarabia Oblast was an oblast and a guberniya in the Russian Empire. It included the eastern part of the Principality of Moldavia along with the neighboring Ottoman-ruled territories annexed by Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest following the Russo-Turkish War, 1806-1812; the Governorate was disbanded in 1917, with the establishment of Sfatul Ţării, a national assembly which proclaimed the Moldavian Democratic Republic in December 1917. The latter united with Romania in April 1918. Around 65% of the territory of the former governorate now belongs to the Republic of Moldova, around 35% to Ukraine; as the Russian Empire noticed the weakening of the Ottoman Empire, it occupied the eastern half of the autonomous Principality of Moldavia, between the Prut and Dniester rivers. This was followed by six years of warfare, which were concluded by the Treaty of Bucharest, by which the Ottoman Empire acknowledged the Russian annexation of the province. Before the Russian annexation, the territory had no particular name, Moldavia being traditionally divided into Ţara de Sus and Ţara de Jos. Bessarabia was the southern part of this territory.
The Russians used the name "Bessarabia" for the whole region rather than the southern area. Bessarabia had an area of 45,630 km², more than the rest of Moldavia and a population between 240,000 and 360,000, most of them being Romanian-speaking Moldavians; the boyars of Bessarabia protested against the annexation, arguing that the Ottoman Empire had no right to cede a territory, not theirs in the first place, but this did not prevent the Sultan from signing the treaty in May 1812. After the annexation, the local boyars, led by Gavril Bănulescu-Bodoni, the Metropolitan of Chişinău and Hotin, petitioned for self-rule and the establishment of a civil government based on the Moldavian traditional laws. In 1818, a special autonomous region was created, which had both Romanian and Russian as languages used in the local administration. Bănulescu-Bodoni obtained permission for opening a seminary and a printing press, with the Bessarabian church being an eparchy of the Russian Orthodox Church. After the death of Bănulescu-Bodoni in 1821, Bessarabia lacked a strong leader and as the Russians feared nationalism, which triggered the anti-Ottoman 1821 Wallachian Revolution in neighbouring Wallachia, the local authorities began a gradual retraction of many of the freedoms.
Nicholas I of Russia, crowned in 1825, began a campaign of reforms which had the goal of gaining more control over the western provinces. Autonomy of the region was retracted in 1829, with the new constitution written by the governor of New Russia and Bessarabia, Mikhail Semyonovich Vorontsov. In 1834, Romanian was banned in schools and government facilities, soon, the press, churches despite 80% of the population being Romanian; those who fought the changes could be exiled to Siberia. The constitution no longer made the usage of Romanian compulsory for public announcements and in 1854, Russian was made the official language. Around 1850, Romanian was no longer used in schools and the importation of books from Moldavia and Wallachia was banned. Integration within the Russian Empire continued with the introduction of the zemstva in 1869. Although this system was meant to increase the participation of the locals in civic affairs, it was run by Russians and other non-Moldavian functionaries brought from across the Empire.
The Moldavian boyars protested against the reforms, which decreased their own powers, but their protests were not well organized and they were ignored. Some Moldavian boyar families were however integrated in the Russian nobility, but most of the nobles of Bessarabia were foreigners: in 1911, there were 468 noble families in Bessarabia, of which only 138 were Moldavian. One of the known Jewish nobles was Count Landsman whose great-grandson, Alexander Zanzer is now leading major Jewish organisations in Europe. In the beginning of the 20th century, the Jewish population made up to 40% of Chisinau. Romania became independent in 1878, but millions of ethnic Romanians lived outside its borders and as such it had aspirations toward Transylvania, as well as Bessarabia. In 1856, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Russia was forced to return a significant territory in southern Bessarabia to Moldavia, which joined Wallachia in 1859 to form Romania. In 1877, the Russian Empire and Romania signed a treaty by the terms of which and Russia were allies against the Ottoman Empire, while Russia recognized Romania's independence and guaranteed its territorial integrity after the war.
However, at the end of the Russo-Turkish War, Russia took southern Bessarabia, Alexander Gorchakov justifying this as a "matter of national honour" for Russia and arguing that the territory was ceded in 1856 to Moldavia, not to Romania and that the Russian guarantee of territorial integrity was directed against Turkish claims. The Romanian politicians and public were angered by this action: Romanian politician Mihail Kogălniceanu accused Russia of deception and of treating an ally like a conquered province, he started a memorandum against Russia to try to influence the Western governments, denouncing not only the annexation of Southern Bessarabia, but the 1812 annexation of Bessarabia as well. Despite this, none of the European powers wanted to risk a confl
The Stavropol Governorate was a governorate of the Russian Empire. It corresponded to most of present-day Stavropol Krai, it was created in 1847 out of the territories of Caucasian peoples and disbanded in Russian SFSR in 1924. As of 1897, 873,301 people populated the oblast. Russians constituted the majority of the population. Significant minorities consisted of Ukrainians. Total Slavic population was 804,153 William Henry Beable, "Governments or Provinces of the Former Russian Empire: Stavropol", Russian Gazetteer and Guide, London: Russian Outlook – via Open Library
The Poltava Governorate or Government of Poltava was a guberniya in the historical Left-bank Ukraine region of the Russian Empire, created in 1802 from the disbanded Malorossiya Governorate, split between the Chernigov Governorate and Poltava Governorate with an administrative center of Poltava. It was administered by 15 uezds: Gadyach – Гадячъ Zenkov – Зеньковъ Zolotonosha – Золотоноша Kobeliaky – Кобеляки Konstantinograd – Константиноградъ Kremenchug – Кременчугъ Lokhvytsia – Лохвица Lubny – Лубны Mirgorod – Миргородъ Pereyaslav – Переяславъ Pyriatyn – Пирятинъ Poltava – Полтава Pryluky – Прилуки Romny – Ромны Khorol – ХорольMost of these ended up in the modern Poltava Oblast of Ukraine, although some: Zolotonosha, Konstantinograd and Romny are now part of Cherkasy, Kharkiv and Sumy Oblasts respectively; the Poltava Governorate covered a total area of 49,365 km², had a population of 2,778,151 according to the 1897 Russian Empire census. It was bordering the following Russian Governorates: Chernigov Governorate and Kursk Governorate to the north, Kiev Governorate to the west, Kharkov Governorate to the east, Kherson Governorate and Yekaterinoslav Governorate to the south.
In 1914, the population was 2,794,727. After the formation of the Ukrainian SSR, the territory was wholly included into the new Soviet Republic; the governorate system was retained although variations included the Kremenchug Governorate, temporarily formed on its territory, the passing of the Pereyaslav uezd to the Kiev Governorate. However, on Third of June 1925 the guberniya was liquidated and replaced by five okrugs: Kremenchutsky, Poltavsky and Romensky. Russian Census of 1897, the cities of more than 10,000 people. In bold are the cities of over 50,000. Kremenchug – 63 007 Poltava – 53 703 Romny – 22 510 Priluki – 18 532 Pereyaslav – 14 614 Kobeliaki – 10 487 Zenkov – 10 443 Lubny – 10 097 Mirgorod – 10 037 By the Imperial census of 1897. In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language. By the Imperial census of 1897; the major religion in the region, the state religion was the Eastern Orthodox with some population following Judaism. Other religions in the governorate were much less common
The Podolia Governorate or Government of Podolia, set up after the Second Partition of Poland, comprised a governorate of the Russian Empire from 1793 to 1917, of the Ukrainian People's Republic from 1917 to 1921, of the Ukrainian SSR from 1921 to 1925. The Government of Podolia was established right after the Second Partition of Poland in place of the former Podole and Bracław Voivodeships in 1793; the Podolian Governorate occupied the southwestern frontier of the former Russian empire, bordering Austria-Hungary, had an area of about 42,000 km². The administrative centre was Kamenets-Podolskiy until 1914. Podolia Governorate was one of the three governorates of the Southwestern Krai administration. In 1917 it was recognized by the Russian Provisional Government to be governed by the General Secretariat of Ukraine as the representative of the Russian Provisional Government in the region; until 1918 the governorate consisted of 12 uyezds: Balta uyezd Bratslav uyezd Vinnitsia uyezd Gaysin uyezd Kamenets uyezd Letichev uyezd Litin uyezd Mogilev uyezd Olgopol uyezd Proskurov uyezd Ushytsa uyezd Yampol uyezd On 12 April 1923 all uyezds were transformed into okruhas, while volosts – into raions.
Okruhas served as a subdivision of government until it was abolished on 1 August 1925. Together with the government of Podilia, the Haisyn okruha was dissolved as well; some territory of Tulchyn okruha were included into the newly formed Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Vinnytsia Haisyn Kamianets Mohyliv Proskuriv Tulchyn Russian Census of 1897: Kamenets/Podolsky – 35 934 Vinnitsa – 30 563 Balta – 23 363 Proskurov – 22 855 Mogilev/Dnestr – 22 315 Zhmerinka – 12 908 Khmelnik – 11 657 Bar – 9 982 Litin – 9 420 Gaysin – 9 374 Olgopol – 8 134 Bratslav – 7 863 Letichev – 7 248 Yampol – 6 605 Novaya Ushytsa – 6 371 Staraya Ushytsa – 4 176 Salnitsa – 3 699 Verbovets – 2 311 The Imperial census of 1897 produced the following statistics. Bold type marks languages spoken by more people than the state language. In 1897 3,018,299 people lived in the governorate of Podolia; the cities had 221,870 inhabitants, comprising about 7.35% of the total population. About 46.06% of the urban population consisted of Jews, 32.54% of Ukrainians, 15.03% of Russians, 4.90% of Poles.
The Imperial census of 1897 reported: Religious structuresChurches Eastern Orthodox 1645 Roman Catholic 202 Lutheran 4 Monasteries Eastern Orthodox 7, 4 Synagogues 89 other Shul 438 Mosque 1 Podolia
The Russian Empire known as Imperial Russia or Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917. The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in landmass only by the British and Mongol empires; the rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Golden Horde, the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire. It played a major role in 1812–1814 in defeating Napoleon's ambitions to control Europe and expanded to the west and south; the House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762, its matrilineal branch of patrilineal German descent the House of Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov ruled from 1762. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west to the Pacific Ocean, into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east.
With 125.6 million subjects registered by the 1897 census, it had the third-largest population in the world at the time, after Qing China and India. Like all empires, it included a large disparity in terms of economics and religion. There were numerous dissident elements. Economically, the empire had a predominantly agricultural base, with low productivity on large estates worked by serfs, Russian peasants; the economy industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. The land was ruled by a nobility from the 10th through the 17th centuries, subsequently by an emperor. Tsar Ivan III laid the groundwork for the empire that emerged, he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Golden Horde, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, laid the foundations of the Russian state. Emperor Peter the Great fought numerous wars and expanded an huge empire into a major European power, he moved the capital from Moscow to the new model city of St. Petersburg, led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political mores with a modern, Europe-oriented, rationalist system.
Empress Catherine the Great presided over a golden age. Emperor Alexander II promoted numerous reforms, most the emancipation of all 23 million serfs in 1861, his policy in Eastern Europe involved protecting the Orthodox Christians under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. That connection by 1914 led to Russia's entry into the First World War on the side of France, the United Kingdom, Serbia, against the German and Ottoman empires; the Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on principles of Orthodoxy and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905 and became a de jure constitutional monarchy. The empire collapsed during the February Revolution of 1917 as a result of massive failures in its participation in the First World War. Though the Empire was only proclaimed by Tsar Peter I following the Treaty of Nystad, some historians would argue that it was born either when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478, or when Ivan the Terrible conquered the Khanate of Kazan in 1552. According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was a contemporary Russian word for empire.
Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, the Russian conquest of Siberia. Poland was divided in the 1790 -- 1815 era, with much of the population going to Russia. Most of the 19th-century growth came from adding territory in Asia, south of Siberia. Peter I the Great played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West, compelling nearly the entire population to farm. Only a small percentage lived in towns; the class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Peter's first military efforts were directed against the Ottoman Turks.
His attention turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Sea, where the harbor was frozen for nine months a year. Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden. Peter's ambitions for a "window to the sea" led him to make a secret alliance in 1699 with Saxony, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Denmark against Sweden, resulting in the Great Northern War; the war ended in 1721. Peter acquired four provinces situated east of the Gulf of Finland; the coveted access to the sea was now secured. There he built Russia's new capital, Saint Petersburg, to replace Moscow, which had long been Russia's cultural center. In 1722, he tur
History of the administrative division of Russia
The modern administrative-territorial structure of Russia is a system of territorial organization, a product of a centuries-long evolution and reforms. The Kievan Rus' as it formed in the 10th century remained a more or less unified realm under the rule of Yaroslav the Wise, but in the part of the 11th century, it disintegrated into a number of de facto independent and rivaling principalities, the most important of which were Grand Duchy of Galicia and Volhynia, Novgorod Republic, Grand Duchy of Vladimir and Suzdal. With the advance of Mongols and establishing of Golden Horde in 1240, many parts of Kievan Rus came under a direct administration of Sarai, while others became its dependencies; the three mentioned main centers were established as successors of the Kievan Rus. Most of Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia however became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and gradually and coming under the direct administration of the Crown of Poland. Novgorod Republic was overran by the time well-established Grand Duchy of Moscow.
The grand duchies of Lithuania and Moscow divided the former territories of Kievan Rus between each other, both struggling to gain the seat of Metropolitan of Kiev. From the 13th century, the Russian principalities used an administrative subdivision into uyezds, with each such uyezd being subdivided into several volosts, some areas used division of pyatina. Voyevodas were the officials appointed to defend the uyezds. By the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow was recognized as a direct successor of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir, it incorporated all left out adjacent smaller duchies such as the Principality of Yaroslavl, Principality of Rostov and conquered the Grand Duchy of Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal, the Grand Duchy of Tver as well as the Novgorod Republic. Near the end of the 15th century the Golden Horde fell apart into several smaller khanates and Muscovy for the first time became a sovereign state. At the start of the 16th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow managed to annex the Pskov Republic and conquer the Grand Duchy of Ryazan as well as secure number of territories that belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania such as the Upper Oka Principalities and Sloboda Ukraine, thus extending its territory far south.
In 1708, the Oka principalities and Sloboda Ukraine were incorporated into the first Kiev Governorate. During the second half of the 16th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow managed to conquer number of West-Siberian and Volga duchies and khanates such as Kazan Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Great Nogai Horde and many others; some of the territorial acquisitions, were lost during the Time of Troubles. Soon after the Time of Troubles, the Grand Duchy of Moscow was able to recover the Duchy of Smolensk and annex territory of Left-bank Ukraine. Prior to the 18th century, the Tsardom of Russia was divided into a system of territorial units called razryads as part of military reform of 1680. Moscow Razryad Sevsk Razryad Vladimir Razryad Novgorod Razryad Kazan Razryad Smolensk Razryad Ryazan Razryad Belgorod Razryad, chartered in 1658 out of the Kiev Voivodeship Tambov Razryad Tula Razryad Tobol Razryad, chartered no than 1587 Tom Razryad Yenisei RazryadDuring the 1680s, the Tsardom of Russia acquired a substantial expansion in Transbaikal after signing the Treaty of Nerchinsk with China.
By this time, an extensive territory from Yenisei to the Sea of Okhotsk was secured through colonization. The discovery of the Bering Strait in 1728 confirmed the eastern borders of modern Russia; the eastward advance through Siberia extended the Tobol Razryad transforming it into overstretched territory, in 1708 included into Siberia Governorate. Technically, the territorial-administrative reform started out in the Tsardom of Russia before the Imperial period. On December 29, 1708, in order to improve the manageability of the vast territory of the state, Tsar Peter the Great issued an ukase dividing Russia into eight administrative divisions, called governorates, which replaced the 166 uyezds and razryads which existed before the reform: Archangelgorod Governorate Azov Governorate Ingermanland Governorate Kazan Governorate Kiev Governorate Moscow Governorate Siberia Governorate Smolensk GovernorateThe reform of 1708 established neither the borders of the governorates nor their internal divisions.
The governorates were defined as the sets of the lands adjacent to those cities. Some older subdivision types continued to be used. Between 1710 and 1713, all governorates were subdivided into lots, each governed by a landrat; every governorate was administered by an appointed governor, who headed a board of landrats. The lots' primary purpose was fiscal, each one was supposed to cover 5,536 homesteads. In 1719, Peter enacted another administrative reform to fix the deficiencies of the original system, as the governorates were too big and unmanageable; this reform abolished the system of lots, dividing most of the governorates into provinces, which were further divided into districts. During this time, territories were reshuffled between the governorates, new governorates were added to accommodate population growth and territorial expansion. In 1727, soon after Peter the Great's death, Catherine I enacted another reform, which rolled back many of the previous reform's developments; the system of districts was abolished, the old system of uyezds was restored.
A total of 166 uyezds was re-established.
The Kazan Governorate, or the Government of Kazan, was a governorate of the Tsardom of Russia, the Russian Empire, the Russian SFSR from 1708–1920, with its seat in the city of Kazan. Kazan Governorate, together with seven other governorates, was established on December 29, 1708, by Tsar Peter the Great's edict on the lands of the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan, with addition of some lands from the Nogai Horde; these were the areas governed by the Kazan Palace's Prikaz. As with the rest of the governorates, neither the borders nor internal subdivisions of Kazan Governorate were defined. In 1717, Astrakhan Governorate was separated from Kazan Governorate. Under Catherine the Great Kazan was the center of a namestnichestvo, with Kazan and Saratov Governorates as its integral parts. At first the governorate was divided into lots into provinces in 1719, into uyezds in 1775. Prior to 1796, there were Kazan, Laishev, Sviyazhsk, Tetyushi, Tsaryovokokshaysk, Cheboksary and Yadrin uyezds. In 1913, the area of the governorate comprised 55,900 square versts, its population was estimated at 2.85 million.
There were 7,272 settlements, including 13 towns: Kazan, Sviyazhsk, Laishev, Spassk, Tsaryovokokshaysk, Cheboksary, Yadrin. The governorate was abolished during the Bolshevik administrative reform. Thereupon its Eastern part was proclaimed the Tatar ASSR, while the Western part was divided between Chuvashia and Mari El. Results of 1897 all-imperial census for Kazan Governorate 1774 Pugachev rebellion 1861 Biznä Unrest 1880s Wäisi movement William Henry Beable, "Governments or Provinces of the Former Russian Empire: Kazan", Russian Gazetteer and Guide, London: Russian Outlook – via Open Library